LAFS.6.RL.1.1

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 6
Strand: Reading Standards for Literature
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: TM , EBSR , MS , ST , MC item(s)

  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may ask for text-based evidence to support what isdirectly stated in the text. Items may ask the student to find evidence to support an inference
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing this standard may be used with one ormore grade-appropriate literary texts. Texts may vary incomplexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Enhanced Item Descriptions section on page 3 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess thisstandard (excluding the Editing Task Choice item type). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Select text-based support for a statement about what the text says explicitly or implicitly.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text to answer questions about what the text says explicitly or implicitly.
    • Requires the student to select a statement about what the text says explicitly or implicitly and then to select words or phrases to support the statement. 

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select an inference and then to select a detail or details from the text to support the inference. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select direct quotations or descriptions of textual evidence to support an explicit or implicit statement from the text. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple details or quotations to support an explicit or implicit statement from the text. 
    Table Match 
    • Requires the student to complete a table by matching pieces of textual support with explicit statements or inferences from the text.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1000000: M/J Intensive Language Arts (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1000010: M/J Intensive Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1000020: M/J Intensive Reading and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
1001010: M/J Language Arts 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001020: M/J Language Arts 1 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002000: M/J Language Arts 1 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1002180: M/J English Language Development (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1008010: M/J Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008020: M/J Reading 1, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1009030: M/J Writing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
1700000: M/J Research 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7810011: Access M/J Language Arts 1  (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1002181: M/J Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.6.RL.1.AP.1a: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly.
LAFS.6.RL.1.AP.1b: Use specific details from the text (words, interactions, thoughts, motivations) to support inferences or conclusions about characters, including how they change during the course of the story.
LAFS.6.RL.1.AP.1c: Use the specific details from the text to support inferences and explanations about plot development.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

Cite the Evidence and Analyze the Character:

The student will conduct a character analysis and cite explicit and inferential textual evidence to support the analysis.

Type: Formative Assessment

Prove It!: Nature’s Ways:

The student will read the text “Nature’s Ways” and then, in groups of three, identify whether a series of statements are true, false, or not provable by citing evidence from the text. Statements include facts, inferences, and debatable points.

Type: Formative Assessment

Analysis of Junk Moon :

The student will read a science fiction passage entitled “Junk Moon” and answer guiding questions. The student will cite textual evidence that supports what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Narrative Writing: A Lesson Learned the Hard Way in “Thank You, M’am”:

In this lesson, students will read Langston Hughes’ short story, “Thank You, M’am”, analyzing the impact of plot and character in developing the story’s theme. After reading the story, students will use details gathered from the text to write a narrative that predicts/portrays what would occur if the characters met again.

Type: Lesson Plan

Narrative Writing: Climate Change and “The Sand Castle”:

In this lesson, students will view a video about climate change, read and analyze a short story depicting the effects of climate change, and write their own narratives sending a message to their readers about the impact of climate change.

Type: Lesson Plan

Views on Freedom: Part 1 of 3:

This lesson is the first in a series of three focusing on the importance of freedom. In this lesson, students begin with a journal entry about freedom. Students then read two poems - "Words Like Freedom" (originally titled "Refugee in America") by Langston Hughes and "Sympathy" by Paul Laurence Dunbar - analyzing each poem according to literary and poetic elements. Text questions, a poetry chart, sample answer keys, and a PowerPoint are included.  

Type: Lesson Plan

"The Scribe": A Close Reading Lesson:

This close reading lesson focuses on identifying theme in the short story, "The Scribe" by Kristin Hunter. The lesson incorporates information on the Great Depression and allows students to make a cross-curricular connection between history and language arts. Students will define unfamiliar words using context clues, analyze story elements, and identify stated and implied themes.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Close Reading: An Excerpt from A Corner of the Universe:

In this lesson, students will conduct three close readings of an excerpt from A Corner of the Universe by Ann M. Martin. This lesson will engage students in a thought-provoking text that will challenge students to explore how a character's point of view can influence how events are described and shape a text. In conjunction with point of view, students will have opportunities to use context clues to define selected vocabulary words within the text. Upon completion of the close reading activities, students will practice their narrative writing skills by creating an original dialogue between the main character and her mother. A rubric specific to the writing task is included along with guided reading questions and sample responses.

