Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores?
Subject Area: Mathematics
Grade: 8
Domain-Subdomain: Statistics & Probability
Cluster: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Cluster: Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data. (Supporting Cluster) -

Clusters should not be sorted from Major to Supporting and then taught in that order. To do so would strip the coherence of the mathematical ideas and miss the opportunity to enhance the major work of the grade with the supporting clusters.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/14
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes


  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: ETC , EE item(s)

  • Assessment Limits :
    Numbers in items must be rational numbers. Data given should include the grand total of the survey. Tables must not include more than two columns (plus category and total) and two rows (plus category and total).
  • Calculator :


  • Context :



  • Test Item #: Sample Item 1
  • Question: Two hundred sixty students were surveyed on whether they prefer apple juice or orange juice. A table of relative frequencies is shown.


    How many more girls prefer apple juice than boys?

  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: EE: Equation Editor

  • Test Item #: Sample Item 2
  • Question:

    Five hundred students were asked whether they prefer apple juice or orange juice. The table shown displays the results.

    How many more girls were surveyed than boys?

  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: EE: Equation Editor

  • Test Item #: Sample Item 3
  • Question:

    The manager of an ice cream shop is considering which ice cream flavor to offer as the special flavor next month. She asks 175 people whether they like mint or strawberry ice cream.

    The manager wants to increase sales, so she is deciding whether to offer mint or strawberry ice cream.

    Complete the sentence to support the best decision based on the relative frequencies in the table.

    The manager should offer _____ ice cream because _____ of the customers surveyed like mint and _____ of the customers like strawberry.

  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: ETC: Editing Task Choice