LAFS.4.L.3.4

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  1. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
  3. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 4
Strand: Language Standards
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: EBSR , MS , ST , MC item(s)
  • Assessed with: LAFS.4.RL.2.4, LAFS.4.L.3.5
    Also assesses: LAFS.4.RF.3.3 and LAFS.4.RF.4.4

  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may ask the student to use the text to determine the meanings of words and phrases, especially those that allude to mythological characters. Items may ask the student to use contextual clues or Greek and Latin affixes and roots to determine the meaning of a word. Items may ask the student to explain the meaning of a simile or metaphor in the context of the text. Items may ask the student to explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs. Items may ask the student to relate words to their antonyms and synonyms. Items should not exclusively ask the student to determine the meaning of basic, everyday words and phrases that commonly appear in spoken language.
  • Text Types :
    The items assessing these standards may be used with one or more grade-appropriate literary texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Enhanced Item Descriptions section on page 3 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess this standard (excluding the Editing Task Choice item type). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of a word or phrase by using context clues.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select details from the text that show the meaning of a word or phrase used in the text. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select a meaning of a word or phrase and then to select details from the text that support that meaning. 
    Multiselect 
    • Requires the student to correctly identify multiple words or phrases that illustrate the meaning of a word in the text.
    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of a word or phrase using grade-appropriate Greek and Latin roots or affixes.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice 

    • Requires the student to select the correct meaning of a word from the text that contains a Greek or Latin root or affix.
    Task Demand

    Explain the meaning of a simile or metaphor in the context of the text.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text 

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases that illustrate the meaning of a simile or metaphor. 
    Multiple Choice 
    • Requires the student to select an explanation of a simile or metaphor found in the text. 
    Multiselect 
    • Requires the student to select multiple words or phrases that contribute to an explanation of a simile or metaphor found in the text.
    Task Demand

    Explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs found in the text.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice 

    • Requires the student to select an explanation of an idiom, adage, or proverb found in the text. 
    Multiselect 
    • Requires the student to select multiple words or phrases that contribute to an explanation of an idiom, adage, or proverb found in the text.
    Task Demand

    Relate words to their antonyms and synonyms.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text 

    • Requires the student to select a word or words from the text that are antonyms or synonyms of a specific word from the text.
    Multiple Choice 
    • Requires the student to select an antonym or synonym of a specific word from the text. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple words that function as antonyms or synonyms of a specific word from the text.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5010010: English for Speakers of Other Languages-Elementary (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
5010020: Basic Skills in Reading-K-2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
5010030: Functional Basic Skills in Communications-Elementary (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
5010045: Language Arts - Grade Four (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7710015: Access Language Arts - Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.4.L.3.AP.4a: Use context to determine the meaning of unknown or multiple-meaning words, or words showing shades of meaning.
LAFS.4.L.3.AP.4b: Use common grade-appropriate roots and affixes as clues to the meaning of a word.
LAFS.4.L.3.AP.4c: Use a glossary, dictionary or thesaurus to determine the meaning of a word.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

What Did You Say Happened to the Everglades?:

In this lesson, students will conduct a close reading of an informational article about pythons in the Everglades. Students will use a variety of strategies to determine the meaning of selected academic words in context, and they will sort selected tier 3 words into categories and examine the relationships between words in a category. Students will also answer text-dependent questions about the article and identify and describe the cause/effect structure used throughout the article. Students will complete an informational paragraph about the events that are occurring in the Everglades using text evidence to support their ideas. Graphic organizers, answer keys, and a writing rubric have been provided with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

How Important is the Amazon Rainforest?:

In this lesson, students will conduct a close reading of an informational article about the destruction of the Amazon rain forest. Students will use a variety of strategies to determine the meaning of selected academic words in context, and they will sort selected tier 3 words into categories and examine the relationships between words in a category. Students will also answer text-dependent questions about the article and identify and describe the cause/effect structure used throughout the article. Students will write an informational paragraph about the events that are occurring in the Amazon rain forest. Graphic organizers, answer keys, and a writing rubric have been provided with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Tree that Saved the Day!:

In this lesson, students will conduct a close reading of an informational picture book about a community in Africa that is saved by the planting of mangrove trees. Students will use a variety of strategies to determine the meaning of selected academic words in context. Students will also answer text-dependent questions about the book and identify and describe the cause/effect structure used throughout the book. Graphic organizers, answer keys, and a writing rubric have been provided with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading: Phineas L. MacGuire Gets Slimed:

This is a close reading lesson on Chapter 1 of Phineas L. MacGuire Gets Slimed by Frances O'Roark Dowell. It includes graphic organizers, a writing prompt, and a rubric. Students will use context clues to discover the meaning of unknown words, answer text-dependent questions, complete a character analysis, and write an opinion piece.