Type: Lesson Plan

Philosophical Chairs with Tom Sawyer:

In this lesson, students will close read a short section (chapter 23) of Twain"s The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, gathering and organizing evidence to collaboratively defend a position with textual support in a debate-style activity. They will use this experience to assist with the creation of an extended written paragraph addressing the development of theme in Twain"s novel, this time citing evidence in writing to support their assertions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Action Is Character: Exploring Character Traits with Adjectives:

Students gain a deeper understanding of characters from a novel they have read by creating charts linking characters' actions with the characters' traits. Then they explore adjectives that describe character traits using a variety of resources. Next, students use their analysis of the characters and their knowledge of adjectives to create descriptive lists for three other characters from the point of view of one particular character. Finally, they play a game in which the class tries to identify which character is described by the students' adjective lists. This activity is effective using any story with rich characterization.

Type: Lesson Plan

Action is Character/Exploring Character Traits with Adjectives:

This lesson allows students to explore characters and their traits through a series of exercises using text evidence. Both printed materials and online organizers are provided. The final culminating activity asks students to "become" a character and describe himself/herself as well as describing other characters. Students then guess which character is being described.

Type: Lesson Plan

Book Talks for Beginners:

In this lesson, students will learn how to create and present a PowerPoint about a personal novel selection. Students will use their background knowledge about story elements to create an advertisement about a book they have read or are currently reading. A rubric will serve as a checklist for the creation and evaluation of the PowerPoint.

Type: Lesson Plan

Narrative Retelling: The Enchanted Raisin:

This three-block lesson includes an interactive collaborative vocabulary activity, a guided read of the short story "The Enchanted Raisin," and culminates in a narrative storyboard planning activity and creation of a picture book with the goal of retelling the story to a younger audience.

Type: Lesson Plan

Margot's Move: An Analysis of All Summer in a Day:

In this lesson, students read Bradbury's "All Summer in a Day" and an informational excerpt on immigration. Students will analyze both texts and participate in a Socratic Seminar. The lesson includes a multiple-choice assessment.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Room with a View: Which Characters Reached their Peak Potential in The View from Saturday?:

In this lesson, students will compare two characters from the novel, The View from Saturday, analyzing how many of their physical and emotional needs were met by the time the story ends. This determination will be reached by using Abraham Maslow's "Hierarchy of Needs" as a guide. Students will also explore the influence of gender on how many human needs are reached in someone's lifetime. As a summative assessment, students will compare two characters from the novel, identifying the needs each character fulfilled and interpreting their findings in the form of a written analysis. Students will use their analysis and comparison as the basis for an informal class debate.

Type: Lesson Plan

Conflict Drives the Plot:

The objective of this lesson is to review and reinforce the elements of a short story. The importance of the conflict is emphasized to show how it fuels the action of the story to keep it moving toward the resolution. The setting and characters are also important elements that affect what happens. The students will use a variety of illustrations, sentence descriptions, and a quote from the story to portray the action chronologically in a plot diagram. The students will also write a paragraph explaining how the conflict drives the plot toward the resolution using support from the text.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Secret Life Continues: An Analytical Extension of the Secret Life of Walter Mitty:

Students read James Thurber's short story "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty." They will read closely to analyze text structure. The lesson will culminate with them creating their own daydreams for Walter Mitty.

