MAFS.5.NBT.2.5

Fluently multiply multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.

Clarifications

Fluency Expectations or Examples of Culminating Standards

5.NBT.2.5 Students fluently multiply multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.
General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics
Grade: 5
Domain-Subdomain: Number and Operations in Base Ten
Cluster: Level 1: Recall
Cluster: Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths. (Major Cluster) -

Clusters should not be sorted from Major to Supporting and then taught in that order. To do so would strip the coherence of the mathematical ideas and miss the opportunity to enhance the major work of the grade with the supporting clusters.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/14
Content Complexity Rating: Level 1: Recall - More Information
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications

  • Assessment Limits :
    Multiplication may not exceed five digits by two digits
  • Calculator :

    No

  • Context :

    Allowable

Sample Test Items (2)

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5012070: Grade Five Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7712060: Access Mathematics Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
5012065: Grade 4 Accelerated Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
5012015: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 3-5 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MAFS.5.NBT.2.AP.5a: Fluently multiply two-digit numbers.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Assessments

Sample 4 - Fifth Grade Math State Interim Assessment:

This is a State Interim Assessment for fifth grade.

Type: Assessment

Sample 2 - Fifth Grade Math State Interim Assessment:

This is a State Interim Assessment for fifth grade.

Type: Assessment

Educational Games

Estimator Four:

In this activity, students play a game of connect four, but to place a piece on the board they have to correctly estimate an addition, multiplication, or percentage problem. Students can adjust the difficulty of the problems as well as how close the estimate has to be to the actual result. This activity allows students to practice estimating addition, multiplication, and percentages of large numbers (100s). This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Educational Game

Estimator Quiz:

In this activity, students are quizzed on their ability to estimate sums, products, and percentages. The student can adjust the difficulty of the problems and how close they have to be to the actual answer. This activity allows students to practice estimating addition, multiplication, or percentages of large numbers. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Educational Game

Formative Assessments

Complete The Multiplication Problem:

Students are asked to finish a multiplication problem that has already been started using the standard algorithm.

Type: Formative Assessment

Find the Multiplication Error:

Students are asked to find the error in a multiplication problem involving a three-digit and a two-digit number.

Type: Formative Assessment

Multiplying Using the Standard Algorithm:

Students are asked to complete two multiplication problems using the standard algorithm.

Type: Formative Assessment

More Multiplication Using the Standard Algorithm:

Students are asked to complete two multiplication problems using the standard algorithm.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Where on Earth is (teacher name)?!:

Students practice converting metric and customary measurements, while helping their teacher travel on summer vacation in Europe.

Type: Lesson Plan

Area Models to Algorithms:

Students will investigate the standard algorithm of two-digit by two-digit multiplication and how it connects and relates to the area model. This will provide an introduction to the standard algorithm.

Type: Lesson Plan

Not that Hot Anymore:

The students will rank companies offering canopies to a school for their Physical Education field.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Getting the Top Mini-Fridge not a "Small" Deal.:

In this MEA, students will create a procedure to rank five mini-refrigerators to determine which one is the best at freezing water (making ice), keeping food and drinks at a safe temperature, having the best design, and price.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Evan's Family Vacation:

Evan needs your help convincing his parents to rent a car for their family's vacation to Washington D.C. His parents are thinking of traveling in the family's old SUV that has no air and horrible gas mileage. Students will be asked to estimate each rental car's gas costs along with the weekly rental fee to rank the choices. In the twist, the students will be given safety information and must decide how to change their procedure with the new information.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Beach on a Budget:

Topic Overview:This 5th grade MEA asks students to work in teams to determine from which store they will buy beach equipment for a new beach rental business, after considering several criteria. After the students have created a proposal based on given data, a twist is added which may vary their results.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Which Sweets for the Bakery?:

This MEA gives students the opportunity to use real world data to rank proposed product lines from most likely to be profitable to least likely to be profitable. There are two sequential tasks; the second task adds a component of complexity to the original task. Students will apply multiplication and division skills in problem solving, write a procedure with grade-appropriate organization and conventions, and participate in group collaboration to complete this task.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Chance Product:

Are you trying to deepen your students understanding of 2-digit by 2-digit multiplication? Then this is the game for you. This game allows students to demonstrate their abilities in multiplication and reasoning. Students will place numbers drawn onto a recording sheet in order to create the largest product possible.

