SC.912.L.15.4

Describe how and why organisms are hierarchically classified and based on evolutionary relationships.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms -

A. The scientific theory of evolution is the fundamental concept underlying all of biology.

B. The scientific theory of evolution is supported by multiple forms of scientific evidence.

C. Organisms are classified based on their evolutionary history.

D. Natural selection is a primary mechanism leading to evolutionary change.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000330: Biology 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000370: Botany (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002400: Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002410: Integrated Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002450: Integrated Science 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000410: Zoology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7920025: Access Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002405: Integrated Science 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.L.15.In.2: Classify living organisms into their kingdoms.
SC.912.L.15.Su.2: Match organisms to the animal, plant, and fungus kingdoms.
SC.912.L.15.Pa.2: Sort common living things into plant and animal kingdoms.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Assessments

Summative Assessment Evolution:

This performance task will demonstrate students' understanding of natural selection at the end of a unit on the theory of evolution.

Type: Assessment

Evolution Performance Task:

This resource will help students to understand the difference between a Venn diagram and a cladogram. After viewing this students are intended to create and analyze their own cladograms..

Type: Assessment

Lesson Plans

Meet the Family: Investigating Primate Relationships:

In this lesson students will see the different types of evidence scientists use to understand evolutionary relationships among organisms. They will first practice by using shared physical characteristics to predict relationships among members of the cat family and then use this approach to predict primate relationships. They will compare their predictions to evidence provided by analyzing amino acid sequences and build a phylogenetic tree based on these sequences. Finally, they will look at the tree in the context of time in order to see divergence times.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bioluminescent Millipedes Spark Bright Ideas!:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text by scientist Paul Marek, who re-charted the millipede Motyxia Bistipida's evolutionary tree based on new information about its bioluminescence. This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bird Brains - Evolutionary Relationships:

Students will compare the sequence of amino acids in a gene shared between humans and six other organisms and infer evolutionary relationships among the species.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Strange Fish Indeed-The Discovery of a Living Fossil:

Through a series of fictionalized diary entries, this case recounts the 1939 discovery by Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer (and identification by J.L.B. Smith) of a living coelacanth, a fish believed to be extinct for over 70 million years. Developed for use in a freshman biology course as an introduction to the nature and methods of scientific inquiry, the case could also be modified for use in a number of upper-level biology courses such as ichthyology, evolutionary biology, and conservation ecology.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson Study Resource Kits

Diversity and Evolution: An NGSSS-based biology toolkit for grades 9-12:

This toolkit supports the development of an instructional unit on diversity and evolution and aligns with Next Generation Sunshine State Standards for science as well as Florida standards for English language arts and mathematics for students in grades 9-12. The elements of this toolkit were assembled based upon their suitability for constructing a multi-day instructional unit on hominid evolution that corresponds with the 5E Learning Cycle of engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate. Your task as a lesson study team is to analyze the materials that are included in this toolkit and evaluate how they can be incorporated in a 5-E instructional unit plan that complies with the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards and Florida standards for English language arts and mathematics. As you study these resources it is important to make note of any deficiencies or gaps that will need to be addressed and make modifications in the lesson resources and activities where needed.

Type: Lesson Study Resource Kit

Exploring Diversity and Evolution: A Lesson Study Resource Kit for grades 9-12:

This lesson study resource kit is designed to support lesson study teams in developing a unit of instruction for students in grades 9-12 on the topic of diversity and evolution.

Type: Lesson Study Resource Kit

Original Student Tutorials

Diagramming Diversity 1:

Learn how living organisms are classified according to their characteristics, which reflects their evolutionary history and relationships, as you complete this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Diagramming Diversity II:

Learn to explain how a phylogenetic tree, or cladogram, is used to classify living organisms based on inherited similarities, and how it relates to other methods of hierarchical classification.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Project

Dichotomous Keys and Cladograms Performance Task:

Students will work in groups to select 5-10 organisms, create a dichotomous key that could identify them, and a cladogram to show their evolutionary relationships.

