SC.912.L.18.1

Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of biological macromolecules.

Clarifications

Annually assessed on Biology EOC. Also assesses SC.912.L.18.11.

General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Standard: Matter and Energy Transformations -

A. All living things are composed of four basic categories of macromolecules and share the same basic needs for life.

B. Living organisms acquire the energy they need for life processes through various metabolic pathways (primarily photosynthesis and cellular respiration).

C. Chemical reactions in living things follow basic rules of chemistry and are usually regulated by enzymes.

D. The unique chemical properties of carbon and water make life on Earth possible.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
    Also Assesses:

    SC.912.L.18.11 Explain the role of enzymes as catalysts that lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions. Identify factors, such as pH and temperature, and their effect on enzyme activity.

  • Clarification :

    Students will identify and/or describe the basic molecular structure of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and/or nucleic acids.

    Students will describe the primary functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and/or nucleic acids in organisms.

    Students will explain how enzymes speed up the rate of a biochemical reaction by lowering the reaction’s activation energy.

    Students will identify and/or describe the effect of environmental factors on enzyme activity.

  • Content Limits :

    Items will not refer to intermolecular forces found in the four types of macromolecules.

    Items will not assess hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis.

    Items referring to the role of enzymes as catalysts will use a biological context and not require knowledge of specific enzymes.

    Items referring to the factors that affect enzyme activity are limited to concentration, pH, and temperature.

    Items will not require specific knowledge of how an enzyme reacts at a certain pH or temperature. Items will not assess the enzyme-substrate complex.

  • Stimulus Attributes :
    None specified
  • Response Attributes :
    None specified
  • Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply scientific knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge of SC.6.L.14.3 and SC.8.P.8.5.
Sample Test Items (1)
  • Test Item #: Sample Item 1
  • Question: As food travels through the digestive system, it is exposed to a variety of pH levels. The stomach has a pH of 2 due to the presence of hydrochloric acid (HCl), and the small intestine has a pH ranging from 7 to 9. HCl converts pepsinogen into pepsin, an enzyme that digests proteins in the stomach. Which of the following most likely happens to pepsin as it enters the small intestine?
  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: MC: Multiple Choice

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2000350: Anatomy and Physiology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000330: Biology 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000370: Botany (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2003360: Chemistry 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002480: Forensic Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 and beyond (current))
2000440: Genetics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002400: Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002410: Integrated Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000410: Zoology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7920025: Access Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000500: Bioscience 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002405: Integrated Science 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2002425: Integrated Science 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
7920030: Fundamental Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
7920035: Fundamental Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.L.18.In.1: Identify that carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids (macromolecules) are important for human organisms.
SC.912.L.18.Su.1: Recognize that humans use proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
SC.912.L.18.Pa.1: Recognize that humans need different kinds of food.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

The Last Supper: Identifying Macromolecules:

The students will solve a mystery using laboratory tests for different types of macromolecules. They will use argumentation to justify and communicate their claim. They will construct explanations and communicate with one another to determine which macromolecule would be best to eat in different scenarios. Students will be able to identify the structure and functions of the four main types of macromolecules. The students will use laboratory testing to determine the identity of an unknown. They will fill in a chart about the structures, functions, and examples for each macromolecule type and then they will practice their knowledge by answering short response questions relating the macromolecules to the real world. Finally, they will review using a whole-class cooperative activity and take a quiz about the structures and functions of macromolecules.

Type: Lesson Plan

Macromolecules and the Athlete:

Students will analyze an athlete's diet to better understand the macromolecules needed for survival. Students will learn the primary function and structure of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Day of Macromolecules:

The purpose of this lesson plan is to exercise students' knowledge of the structures and functions of the four major types of macromolecules by playing Macromolecular Go Fish, solving Macromolecular Math problems, and finally competing with one another in a macromolecule-style game of Names from a Hat.

Type: Lesson Plan

Meet Your Macromolecules:

This lesson teaches applied concepts associated with the four macromolecules: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Type: Lesson Plan

Protein Synthesis: Transcription & Translation:

Students will explore the process of protein synthesis, specifically transcription and translation, using a sequenced graphic organizer and an interactive simulation (Lesson 1 & 2).

This resource contains 3 lessons:

  • Lesson 1: Transcription & Translation
  • Lesson 2: Lac Operon
  • Lesson 3: Proteins & Cancer

As an extension (Lesson 3) the students will justify the applications of biotechnology that uses transcription and translation to synthesize proteins that target cancer cells or reason the possibilities of the amplification of antibodies using immortal cells.

They will explore how mutations, genetic or epigenetic (lifestyle-chemicals, radiation, viruses), resulting in cancer.

The student will connect changes that occur in the genetic code, during transcription and translation, to the deleterious impact on proto oncogenes that promote cell division and tumor suppressor genes that normally inhibit it.

Type: Lesson Plan

Organic Macromolecules:

In this lesson students will be learning to recognize and compare and contrast the four different organic macromolecules. This lesson will require the viewing of a 7 minute video and will require 4 large groups of six students to work cooperatively together in a team effort to complete an organic macromolecule chart.

Type: Lesson Plan

Macromolecule Snack Attack:

In this MEA, students will be introduced to the four biological macromolecules through common snack foods found in vending machines. They will act as dietitians selecting and ranking snack foods based on given their nutrition labels and knowledge of the structure and function of the four biological macromolecules.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Macromolecule Mystery: Who Took Jerell's iPod? :

Students use their knowledge of organic compounds to solve a simulated mystery (Who took Jerell's iPod) by testing for triglycerides, glucose, starch, and protein. This lab deepens student understanding of biological functions and food sources of various organic compounds.

