SC.912.L.16.3

Describe the basic process of DNA replication and how it relates to the transmission and conservation of the genetic information.

Clarifications

Integrate HE.912.C.1.7. Analyze how heredity and family history can impact personal health. Annually assessed on Biology EOC. Also assesses SC.912.L.16.4; SC.912.L.16.5; SC.912.L.16.9.

General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: Heredity and Reproduction -

A. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.

B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.

C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.

D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
    Also Assesses:

    SC.912.L.16.4 Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence may or may not result in phenotypic change. Explain how mutations in gametes may result in phenotypic changes in offspring.

    SC.912.L.16.5 Explain the basic processes of transcription and translation, and how they result in the expression of genes.

     SC.912.L.16.9 Explain how and why the genetic code is universal and is common to almost all organisms.

  • Clarification :

    Students will describe the process of DNA replication and/or its role in the transmission and conservation of genetic information.

    Students will describe gene and chromosomal mutations in the DNA sequence.

    Students will explain how gene and chromosomal mutations may or may not result in a phenotypic change.

    Students will explain the basic processes of transcription and/or translation, and their roles in the expression of genes.

    Students will explain that the basic components of DNA are universal in organisms.

    Students will explain how similarities in the genetic codes of organisms are due to common ancestry and the process of inheritance.

  • Content Limits :

    Items requiring the analysis of base pairs for gene mutations are limited to changes in a single gene.

    Items may refer to but will not assess the cell cycle, mitosis, and/or meiosis.

    Items will not require memorization of specific conditions resulting from chromosomal mutations.

    Items may refer to the process of meiosis in the context of mutations but will not assess meiosis in isolation.

    Items addressing transcription or translation will not require specific knowledge of initiation, elongation, or termination.
  • Stimulus Attributes :
    Scenarios requiring the use of a codon table must include the codon table.
  • Response Attributes :
    None specified
  • Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply scientific knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge of SC.7.L.16.1 and SC.7.L.16.4.
Sample Test Items (1)
  • Test Item #: Sample Item 1
  • Question:

    Genes for medically important proteins can be cloned and inserted into bacteria, as shown in the diagram below.

     

    Why can bacteria recognize a human gene and then produce a human protein?

  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: MC: Multiple Choice

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002490: Forensic Sciences 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 and beyond (current))
2000440: Genetics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000500: Bioscience 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002425: Integrated Science 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.L.16.In.3: Recognize that a substance called DNA carries genetic information in all organisms, and changes (mutations) in DNA can be helpful or harmful to an organism.
SC.912.L.16.Su.2: Recognize that all organisms have a substance called DNA with unique information.
SC.912.L.16.Pa.2: Recognize similarities in characteristics of plants and animals of the same type (species).

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Something Old, Something New...:

Students will reflect on prior knowledge, record their understanding of DNA replication based on a 3D computer model, and will then create a model demonstrating the process of DNA replication. Students will investigate where DNA replication occurs in the human body and why it occurs there. Additionally, students will investigate DNA mutations and their potential impact on the organism. Finally, students will summarize what they learned by collaborating with other classmates.

Type: Lesson Plan

Protein Synthesis: Transcription & Translation:

Students will explore the process of protein synthesis, specifically transcription and translation, using a sequenced graphic organizer and an interactive simulation (Lesson 1 & 2).

This resource contains 3 lessons:

  • Lesson 1: Transcription & Translation
  • Lesson 2: Lac Operon
  • Lesson 3: Proteins & Cancer

As an extension (Lesson 3) the students will justify the applications of biotechnology that uses transcription and translation to synthesize proteins that target cancer cells or reason the possibilities of the amplification of antibodies using immortal cells.

They will explore how mutations, genetic or epigenetic (lifestyle-chemicals, radiation, viruses), resulting in cancer.

The student will connect changes that occur in the genetic code, during transcription and translation, to the deleterious impact on proto oncogenes that promote cell division and tumor suppressor genes that normally inhibit it.

