SC.912.L.18.4

Describe the structures of proteins and amino acids. Explain the functions of proteins in living organisms. Identify some reactions that amino acids undergo. Relate the structure and function of enzymes.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Standard: Matter and Energy Transformations -

A. All living things are composed of four basic categories of macromolecules and share the same basic needs for life.

B. Living organisms acquire the energy they need for life processes through various metabolic pathways (primarily photosynthesis and cellular respiration).

C. Chemical reactions in living things follow basic rules of chemistry and are usually regulated by enzymes.

D. The unique chemical properties of carbon and water make life on Earth possible.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2000360: Anatomy and Physiology Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2003360: Chemistry 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002490: Forensic Sciences 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 and beyond (current))
2002410: Integrated Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000510: Bioscience 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

The Last Supper: Identifying Macromolecules:

The students will solve a mystery using laboratory tests for different types of macromolecules. They will use argumentation to justify and communicate their claim. They will construct explanations and communicate with one another to determine which macromolecule would be best to eat in different scenarios. Students will be able to identify the structure and functions of the four main types of macromolecules. The students will use laboratory testing to determine the identity of an unknown. They will fill in a chart about the structures, functions, and examples for each macromolecule type and then they will practice their knowledge by answering short response questions relating the macromolecules to the real world. Finally, they will review using a whole-class cooperative activity and take a quiz about the structures and functions of macromolecules.

Type: Lesson Plan

Protein Folding: Predicting Structure:

In this lesson students will explore the different levels of protein structure with hands on manipulative to relate protein structures with their function. In addition, students will predict possible effects on protein function when the protein structure has been altered.

Type: Lesson Plan

Loss of Vision in Astronauts:

In this lesson plan, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article addresses the results of a new study that will help researchers identify which astronauts will develop vision problems in space. The text describes how Scott M. Smith from the Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division at NASA's Johnson Space Center has found a metabolic pathway that is directly related to the vision problems some astronauts encounter. This pathway, called the one carbon metabolism pathway, moves single atoms from one organic compound to another. Astronauts who develop vision problems have been found to have a different genetic variant, which changes the way the enzymes of this pathway work. This will also affect people on Earth, as the same enzymes are also used here and are linked to other medical problems. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Got Lactase? :

This lesson will allow students to observe and identify evidence of an enzyme's activity, lactase, and its function, and action on a substrate found in milk, lactose. They will then relate the absence of lactase to the condition of lactose intolerance, which many students or family members of students experience. Enzymes are a type of protein essential to life and necessary for many of the metabolic reactions that occur in the human body. Since these reactions occur at the molecular level within the body, students do not directly observe enzymes functioning.

Type: Lesson Plan

Protein Synthesis: Transcription & Translation:

Students will explore the process of protein synthesis, specifically transcription and translation, using a sequenced graphic organizer and an interactive simulation (Lesson 1 & 2).

This resource contains 3 lessons:

  • Lesson 1: Transcription & Translation
  • Lesson 2: Lac Operon
  • Lesson 3: Proteins & Cancer

As an extension (Lesson 3) the students will justify the applications of biotechnology that uses transcription and translation to synthesize proteins that target cancer cells or reason the possibilities of the amplification of antibodies using immortal cells.

They will explore how mutations, genetic or epigenetic (lifestyle-chemicals, radiation, viruses), resulting in cancer.

The student will connect changes that occur in the genetic code, during transcription and translation, to the deleterious impact on proto oncogenes that promote cell division and tumor suppressor genes that normally inhibit it.

Type: Lesson Plan

Perspectives Video: Experts

Hormone Functions in the Body: Oxytocin:

In this video, neuroscientist Liz Hammock explains the role of proteins in the body using the hormone oxytocin as an example.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Knot Theory Entangled in Cellular Biology:

This FSU professor describes how knot theory and cellular biology are intertwined. Researchers are still trying to determine how enzyme bridges are able to un-knot long strands of DNA to mitigate potential cell destruction.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Protein Structure and Function:

Don't get twisted in a knot about proteins; learn about their structure!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Text Resources

One Carbon Metabolism on the Space Station:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how a genetic variation in enzymes associated with the one carbon metabolic pathway can cause vision problems in astronauts. The research may lead scientists to predict which astronauts will develop vision problems, as well as develop new treatments for existing medical problems on Earth.

Type: Text Resource

The Cell's Protein Factory in Action:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The ribosome, the site of protein synthesis, is the focus of this article. The text describes how a problem-some antibiotics are targeting the ribosomes of both harmful and beneficial bacteria-is being solved by studying the movement of ribosomes during translation.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorial

Amino Acids and Proteins:

This tutorial will help the learners to review the formation and 3D structures of amino acids with proteins.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

Test Your Science IQ: Proteins:

A collection of questions that tests students' knowledge about protein structures and their functions

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Proteins:

Paul Anderson explains the structure and importance of proteins. He describes how proteins are created from amino acids connected by dehydration synthesis. He shows the importance of chemical properties in the R-groups of individual amino acids in the polypeptide.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulative

Enzyme-Substrate Docking:

This virtual manipulative will help the students learn about enzyme-substrate docking. Students will observe that the shapes of these surfaces and electrostatic forces are the major factors that govern docking.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Expert

Protein Structure and Function:

Don't get twisted in a knot about proteins; learn about their structure!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Tutorial

Amino Acids and Proteins:

This tutorial will help the learners to review the formation and 3D structures of amino acids with proteins.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Proteins:

Paul Anderson explains the structure and importance of proteins. He describes how proteins are created from amino acids connected by dehydration synthesis. He shows the importance of chemical properties in the R-groups of individual amino acids in the polypeptide.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulative

Enzyme-Substrate Docking:

This virtual manipulative will help the students learn about enzyme-substrate docking. Students will observe that the shapes of these surfaces and electrostatic forces are the major factors that govern docking.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Expert

Protein Structure and Function:

Don't get twisted in a knot about proteins; learn about their structure!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Tutorial

Amino Acids and Proteins:

This tutorial will help the learners to review the formation and 3D structures of amino acids with proteins.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Proteins:

Paul Anderson explains the structure and importance of proteins. He describes how proteins are created from amino acids connected by dehydration synthesis. He shows the importance of chemical properties in the R-groups of individual amino acids in the polypeptide.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulative

Enzyme-Substrate Docking:

This virtual manipulative will help the students learn about enzyme-substrate docking. Students will observe that the shapes of these surfaces and electrostatic forces are the major factors that govern docking.

Type: Virtual Manipulative