Type: Lesson Plan

Macromolecule Food Indicator Lab:

In this lesson students will complete a lab using indicators to determine which foods contain carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and/or starches. The lab includes pre-lab questions, discussion, lab experimentation, post lab questions, results and conclusion. The students will submit a completed lab report that will be graded based on a rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

The Macromolecules of Life: Carbohydrates:

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of carbohydrates with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Lipids:

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of lipids with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 3 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Proteins:

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of proteins with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 4 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Nucleic Acids:

Learn to identify and describe the structural and functional features of nucleic acids, one of the 4 primary macromolecule groups in biological systems, with this interactive tutorial.

This is Part 3 in 5-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series:

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Overview:

Learn to identify the four basic biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) by structure and function with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Linseed Oil Properties for Oil Painting:

Oil paints certainly left their mark on history and are widely used in art today! Produced with funding from the Florida Division of Cultural Affairs.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Oil Painting Technique:

Understanding the science behind oil painting can help you become a better artist! Produced with funding from the Florida Division of Cultural Affairs.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Macromolecule Matching:

Learn about macromolecules with this tabletop exercise.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Resource Collection

Online Macromolecular Museum:

The Online Macromolecular Museum (OMM) is a site for the display and study of macromolecules. Macromolecular structures, as discovered by crystallographic or NMR methods, are scientific objects in much the same sense as fossil bones or dried specimens: they can be archived, studied, and displayed in aesthetically pleasing, educational exhibits. Hence, a museum seems an appropriate designation for the collection of displays that we are assembling. The OMM's exhibits are interactive tutorials on individual molecules in which hypertextual explanations of important biochemical features are linked to illustrative renderings of the molecule at hand.

Type: Resource Collection

Teaching Idea

Murder and A Meal:

In a "Murder Mystery" scenario, students will use their knowledge of the structure and properties of macromolecules to conduct a forensic investigation.

Type: Teaching Idea

Tutorials

DNA:

This Khan Academy video describes the structure of the molecule DNA in great detail. It also discuses the role DNA plays in the process of protein synthesis, explaining transcription and translation. The video discusses the relationship between DNA and chromosomes as well.

Type: Tutorial

The Chemical Structure of DNA:


This tutorial will help the learners with their understanding of chemical structure of DNA.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

Biological Molecules:

Paul Anderson describes the four major biological molecules found in living things. He begins with a brief discussion of polymerization. Dehydration synthesis is used to connect monomers into polymers and hydrolysis breaks them down again. The major characteristics of nucleic acids are described as well as there directionality from 3' to 5' end.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

MIT BLOSSOMS - Methods for Protein Purification:

This Protein Purification video lesson is intended to give students some insight into the process and tools that scientists and engineers use to explore proteins. It is designed to extend the knowledge of students who are already somewhat sophisticated and who have a good understanding of basic biology. The question that motivates this lesson is, "what makes two cell types different?" and this question is posed in several ways. Such scientific reasoning raises the experimental question: how could you study just a subset of specialized proteins that distinguish one cell type from another? Two techniques useful in this regard are considered in the lesson. This video lesson will easily fit into a 50-minute class period, and prerequisites include a good understanding of cellular components (DNA vs. Protein vs. lipid) and some understanding of the physical features of proteins (charge, size etc). The simple cell model used here can be assembled in any kind of container and with any components of different solubility, density, charge etc. In-class activities during the video breaks include discussions, careful observations, and the use of a "very simple cell" model to explore two techniques of protein purification. Students and teachers can spend additional time discussing and exploring the question of "how we know what we know" since this lesson lends itself to the teaching of the process of science as well.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Photosynthesis animation and other cell processes in animation:

This site has fantastic short Flash animations of intricate cell processes, including photosynthesis and the electron transport chain.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulative

The Tree of Life's Macromolecules - The Concord Consortium:

A Java Program that allows the students to explore the macromolecules via closer looks at different organisms. After exploring the macromolecules there are questions they can answer about the individual macromolecules and summary questions. The students can also print a report of their answers for the teacher.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Macromolecule Snack Attack:

In this MEA, students will be introduced to the four biological macromolecules through common snack foods found in vending machines. They will act as dietitians selecting and ranking snack foods based on given their nutrition labels and knowledge of the structure and function of the four biological macromolecules.

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

The Macromolecules of Life: Carbohydrates:

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of carbohydrates with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

The Macromolecules of Life: Lipids:

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of lipids with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 3 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

The Macromolecules of Life: Nucleic Acids:

Learn to identify and describe the structural and functional features of nucleic acids, one of the 4 primary macromolecule groups in biological systems, with this interactive tutorial.

This is Part 3 in 5-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series:

The Macromolecules of Life: Overview:

Learn to identify the four basic biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) by structure and function with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

The Macromolecules of Life: Proteins:

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of proteins with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 4 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

The Macromolecules of Life: Carbohydrates:

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of carbohydrates with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Lipids:

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of lipids with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 3 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Proteins:

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of proteins with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 4 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Nucleic Acids:

Learn to identify and describe the structural and functional features of nucleic acids, one of the 4 primary macromolecule groups in biological systems, with this interactive tutorial.

This is Part 3 in 5-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series:

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Overview:

Learn to identify the four basic biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) by structure and function with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorials

DNA:

This Khan Academy video describes the structure of the molecule DNA in great detail. It also discuses the role DNA plays in the process of protein synthesis, explaining transcription and translation. The video discusses the relationship between DNA and chromosomes as well.

Type: Tutorial

The Chemical Structure of DNA:


This tutorial will help the learners with their understanding of chemical structure of DNA.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Photosynthesis animation and other cell processes in animation:

This site has fantastic short Flash animations of intricate cell processes, including photosynthesis and the electron transport chain.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.