Type: Lesson Plan

Tablets for Mrs. Tomlinson's Class:

Students' love of technology will hook them on this MEA that also applies their knowledge of multiplication, estimation, and rounding. And that's just the beginning!

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Balls Galore: Evaluating Playground Ball Companies:

This MEA gives the students the opportunity to evaluate and rank several playground ball companies based on their use in a summer camp program. Students should use multiplication to determine the total cost of the balls for each company.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Stand Up and Cheer:

This MEA asks the students to compare items to be given to fans attending a college homecoming football game.

Students will use multi-digit multiplication and measurement conversion while comparing data on the items. They will also take into account fan reviews of the items which should create interesting student discussions.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

More Bang for your Buck!:

In this open-ended MEA, students will work in teams to determine a procedure for ranking recycling companies. Students will need to calculate their return on recycling, make decisions based on a table of data, and write a letter to the client providing evidence for their decisions.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cameras on Campus:

This MEA uses technology and real world problem solving to hook the students.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Getting Dry:

This MEA asks the students to compare hand drying products based on: initial cost, replacement cost and absorbency. Students will provide the "top choice" to the principal of the school and explain how they arrived at the solution. In the twist, students will be asked to consider the environmental impact of the products and reevaluate their conclusions.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

New Frozen Yogurt Store:

This MEA asks students to decide which factors are important in developing a successful frozen yogurt (froyo) store in order to compete with and become the best store in the area. Students will provide feedback to an entrepreneur who is looking to open a frozen yogurt store. They will rank order their choices of the most successful to least successful store. Students will provide a detailed written explanation for how they decided to rank factors and their solution rating existing stores from best to worst.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Wallpaper Woes Money Math: Lessons for Life:

Students hear a story about a middle-school student who wants to redecorate his bedroom. They measure the classroom wall dimensions, draw a scale model, and incorporate measurements for windows and doors to determine the area that could be covered by wallpaper. Students then hear more about the student's redecorating adventure and learn about expenses, budget constraints, and tradeoffs.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sunshine Beach Hotel MEA:

This Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) asks students to develop a procedure to select a hurricane shutter company.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Let’s Get Buzzy: Multiplying Multi-digit Numbers Using the Standard Algorithm:

Learn how the standard algorithm for multiplying numbers works and practice your skills in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorials

Multiplying: how to use the area model:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, view a demonstration of how to set-up an area model for multiplying a two-digit number by a two-digit number on graph or grid paper and then link this to the standard algorithm. 

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 2-digit number times a 2-digit number (area model):

In this tutorial video from Khan Academy, view an example of how to multiply a two-digit number by a two-digit number using the area model. The video makes a connection between partial products and the area model.  

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 2-digit number times 2-digit number (using distributive property):

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, view an example and a description of how the distributive property can be used to multiply a two-digit number by a two-digit number. The second example uses the area model with the distributive property.

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 4-digits times 1-digit (using expanded form):

In this Khan Academy video tutorial, view an example of multiplying a 4-digit number by a 1-digit number by expanding the 4-digit number and multiplying by each digit individually in an area model. This video will help to build an understanding before teaching the standard algorithm.  Multiplying with a 4-digit factor is larger than some standards which limit factors to 3-digits.

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 2-digit number times a 2-digit number (standard algorithm):

In this tutorial video from Khan Academy, view an example of how to multiply a 2-digit number by another 2-digit number. Be sure to stick around for the second example! The key is understanding the value of each digit!

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 3 digits times 1 digit (standard algorithm):

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, view an example of how to solve a problem in which a 3-digit number is being multiplied by a 1-digit number using the standard algorithm.  

