LAFS.5.RI.2.4

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 5
Strand: Reading Standards for Informational Text
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: EBSR , MS , ST , MC item(s)
  • Assessed with: LAFS.5.L.3.4, LAFS.5.L.3.5
    Also assesses: LAFS.5.RD.3.3 and LAFS.5.RF.4.4

  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may ask the student to use the text to determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases. Items should ask the student to consider literal and figurative meanings of words. Items may ask the student to use context clues including Greek and Latin roots or affixes to determine the meaning of a word. Items may ask the student to interpret figurative language. Items may ask the student about nuances of word meanings as well as the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs. Items may ask the student to determine the relationship between words in order to increase understanding. Items should focus on words and phrases that are central to the meaning of text. Items should not exclusively ask the student to determine the meanings of basic, everyday words and phrases that commonly appear in spoken language.
  • Text Types :
    The items assessing these standards may be used with one or more grade-appropriate informational texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Enhanced Item Descriptions section on page 3 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess this standard (excluding the Editing Task Choice item type). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text that show the meaning of words used in the text.
    • Requires the student to correctly identify the meaning of a word or phrase and then to select words or phrases from the text that provide clues to the meaning of that word. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word or phrase used in the text. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word or phrase and then to select words or phrases from the text that support the correct meaning. 
    Multiselect
    • Requires the student to select words, phrases, or quotations that show the meaning of words used in the text.
    Task Demand

    Use common Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of words used in the text that include a Greek or Latin affix or root.
    Task Demand

    Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select one or more examples of figurative language and then to select the correct explanation of their meaning. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the correct meaning of the figurative language. 
    Selectable Text
    • Requires the student to select the correct meaning of the figurative language and then to select words or phrases from the text to support the meaning.
    Task Demand

    Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs or nuances in words.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of an idiom, adage, or proverb and then to select words or phrases from the text to support the meaning. 
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select the correct meaning of an idiom, adage, or proverb or to recognize nuances in word meaning. 
    Selectable Text
    • Requires the student to select the correct meaning of an idiom, adage, or proverb and then to select words or phrases from the text that support that meaning.
    Task Demand

    Use the relationships between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of the word using a synonym, antonym, or homograph. 
     Multiselect
    • Requires the student to identify all related words from a list.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5020060: Science - Grade Five (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
5010010: English for Speakers of Other Languages-Elementary (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
5010020: Basic Skills in Reading-K-2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (current), 2021 and beyond)
5010030: Functional Basic Skills in Communications-Elementary (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
5013010: Elementary Chorus (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
5013020: Elementary Band (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
5013030: Elementary Orchestra (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
5021070: Social Studies Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
5010046: Language Arts - Grade Five (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7720060: Access Science Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7710016: Access Language Arts - Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7721016: Access Social Studies - Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
5013035: Elementary Special Ensemble (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
5011050: Library Skills/Information Literacy Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2016 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.5.RI.2.AP.4a: Determine the meaning of general academic words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.
LAFS.5.RI.2.AP.4b: Determine the meaning of domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessment

Raining Vocabulary:

Students will determine the meaning of unfamiliar domain-specific words in a grade-level text using context clues, visual clues, or a dictionary to define unknown words.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Making It Rain:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that addresses how different types of precipitation are formed. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Name That Organ!:

Can you name that organ with one clue? What about two? Students will get the opportunity to research organs and create clue cards with at least four clues that will help others Name That Organ!

Type: Lesson Plan

We Learned About the Challenger:

Students will have an opportunity to read the speech President Reagan presented on the evening of the Challenger Space Shuttle explosion. Students will answer text-dependent questions individually, with partners, and in small groups and then write an expository essay.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Close Read of “Civil Rights on a City Bus”:

A close read of "Civil Rights on a City Bus" will engage students in a challenging text about Rosa Parks that requires them to determine the key points made in the article. Students will also have an opportunity to use context clues to define vocabulary words within the text. Upon completion of the close read activities, students will write an informative essay that provides evidence to prove each key point made by the author.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading of the National Geographic article "Animal Farm":