Type: Project

Teaching Ideas

Butterfly Sort: Classification Methods:

In this lesson, students will explore ways to classify organisms based on physical similarities by devising a system to classify moths and butterflies using characteristics shown on black and white pictures. In doing so, they will construct a tree using various traits that vary among the different butterfly species. They will then defend their organizational scheme based on observed traits.

Type: Teaching Idea

Climbing The Tree of Life: Cladograms:

This is an activity where students create cladograms given a beginning point (species) and end point (species) using the Tree of Life website.

Type: Teaching Idea

Butterfly Sort:

This is a teaching idea where students develop a classification scheme for butterflies and moths based on observable traits. Through the development and discussion of classification schemes, students begin to make inferences about evolutionary relationships.

This activity was used in the BIOSCOPES Diversity and Ecology Institute.

Type: Teaching Idea

Text Resources

Shedding Light on Millipede Evolution:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The author tells of his success in locating and reclassifying a species of millipedes known as Motyxia bistipita. Until his rediscovery these millipedes were not known to show bioluminescence. Once he discovered this trait he was then also able to trace their evolutionary lineage and determine the reasons for the development of this ability in bipista's relatives. This article also discusses bioluminescence in other species and its important medical applications.

Type: Text Resource

A Living Fossil:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In 1996, a team of scientists discovered a species of rodent in Laos that was new to science. In a recent study, DNA analysis places the rodent in a mammal family that was previously thought to have gone extinct over 10 million years ago. Therefore, the rodent is a "living fossil."

Type: Text Resource

Extinct Relative Helps to Reclassify the World's Remaining Two Species of Monk Seal:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists used DNA and morphological analysis to classify the extinct Caribbean monk seal. In doing so, they grouped it with the critically endangered Hawaiian monk seal into a new genus, Neomonachus. The also critically endangered Mediterranean monk seal remains in its own genus, Monachus.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Taxonomy and the Tree of Life:

This Khan Academy video discusses the science of taxonomy and where humans fit into the tree of life.

Type: Tutorial

Species:

This Khan Academy video explains the definition of species and provides examples of animals that belong to the same species.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulative

Mesquite - Phylogenetic Trees:

Students use software to create evolutionary trees by comparing and contrasting physical traits.

This activity demonstrates the complexity of creating evolutionary trees when multiple traits are being analyzed. The use of the software simplifies the analysis without compromising the learning objectives.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

Diagramming Diversity 1:

Learn how living organisms are classified according to their characteristics, which reflects their evolutionary history and relationships, as you complete this interactive tutorial.

Diagramming Diversity II:

Learn to explain how a phylogenetic tree, or cladogram, is used to classify living organisms based on inherited similarities, and how it relates to other methods of hierarchical classification.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Diagramming Diversity 1:

Learn how living organisms are classified according to their characteristics, which reflects their evolutionary history and relationships, as you complete this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Diagramming Diversity II:

Learn to explain how a phylogenetic tree, or cladogram, is used to classify living organisms based on inherited similarities, and how it relates to other methods of hierarchical classification.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Lesson Plan

Meet the Family: Investigating Primate Relationships:

In this lesson students will see the different types of evidence scientists use to understand evolutionary relationships among organisms. They will first practice by using shared physical characteristics to predict relationships among members of the cat family and then use this approach to predict primate relationships. They will compare their predictions to evidence provided by analyzing amino acid sequences and build a phylogenetic tree based on these sequences. Finally, they will look at the tree in the context of time in order to see divergence times.

Type: Lesson Plan

Tutorials

Taxonomy and the Tree of Life:

This Khan Academy video discusses the science of taxonomy and where humans fit into the tree of life.

Type: Tutorial

Species:

This Khan Academy video explains the definition of species and provides examples of animals that belong to the same species.

Type: Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.