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 2 digits times 1 digit (standard algorithm):

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, view an example of how to solve a multiplication problem with a two-digit number multiplied by a one-digit number using the standard algorithm.

Type: Tutorial

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Balls Galore: Evaluating Playground Ball Companies:

This MEA gives the students the opportunity to evaluate and rank several playground ball companies based on their use in a summer camp program. Students should use multiplication to determine the total cost of the balls for each company.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Beach on a Budget:

Topic Overview:This 5th grade MEA asks students to work in teams to determine from which store they will buy beach equipment for a new beach rental business, after considering several criteria. After the students have created a proposal based on given data, a twist is added which may vary their results.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Cameras on Campus:

This MEA uses technology and real world problem solving to hook the students.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Evan's Family Vacation:

Evan needs your help convincing his parents to rent a car for their family's vacation to Washington D.C. His parents are thinking of traveling in the family's old SUV that has no air and horrible gas mileage. Students will be asked to estimate each rental car's gas costs along with the weekly rental fee to rank the choices. In the twist, the students will be given safety information and must decide how to change their procedure with the new information.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Getting Dry:

This MEA asks the students to compare hand drying products based on: initial cost, replacement cost and absorbency. Students will provide the "top choice" to the principal of the school and explain how they arrived at the solution. In the twist, students will be asked to consider the environmental impact of the products and reevaluate their conclusions.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Getting the Top Mini-Fridge not a "Small" Deal.:

In this MEA, students will create a procedure to rank five mini-refrigerators to determine which one is the best at freezing water (making ice), keeping food and drinks at a safe temperature, having the best design, and price.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

More Bang for your Buck!:

In this open-ended MEA, students will work in teams to determine a procedure for ranking recycling companies. Students will need to calculate their return on recycling, make decisions based on a table of data, and write a letter to the client providing evidence for their decisions.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

New Frozen Yogurt Store:

This MEA asks students to decide which factors are important in developing a successful frozen yogurt (froyo) store in order to compete with and become the best store in the area. Students will provide feedback to an entrepreneur who is looking to open a frozen yogurt store. They will rank order their choices of the most successful to least successful store. Students will provide a detailed written explanation for how they decided to rank factors and their solution rating existing stores from best to worst.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Not that Hot Anymore:

The students will rank companies offering canopies to a school for their Physical Education field.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Stand Up and Cheer:

This MEA asks the students to compare items to be given to fans attending a college homecoming football game.

Students will use multi-digit multiplication and measurement conversion while comparing data on the items. They will also take into account fan reviews of the items which should create interesting student discussions.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Sunshine Beach Hotel MEA:

This Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) asks students to develop a procedure to select a hurricane shutter company.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Tablets for Mrs. Tomlinson's Class:

Students' love of technology will hook them on this MEA that also applies their knowledge of multiplication, estimation, and rounding. And that's just the beginning!

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Which Sweets for the Bakery?:

This MEA gives students the opportunity to use real world data to rank proposed product lines from most likely to be profitable to least likely to be profitable. There are two sequential tasks; the second task adds a component of complexity to the original task. Students will apply multiplication and division skills in problem solving, write a procedure with grade-appropriate organization and conventions, and participate in group collaboration to complete this task.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

MFAS Formative Assessments

Complete The Multiplication Problem:

Students are asked to finish a multiplication problem that has already been started using the standard algorithm.

Find the Multiplication Error:

Students are asked to find the error in a multiplication problem involving a three-digit and a two-digit number.

More Multiplication Using the Standard Algorithm:

Students are asked to complete two multiplication problems using the standard algorithm.

Multiplying Using the Standard Algorithm:

Students are asked to complete two multiplication problems using the standard algorithm.