Type: Lesson Plan

"DNA:Breaking the Code!":

In this lesson, students learn about DNA, the building block of genetic material. Students learn the basic components of DNA and see how they fit together. The teacher will offer activities and support to support with these goals. The goal of this lesson is to familiarize students to the cell and its DNA as the genetic material that manages how the cell will function. It is recommended to teach this lesson before teaching heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

Type: Lesson Plan

Tissue Specific Gene Expression:

How is it that all cells in our body have the same genes, yet cells in different tissues express different genes? A basic notion in biology that most high school students fail to conceptualize is the fact that all cells in the animal or human body contain the same DNA, yet different cells in different tissues express, on the one hand, a set of common genes, and on the other, express another set of genes that vary depending on the type of tissue and the stage of development. In this video lesson, the student will be reminded that genes in a cell/tissue are expressed when certain conditions in the nucleus are met. Interestingly, the system utilized by the cell to ensure tissue specific gene expression is rather simple. Among other factors - all discussed fully in the lesson - the cells make use of a tiny scaffold known as the "Nuclear Matrix or Nucleo-Skeleton". This video lesson spans 20 minutes and provides 5 exercises for students to work out in groups and in consultation with their classroom teacher. The entire duration of the video demonstration and exercises should take about 45-50 minutes, or equivalent to one classroom session. There are no supplies needed for students' participation in the provided exercises. They will only need their notebooks and pens. However, the teacher may wish to emulate the demonstrations used in the video lesson by the presenter and in this case simple material can be used as those used in the video. These include play dough, pencils, rubber bands (to construct the nuclear matrix model), a tennis ball and 2-3 Meters worth of shoe laces. The students should be aware of basic information about DNA folding in the nucleus, DNA replication, gene transcription, translation and protein synthesis.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

DNA Replication:

Learn how to identify explicit evidence and understand implicit meaning in a text…

You began your life as a single cell and you now have trillions of cells. Even though a cell only uses a portion of its DNA, each cell contains the same set of DNA instructions. How is it possible that DNA can be copied so that every cell gets the same set of instructions? By the end of this tutorial you should be able to describe how DNA is copied and explain how this process allows cells to have identical genetic information.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Experts

DNA Microsatellite Analysis for Plant Ecology:

Dr. David McNutt explains how large clonal plant populations can be analyzed with microsatellite analysis of their DNA.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The Geometry of DNA Replication:

A discussion of the applications of Knot Theory, replication of DNA, enzymes, and fluid dynamics.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Text Resource

Chemists Expand Nature's Genetic Alphabet:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article provides some of the newest and most exciting information relating to the DNA in living things. It is a synopsis of a recent experiment in which scientists were able to successfully add two new "letters" into DNA and have the cell replicate these new bases. This could lead to advances in genetics, medicine, and various other fields of study.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Mitosis and DNA Replication:

This tutorial discusses the process of mitosis in detail, describing the events that occur during interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase. The process of DNA replication is also explained.

Type: Tutorial

Chromosomes, Chromatids, and Chromatin:

This Khan Academy video reviews the basic processes of DNA replication and protein synthesis. It then goes on to explain how the terms chromosome, chromatin, and chromatid, relate to each other.

Type: Tutorial

Transcription and Translation:

This Khan Academy video briefly describes DNA replication and then goes into a thorough explanation of both transcription and translation.

Type: Tutorial

The Process of DNA Replication:

DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule. This tutorial will help you to understand the process of DNA replication and the factors involved in the replication process.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Replication:

This tutorial will help you to understand how nucleotides are added to the leading and lagging strands of DNA during replication.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

DNA: The Book of You:

Your body is made of cells -- but how does a single cell know to become part of your nose, instead of your toes? The answer is in your body's instruction book: DNA. Joe Hanson compares DNA to a detailed manual for building a person out of cells -- with 46 chapters (chromosomes) and hundreds of thousands of pages covering every part of you.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Structure:

This tutorial will help the learners to understand structure of DNA and how this structure allows for accurate replication.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Replication:

This tutorial will help learners understand the process of DNA replication, including the enzymes involved. Learners will be able to recognize that an exact copy of DNA must be created prior to cell division.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulatives

DNA - The Double Helix Game:

DNA is the genetic material of all known living organisms and some viruses. DNA contains two stands wrapped around each other in a helix, and these stands are held in place by four chemicals called bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). The bases pair up with each other in a specific manner to form units called base pairs - adenine always pairs with thymine, and cytosine always pairs with guanine.
In this game your job is to first make exact copies of a double-stranded DNA molecule by correctly matching base pairs to each strand, and to then determine which organism the DNA belongs to.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA-The Double Helix:


In this interactive game, the students will understand how a DNA molecule is built up, how the copies of the DNA molecule made and what is the meaning of base-pairing. The job of the students in this game is to first make exact copies of a double-stranded DNA molecule by correctly matching the base pairs to each strand, and to then determine which organism the DNA belongs to.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA Polymerase:


In this activity students will recognize that DNA polymerase is responsible for the process of DNA replication, during which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied into two identical DNA molecules. DNA ploymerase catalyze the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides alongside a DNA strand, which they read and use as a template. The newly-polymerized molecule is complementary to the template strand.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA Replication Animation:

This resource is an animation to explain DNA replication. It is an interactive simulation activity for students. See also "Transcription and Translation Animation" to get all of the steps from DNA to protein.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

DNA Replication:

Learn how to identify explicit evidence and understand implicit meaning in a text…

You began your life as a single cell and you now have trillions of cells. Even though a cell only uses a portion of its DNA, each cell contains the same set of DNA instructions. How is it possible that DNA can be copied so that every cell gets the same set of instructions? By the end of this tutorial you should be able to describe how DNA is copied and explain how this process allows cells to have identical genetic information.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

DNA Replication:

Learn how to identify explicit evidence and understand implicit meaning in a text…

You began your life as a single cell and you now have trillions of cells. Even though a cell only uses a portion of its DNA, each cell contains the same set of DNA instructions. How is it possible that DNA can be copied so that every cell gets the same set of instructions? By the end of this tutorial you should be able to describe how DNA is copied and explain how this process allows cells to have identical genetic information.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorials

Mitosis and DNA Replication:

This tutorial discusses the process of mitosis in detail, describing the events that occur during interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase. The process of DNA replication is also explained.

Type: Tutorial

Chromosomes, Chromatids, and Chromatin:

This Khan Academy video reviews the basic processes of DNA replication and protein synthesis. It then goes on to explain how the terms chromosome, chromatin, and chromatid, relate to each other.

Type: Tutorial

Transcription and Translation:

This Khan Academy video briefly describes DNA replication and then goes into a thorough explanation of both transcription and translation.

Type: Tutorial

The Process of DNA Replication:

DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule. This tutorial will help you to understand the process of DNA replication and the factors involved in the replication process.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Replication:

This tutorial will help you to understand how nucleotides are added to the leading and lagging strands of DNA during replication.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

DNA: The Book of You:

Your body is made of cells -- but how does a single cell know to become part of your nose, instead of your toes? The answer is in your body's instruction book: DNA. Joe Hanson compares DNA to a detailed manual for building a person out of cells -- with 46 chapters (chromosomes) and hundreds of thousands of pages covering every part of you.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Structure:

This tutorial will help the learners to understand structure of DNA and how this structure allows for accurate replication.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Replication:

This tutorial will help learners understand the process of DNA replication, including the enzymes involved. Learners will be able to recognize that an exact copy of DNA must be created prior to cell division.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulatives

DNA - The Double Helix Game:

DNA is the genetic material of all known living organisms and some viruses. DNA contains two stands wrapped around each other in a helix, and these stands are held in place by four chemicals called bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). The bases pair up with each other in a specific manner to form units called base pairs - adenine always pairs with thymine, and cytosine always pairs with guanine.
In this game your job is to first make exact copies of a double-stranded DNA molecule by correctly matching base pairs to each strand, and to then determine which organism the DNA belongs to.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA Polymerase:


In this activity students will recognize that DNA polymerase is responsible for the process of DNA replication, during which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied into two identical DNA molecules. DNA ploymerase catalyze the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides alongside a DNA strand, which they read and use as a template. The newly-polymerized molecule is complementary to the template strand.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Tutorials

Mitosis and DNA Replication:

This tutorial discusses the process of mitosis in detail, describing the events that occur during interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase. The process of DNA replication is also explained.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Structure:

This tutorial will help the learners to understand structure of DNA and how this structure allows for accurate replication.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulatives

DNA - The Double Helix Game:

DNA is the genetic material of all known living organisms and some viruses. DNA contains two stands wrapped around each other in a helix, and these stands are held in place by four chemicals called bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). The bases pair up with each other in a specific manner to form units called base pairs - adenine always pairs with thymine, and cytosine always pairs with guanine.
In this game your job is to first make exact copies of a double-stranded DNA molecule by correctly matching base pairs to each strand, and to then determine which organism the DNA belongs to.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA Polymerase:


In this activity students will recognize that DNA polymerase is responsible for the process of DNA replication, during which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied into two identical DNA molecules. DNA ploymerase catalyze the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides alongside a DNA strand, which they read and use as a template. The newly-polymerized molecule is complementary to the template strand.

Type: Virtual Manipulative