Type: Lesson Plan

On the Road to Change: A Poetic Comparison:

In this lesson, students will analyze the song "Time of Your Life" by Green Day and two Robert Frost poems, "The Road Not Taken" and "Nothing Gold Can Stay."The instructor will model authors usage of symbolism, imagery, figurative language, tone and theme. Students will complete a graphic organizer and work toward the culminating activity of an essay comparing two of the pieces of literature.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reciprocal Teaching Strategies in Poetry: "The Copper Kettle Sweetheart":

In this lesson, students will use the four core reading strategies of predicting, clarifying, questioning and summarizing to develop comprehension skills through the use of poetry.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Poignant Passage about the Middle Passage:

In this lesson, students will explore what makes a passage poignant by analyzing an important chapter from the historical fiction novel, The Slave Dancer, by Paula Fox. In cooperative groups, they will use their knowledge of figurative language, conflict, theme, and characterization to identify a passage that has high emotional impact, while better understanding one of the most tragic human experiences: the journey along the Middle Passage during the slave trade. As culminating assessments, students will present their group's textual analysis to the class and write an extended response to the text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Storm Window Treatments:

Students will be asked to analyze a given set of data to determine the best storm window treatments for a local company to use when building a new homes. Students will be asked to write a letter to the company explaining how they ranked the storm window treatments.

Type: Lesson Plan

Counting down from 11: Analysis of Point of View in "Eleven" by Sandra Cisneros:

In this lesson, students create their own definitions of a child and a tween and use their definitions to guide their reading of the short story "Eleven" by Sandra Cisernos. After collecting text evidence, students will develop their own argument about the point of view of the narrator in the story through discussion and writing. In the closing activity, students will also write a found poem.

Type: Lesson Plan

Discovering the Central Message through Paul Revere's Midnight Message:

Students will demonstrate their understanding of the central message of "Paul Revere's Ride," (ATOS 5.7) through the skill of taking marginal notes. The summative assessment will entail students selecting three quotes from the poem, illustrating them, and then providing a written explanation of each quote and its significance to the central message of the poem.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lincoln the Leader:

In this lesson, students will work cooperatively to read and analyze a poem that describes President Abraham Lincoln. Through teacher led and small-group discussions of "Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight by Vachel Lindsay, students will learn vocabulary in context, identify the speaker's point of view, and write an argument presenting and supporting their analysis of the text.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Rise of the Mongoose: Using "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi" in the Classroom:

In this lesson, students will study the short story "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi" by Rudyard Kipling. The class will work together to read the first two pages of the story aloud and the teacher will conduct a think aloud to model strategies to determine the meaning of selected vocabulary in context. The class will also answer comprehension questions about the first two pages and discuss their understandings. Students will then work in partners or small groups for the next set of pages, reading the story aloud, using different strategies to determine the meaning of highlighted words in context, and answering questions about the story. After a group discussion, students will work to continue the process independently, examining vocabulary and answering comprehension questions for the last part of the story. The summative assessment will require students to write two extended paragraphs conceptualizing their understanding of key parts of the story and its main character, Rikki. The story, student handouts, a teacher key, a rubric, and a link to a video clip on the mongoose and a cobra are included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Twisted Predictions:

Using the short story "The Elsewhere Boutique" by Neal Shusterman, students will stop at various points during the story, compose a prediction and cite their evidence from the text. After discussion with peers, students will hang on tight through this twisted story to find out if their predictions were correct!

Type: Lesson Plan

Views on Freedom: Part 2 of 3:

In this second part of a three-part unit, students first read a nonfiction article by Nelson Mandela about freedom and fill out a rhetorical triangle and an outline to help them understand and process the key points and supporting details. Students will also read and analyze the folk tale "The People Could Fly" for its use of figurative language and literary elements using a chart similar to the poetry chart from Lesson #1. Text-dependent questions for both texts have also been included. In the closure activity students will compare and contrast these texts with a poem they read in the first lesson in the unit as to how each text approaches the topic of freedom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Stand Tall: Using Evidence to Support Your Answers:

Learn how to analyze what a literary text says directly and indirectly. With this interactive tutorial you will also cite evidence to support conclusions you draw from a text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Idea

The Lightning Thief Novel Study:

This is a complete unit covering The Lightning Thief. It includes a chapter by chapter study with a strong emphasis on vocabulary and detail.