In this lesson, students will complete a close reading of "Animal Farm," a nonfiction article found online at National Geographic that describes the incredible work one man accomplished as he turned a cattle ranch in Costa Rica into a national wildlife refuge. The students will conduct three close readings of the article, each time for a different purpose. The students will create vocabulary charts and find evidence in the article to answer a set of text-dependent questions. Students will then write an informative essay where they explain how the work of Jack Ewing changed this land. Sample responses are provided along with a writing response rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading: The Great Chicago Fire:

This close reading lesson will engage students in discussions that involve how two authors in different genres describe the same event. These short texts, the poem "The Great Chicago Fire" and the informational text "Chicago," will require students to analyze text, make inferences based on text evidence, and defend their understandings through discussion and close reads. Students will use context clues to determine word meaning and unfamiliar phrasing in both texts. Students will participate in partner and small group work throughout the lesson. For the summative assessment, students will write an explanatory essay about the main ideas and key details of each text, as well as analyze the similarities in how each author describes the Chicago fire. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading of the Article "A Well-Kept Secret":

In this lesson, students will complete a close reading of "A Well-Kept Secret," a nonfiction article found online at ReadWorks.org. The students will work to determine the meaning of selected vocabulary from the article and find evidence in the passage to answer a set of text-dependent questions. Students will also use key details to identify main ideas and summarize the article. Sample responses are provided along with a rubric for the summative assessment.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Three Main Sections of the Brain:

This lesson is an easy to follow guide to teaching students about the three main sections of the brain and some of their functions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Newton's Third Law of Motion:

This lesson plan is the third in a series of connected lessons on Sir Isaac Newton's laws of motion published to CPALMS. This lesson plan teaches Newton's third law of motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Newton's Second Law of Motion Part 2 of 3:

This lesson plan is the second in a series of connected lessons on Sir Isaac Newton's laws of motion published to CPALMS. This lesson teaches Newton's second law of motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Inventions and Innovations MEA:

Inventive minds have persisted throughout history. Inventors have improved our lives with inventions created out of a desire to solve a problem or make the quality of peoples' lives better. Our president is concerned that we are not keeping up with other countries in the area of engineering and inventive thinking. Why is this? As students explore famous inventions from around the world throughout history, they will decide what the best inventions of all time are and support their opinion with strong reasons.

Type: Lesson Plan

Newton's First Law of Motion Part 1 of 3:

This lesson plan is the first in a series of connected lessons on Sir Isaac Newton's Laws of Motion published on CPALMS. This lesson provides a brief background of Sir Isaac Newton and covers Newton's First Law of Motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Making Connections!:

Lights, camera, action! Well, you would have action if the camera was on, and it can only turn on if it has a battery, and it can only work if the battery is charged. Put it all together, and you have a complete circuit! In this lesson, students will learn that a circuit can be connected in more than one way to make something work. The students will work to connect circuits and test different items to identify if they are conductors or insulators.

Type: Lesson Plan

Space and President Kennedy: Using Close Reading and Text Dependent Questions:

Students will have an opportunity to read a portion of President Kennedy's speech to Congress about Space Exploration. Using Text Dependent Questions, students will discuss the speech with partners as well as a class and finally write a text based expository essay.

Type: Lesson Plan

X-treme Roller Coasters:

This MEA asks students to assist Ms. Joy Ride who is creating a virtual TV series about extreme roller coasters. They work together to determine which roller coaster is most extreme and should be featured in the first episode. Students are presented with research of five extreme roller coasters and they must use their math skills to convert units of measurements while learning about force and motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

All Sorts of Energy:

This lesson will explore six forms of energy including mechanical, heat, electrical, chemical, sound and nuclear. Through the 5E lesson plan model, students will become engaged in this hands-on lesson. This lesson will take place over 5 days, allowing students an introduction and summary as well as hands-on opportunities to explore the 6 forms of energy.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sammy's Solar Fountains:

In this MEA students are presented with start-up business that needs to buy solar batteries for their business. Students will form engineering teams to review battery choices. Students will understand that solar energy is transferred into electrical energy.