Original Student Tutorials Mathematics - Grades K-5

Let’s Get Buzzy: Multiplying Multi-digit Numbers Using the Standard Algorithm:

Learn how the standard algorithm for multiplying numbers works and practice your skills in this interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Let’s Get Buzzy: Multiplying Multi-digit Numbers Using the Standard Algorithm:

Learn how the standard algorithm for multiplying numbers works and practice your skills in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Educational Games

Estimator Four:

In this activity, students play a game of connect four, but to place a piece on the board they have to correctly estimate an addition, multiplication, or percentage problem. Students can adjust the difficulty of the problems as well as how close the estimate has to be to the actual result. This activity allows students to practice estimating addition, multiplication, and percentages of large numbers (100s). This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Educational Game

Estimator Quiz:

In this activity, students are quizzed on their ability to estimate sums, products, and percentages. The student can adjust the difficulty of the problems and how close they have to be to the actual answer. This activity allows students to practice estimating addition, multiplication, or percentages of large numbers. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Educational Game

Tutorials

Multiplying: how to use the area model:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, view a demonstration of how to set-up an area model for multiplying a two-digit number by a two-digit number on graph or grid paper and then link this to the standard algorithm. 

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 2-digit number times a 2-digit number (area model):

In this tutorial video from Khan Academy, view an example of how to multiply a two-digit number by a two-digit number using the area model. The video makes a connection between partial products and the area model.  

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 2-digit number times 2-digit number (using distributive property):

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, view an example and a description of how the distributive property can be used to multiply a two-digit number by a two-digit number. The second example uses the area model with the distributive property.

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 4-digits times 1-digit (using expanded form):

In this Khan Academy video tutorial, view an example of multiplying a 4-digit number by a 1-digit number by expanding the 4-digit number and multiplying by each digit individually in an area model. This video will help to build an understanding before teaching the standard algorithm.  Multiplying with a 4-digit factor is larger than some standards which limit factors to 3-digits.

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 2-digit number times a 2-digit number (standard algorithm):

In this tutorial video from Khan Academy, view an example of how to multiply a 2-digit number by another 2-digit number. Be sure to stick around for the second example! The key is understanding the value of each digit!

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 3 digits times 1 digit (standard algorithm):

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, view an example of how to solve a problem in which a 3-digit number is being multiplied by a 1-digit number using the standard algorithm.  

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 2 digits times 1 digit (standard algorithm):

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, view an example of how to solve a multiplication problem with a two-digit number multiplied by a one-digit number using the standard algorithm.

Type: Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Tutorials

Multiplying: how to use the area model:

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, view a demonstration of how to set-up an area model for multiplying a two-digit number by a two-digit number on graph or grid paper and then link this to the standard algorithm. 

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 2-digit number times a 2-digit number (area model):

In this tutorial video from Khan Academy, view an example of how to multiply a two-digit number by a two-digit number using the area model. The video makes a connection between partial products and the area model.  

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 2-digit number times 2-digit number (using distributive property):

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, view an example and a description of how the distributive property can be used to multiply a two-digit number by a two-digit number. The second example uses the area model with the distributive property.

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 4-digits times 1-digit (using expanded form):

In this Khan Academy video tutorial, view an example of multiplying a 4-digit number by a 1-digit number by expanding the 4-digit number and multiplying by each digit individually in an area model. This video will help to build an understanding before teaching the standard algorithm.  Multiplying with a 4-digit factor is larger than some standards which limit factors to 3-digits.

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 2-digit number times a 2-digit number (standard algorithm):

In this tutorial video from Khan Academy, view an example of how to multiply a 2-digit number by another 2-digit number. Be sure to stick around for the second example! The key is understanding the value of each digit!

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 3 digits times 1 digit (standard algorithm):

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, view an example of how to solve a problem in which a 3-digit number is being multiplied by a 1-digit number using the standard algorithm.  

Type: Tutorial

Multiplying: 2 digits times 1 digit (standard algorithm):

In this video tutorial from Khan Academy, view an example of how to solve a multiplication problem with a two-digit number multiplied by a one-digit number using the standard algorithm.

Type: Tutorial