Type: Teaching Idea

Unit/Lesson Sequences

Using "The Bully" by Paul Langan to Teach Tolerance:

This unit plan uses the book "The Bully" by Paul Langan, which is from the Bluford series, to teach tolerance. There are a plethora of resources and activities including graphic organizers, reflective journals, and reader's theater. Students work together to gain an understanding of the effects of bullying and an awareness of this important issue.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

A Study of "America Street: A Multicultural Anthology of Stories":

This is a sixth grade unit using the collection of short stories in "America Street: A Multicultural Anthology of Stories" by Anne Mazer. Students will examine point of view, multiple perspectives, character development, and setting in these varied texts. This unit includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Investigating a Mystery in "Chasing Vermeer":

This sixth grade unit is based on the mystery novel Chasing Vermeer by Blue Balliett. Students will analyze clues and motives, study plot, and make predictions while learning about the artist Johannes Vermeer. It includes a complete packet with creative activities, graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

A Study of Science and Fantasy Fiction in A Wrinkle in Time:

This is a sixth grade unit on the sci-fi novel A Wrinkle in Time by Madeline L'Engle. Students will examine the characteristics of scientific and futuristic fiction including vocabulary, setting, and plot development. This unit includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Exploring Verse Novels with "Keeping the Night Watch" and "Chess Rumble" :

This is a sixth grade unit on the verse novels Keeping the Night Watch by Hope Anita Smith and Chess Rumble by G. Neri. This unit explores narrative and lyric poetry, figurative language, author's purpose, voice, and symbolism. It includes games, graphic organizers, and a complete student packet, and includes a pacing guide and assessment with sample student answers.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Figurative Language and Author's Purpose in "Home of the Brave" by Katherine Applegate:

This is a sixth grade unit on the verse novel Home of the Brave by Katherine Applegate. This unit explores narrative and lyric poetry, figurative language, author's purpose, voice, and symbolism. It is rich with games, graphic organizers, and a complete student packet and includes a pacing guide and assessment with sample student answers.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Drawing Conclusions and Solving Mysteries in “Sammy Keyes and the Hollywood Mummy”:

This is a sixth grade unit on the mystery novel Sammy Keyes and the Hollywood Mummy by Wendelin Van Draanen. Students will analyze characters, study the plot, make predictions, and draw conclusions to solve a mystery in this forensic-themed unit. This unit includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Analyzing Characters and Making Predictions in "Sammy Keyes and the Hotel Thief":

This is a sixth grade unit on the mystery novel Sammy Keyes and the Hotel Thief by Wendelin Van Draanen. Students will analyze characters, study the plot, and make predictions in this forensic-themed unit. This unit includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key and possible student responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

"The House on Mango Street": A Short Story Unit Examining Point of View, Perspective, and Plot:

This is a sixth grade unit using the short stories in The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros to identify point of view, interpret a character's perspective, and utilize plot elements to retell a story. This unit includes several graphic organizers, an assessment, and an answer key with sample responses.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Analyzing the Mystery Novel "The Westing Game" by Ellen Raskin:

This is a sixth grade unit on the mystery novel "The Westing Game" by Ellen Raskin. Students will analyze the character's motives, identify clues to solve the mystery, make predictions about the conclusion, and identify 'red herrings'. This unit on detective fiction includes a complete packet with graphic organizers, a pacing guide, and an assessment with answer key.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Storm Window Treatments:

Students will be asked to analyze a given set of data to determine the best storm window treatments for a local company to use when building a new homes. Students will be asked to write a letter to the company explaining how they ranked the storm window treatments.

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Stand Tall: Using Evidence to Support Your Answers:

Learn how to analyze what a literary text says directly and indirectly. With this interactive tutorial you will also cite evidence to support conclusions you draw from a text.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Stand Tall: Using Evidence to Support Your Answers:

Learn how to analyze what a literary text says directly and indirectly. With this interactive tutorial you will also cite evidence to support conclusions you draw from a text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.