Type: Lesson Plan

Now You See Me! Now You Don't ! - A Comprehension Instructional Sequence (CIS) Lesson:

This lesson uses the Comprehension Instructional Sequence reading model to compare and contrast color adaptations displayed by animals that enable them to survive in different environments such as animal behaviors and physical characteristics.

Type: Lesson Plan

What’s New at the Zoo?—an Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help fifth grade students apply the concepts of plant and animal life cycles and physical characteristics, as well as animal behaviors in a compare and contrast situation. It is not intended as an initial introduction to this benchmark.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mission to Mars: A Comprehension Instructional Sequence (CIS) Lesson Plan:

This lesson uses the Comprehension Instructional Sequence reading model to provide an opportunity for students to become interactive with the text, "Mission to Mars" and to think critically about the Mars Science Laboratory - Curiosity.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: "The Making of a Scientist":

The goal of this two to three day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to use the reading and writing habits they've been practicing on a regular basis to absorb deep lessons from Richard Feynman's recollections of interactions with his father. By reading and rereading the passage closely, and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussion about the text, students will identify how and why Feynman started to look at the world through the eyes of a scientist. When combined with writing about the passage, students will discover how much they can learn from a memoir.

Type: Lesson Plan

Making the Cut!:

The general manager (GM) of a National Football League (NFL) team has to decide which injured players to going to cut (remove) from the team and which players to keep. This is a very difficult decision for the GM to make. The GM cares about the players and this decision will end the football careers of those who are cut. This happens every season, so the GM wants a system that can be used to make this decision every year. Experts in the organs of the human body and their functions are needed to create this system.

Type: Lesson Plan

Proverbs: From Understanding to Application—Using Proverbs to Create an Original Narrative:

In this lesson, students will analyze numerous proverbs using the informational text "Common Proverbs" to create a definition and understanding of proverbs. Then using the literary text "The Story of Wang Li," students will identify the proverbs in the text, decipher them, and evaluate the appropriateness of them. The culminating activity will require students to use one of the proverbs from the literary text to create their own narrative in a present-day setting.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Water Cycle - Back and Forth:

This lesson features a companion lesson entitled The Water Cycle - Back and Forth (part 2) published on CPALMS. In this first lesson, students create a model (drawing) after learning the parts of the water cycle. The drawing will be in their science notebooks and will be something they will build on in future lessons. At the end of the unit they will display larger finished models. Vocabulary words are defined and connected to a model of melting ice in a water bottle.

Type: Lesson Plan

What It's Made Of: A Solute to Mixture or Solution:

In this lesson, students will explore samples to determine properties of components of mixtures. Over the course of the exploration, the teacher will guide the students to discover what sets a solution apart. Access points included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

What's the Matter in the Galaxy?:

Learn to identify components within a galaxy such as gas, dust, stars and objects that orbit stars with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Student Center Activities

Comprehension: Monitor and Mend:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, the student will use multiple strategies to comprehend text.

Type: Student Center Activity

Comprehension: Agree to Disagree:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, the student will use prior knowledge to comprehend text.

Type: Student Center Activity

Comprehension: Background Check:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, the student will activate prior knowledge.

Type: Student Center Activity

Comprehension: What Do You Know?:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, the student will activate prior knowledge.

Type: Student Center Activity

Comprehension: In My Own Words:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, the student will paraphrase text.

Type: Student Center Activity

Comprehension: Strategy Success:

In this FCRR Student Center Activity, the student will use multiple strategies to comprehend text.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Get a Clue!:


In this FCRR Student Center Activity, the student will use strategies to identify the meaning of words in context.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Looking for Meaning:


In this FCRR Student Center Activity, the student will use strategies to identify the meaning of words in context.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Word Share:


In this FCRR Student Center Activity, the student will identify meaning of words in context.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Word Winner:


In this FCRR Student Center Activity, the student will use strategies to identify the meaning of words in context.

Type: Student Center Activity

Text Resources

What Makes it Rain?:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. The text informs readers about how several types of precipitation are formed in the atmosphere, including rain, hail, freezing rain, and snow.