Type: Lesson Plan

Aesop's Fable "The Lost Wig":

This close reading lesson on Aesop's Fable "The Lost Wig" will introduce students to Socratic Seminar. Students will have the opportunity to share their thoughts and opinions in an open discussion, as well as hear the thoughts and opinions of their peers. Students will work together in cooperative pairs to determine the theme and moral of "The Lost Wig." They will also have the opportunity to change the ending of "The Lost Wig" and create a new moral.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: "The Making of a Scientist":

The goal of this two to three day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to use the reading and writing habits they've been practicing on a regular basis to absorb deep lessons from Richard Feynman's recollections of interactions with his father. By reading and rereading the passage closely, and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussion about the text, students will identify how and why Feynman started to look at the world through the eyes of a scientist. When combined with writing about the passage, students will discover how much they can learn from a memoir.

Type: Lesson Plan

Student Center Activities

Vocabulary: Rooting for Meaning!:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will identify the meaning of roots while playing a match game. As an extension activity, students will use roots to create words. 

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Affix Game:


In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will make words containing affixes and use them in a sentence to show meaning while playing an affix game.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Make it Meaningful:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will determine and record the meanings of words with affixes. They will then sort them by affix meaning.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Word Dissect:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will segment words into base words and affixes to determine the meaning.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Meaningful Affixes:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will make words to match meanings by combining base words and affixes.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Affix Concentration:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will match affixes to their meanings by playing a memory game.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: All For One:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will produce the multiple meanings of words and use the words in sentences that demonstrate understanding of the multiple meanings.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Ask-A-Word:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will demonstrate a deeper understanding of the meaning of words by completing a questionnaire.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Choice Meanings:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will identify the meaning of words in context.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Cloze Encounters:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will choose words based on meaning to complete sentences in a cloze passage.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Context Clues:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will read sentences containing context clues and sort by the type of context clue.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Defining Depictions:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will depict words by drawing pictures that relate to their meaning.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Dictionary Cube:


In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will identify the meaning of words and word-related information using a dictionary.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Dictionary Digs:


In the FCRR Student Center Activity, students will look up target words in a dictionary and record specific information.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Get a Clue!:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will determine the meanings of unknown words using context clues.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Getting to the Root of It:


In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will identify words with common roots and related meanings and sort them on a sorting board.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Know or No:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will sort words based on their understanding of the words' meanings. They will then determine the meanings of the words and record them.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Looking for Meaning:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will determine the meanings of unknown words and rewrite sentences from text to demonstrate their understanding.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Meaning Extender:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will demonstrate their understanding of words by applying them to a variety of contexts.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Oh My Word!:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will write simple definitions, sentences, and synonyms of words on a recording sheet.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Root-A-Word:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will identify and sort words containing the same root.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Root-O!:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will produce words containing the same root and identify their meanings.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Undercover Meanings:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will write simple definitions, sentences, and examples of target words in a graphic organizer.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: What Do You Mean?:


In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will match words to their meanings.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Word Clues:


In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will use reference materials to develop clues about target words. They will provide the clues to a partner until the target word is identified.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Word Share:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will find, discuss, record, and define selected words in a text.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Word Winner:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, students will use strategies to identify the meanings of unknown words in context.

Type: Student Center Activity

Unit/Lesson Sequences

Weathering and Erosion: A Comprehension Instructional Sequence (CIS) Lesson Plan:

This lesson plan follows the template for the Comprehension Instructional Sequence (CIS), developed to implement Florida Standards in English/Language Arts. This sequence scaffolds students as they read and response to complex content-area informational text. This particular lesson plan uses informational text about weathering and erosion, which ties into the 4th grade benchmark SC.4.E.6.4.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Honeybee Mystery--a Comprehension Instructional Sequence Lesson Plan:

In this lesson tied to Florida Standards for English/Language Arts, students receive support as they read a complex informational text about honeybees. The teacher facilitates a close reading and writing a response-to-text.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.