Type: Text Resource

Why Amazonian Butterflies Hover over Yellow-Spotted Turtles:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text details the intriguing relationship between turtles and butterflies in the Amazon rainforest: butterflies drink the turtles' tears to get their sodium fix! The article also explores how both organisms are affected by this relationship.

Type: Text Resource

Sleet and Freezing Rain: What's the Difference?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article and graphics explain the atmospheric conditions needed to form different types of precipitation: snow, freezing rain, and sleet.

Type: Text Resource

Your Amazing Brain:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This National Geographic article describes the amazing attributes of the human brain, comparing its features to everyday objects like a light bulb or a computer.

Type: Text Resource

Sea Horses and How They Use Their Heads:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes how the dwarf seahorse's head shape allows it to be a better predator.

Type: Text Resource

Carniverous Plants Say 'Cheese':

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes how, through high-speed video, scientists are able to see how bladderworts (carnivorous plants) trap small animals very quickly.

Type: Text Resource

A Matter of Mixing:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes properties of items as hyrdophobic or hyrdophilic and how they work.

Type: Text Resource

The Comet that Came in from the Cold:

This resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The comet ISON, believed to originate from the frozen Oort cloud, has been studied in order to make predictions about its destiny – will it be destroyed by, or slung around, the sun?

Type: Text Resource

The Water Cycle Adventure:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article walks the reader through the water cycle, from the point of view of a drop of water.

Type: Text Resource

Water Cycle:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article discusses the steps in the water cycle.

Type: Text Resource

Restoring a Sense of Touch:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This text explores the possibility of creating a prosthesis (artificial limb) that can feel things.

Type: Text Resource

The Bad Breath Defense:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes the ability of the hornworm caterpillar to defend itself against predators using its food source.

Type: Text Resource

Secrets of the World's Extreme Divers:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. "Secrets of the World's Extreme Divers" explores the reason sea mammals are able to hold their breath for long periods of time.

Type: Text Resource

Weathering the Summer of 1993:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the dramatic effects of a shift in the jet stream on weather events across the United States. Text dependent questions are included.

Type: Text Resource

Unit/Lesson Sequence

The Story of Jackie Robinson: Bravest Man in Baseball:

This is a fifth grade book unit on The Story of Jackie Robinson: Bravest Man in Baseball by Margaret Davidson (Lexile 760). The unit features a series of lessons titled: Distinguish Between Biography and Autobiography; Author's Opinion; Retelling a Life; Events and Effects; Text Features. The resource also includes an 18-day pacing guide, student resource packet and answer keys, and a unit assessment and answer keys.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Inventions and Innovations MEA:

Inventive minds have persisted throughout history. Inventors have improved our lives with inventions created out of a desire to solve a problem or make the quality of peoples' lives better. Our president is concerned that we are not keeping up with other countries in the area of engineering and inventive thinking. Why is this? As students explore famous inventions from around the world throughout history, they will decide what the best inventions of all time are and support their opinion with strong reasons.

Making the Cut!:

The general manager (GM) of a National Football League (NFL) team has to decide which injured players to going to cut (remove) from the team and which players to keep. This is a very difficult decision for the GM to make. The GM cares about the players and this decision will end the football careers of those who are cut. This happens every season, so the GM wants a system that can be used to make this decision every year. Experts in the organs of the human body and their functions are needed to create this system.

Sammy's Solar Fountains:

In this MEA students are presented with start-up business that needs to buy solar batteries for their business. Students will form engineering teams to review battery choices. Students will understand that solar energy is transferred into electrical energy.

X-treme Roller Coasters:

This MEA asks students to assist Ms. Joy Ride who is creating a virtual TV series about extreme roller coasters. They work together to determine which roller coaster is most extreme and should be featured in the first episode. Students are presented with research of five extreme roller coasters and they must use their math skills to convert units of measurements while learning about force and motion.

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades K-8

What's the Matter in the Galaxy?:

Learn to identify components within a galaxy such as gas, dust, stars and objects that orbit stars with this interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

What's the Matter in the Galaxy?:

Learn to identify components within a galaxy such as gas, dust, stars and objects that orbit stars with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.