SC.912.L.15.1

Explain how the scientific theory of evolution is supported by the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and observed evolutionary change.

Clarifications

Annually Assessed on Biology EOC. Also assesses SC.912.L.15.10; SC.912.N.1.3; SC.912.N.1.4; SC.912.N.1.6; SC.912.N.2.1; SC.912.N.3.1; and SC.912.N.3.4.

General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms -

A. The scientific theory of evolution is the fundamental concept underlying all of biology.

B. The scientific theory of evolution is supported by multiple forms of scientific evidence.

C. Organisms are classified based on their evolutionary history.

D. Natural selection is a primary mechanism leading to evolutionary change.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
    Also Assesses:

    SC.912.L.15.10 Identify basic trends in hominid evolution from early ancestors six million years ago to modern humans, including brain size, jaw size, language, and manufacture of tools.

    SC.912.N.1.3 Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.

    SC.912.N.1.4 Identify sources of information and assess their reliability according to the strict standards of scientific investigation.

    SC.912.N.1.6 Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied.

    SC.912.N.2.1 Identify what is science, what clearly is not science, and what superficially resembles science (but fails to meet the criteria for science).

    SC.912.N.3.1 Explain that a scientific theory is the culmination of many scientific investigations drawing together all the current evidence concerning a substantial range of phenomena; thus, a scientific theory represents the most powerful explanation scientists have to offer.

    SC.912.N.3.4 Recognize that theories do not become laws, nor do laws become theories; theories are well-supported explanations and laws are well-supported descriptions.

  • Clarification :

    Students will identify evidence and/or explain how the scientific theory of evolution is supported by the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and observable evolutionary change.

    Students will identify examples of and basic trends in hominid evolution from early ancestors to modern humans.

    Students will identify ways in which a scientific claim is evaluated (e.g., through scientific argumentation, critical and logical thinking, and consideration of alternative explanations).

    Students will assess the reliability of sources of information according to scientific standards.

    Students will describe how scientific inferences are made from observations and identify examples from biology.

    Students will identify what is science, what is not science, and what resembles but fails to meet the criteria for science.

    Students will explain the development of a theory.

    Students will recognize the differences between theories and laws.

  • Content Limits :

    Items assessing evolution will focus on a conceptual understanding of the supporting scientific evidence.

    Items will not require memorization of the names of specific human fossils or the names of the different hominid species.

    Items assessing the fossil record must focus on the fossil rather than geologic formations in isolation.

    Items assessing the fossil record will not require understanding of the specific mechanisms used for relative dating and radioactive dating.

    Items will not require the memorization of the geologic time scale, including era, period, and/or epoch.

    Items will not assess the origin of Earth.

    Items will not assess specific knowledge of the formation of microspheres or the evolution of RNA and DNA.

    Items will not address or assess the endosymbiotic theory.

    Items referring to adaptive radiation, convergent evolution, coevolution, or punctuated equilibrium should focus on the concepts rather than on the definition of the terms.

    Items referring to the development of language or the manufacturing of tools will relate this development to changes in the skull or brain size.

    Items will not assess types of genetic mutation or how these mutations occur.

    Items referring to comparative anatomy and comparative embryology will assess anatomical similarities such as homologous structures and vestigial organs but will not require specific knowledge of embryologic stages or structures.

    Items will not require knowledge of changes to specific species or geographic location of those species.

    Items will not assess genes, alleles, genetic drift, or gene flow.

    Items may assess how the overall contributions of scientists such as Darwin, Lamarck, Lyell, Malthus, Mendel, or Wallace aided in the development of the scientific theory of evolution.

    Items will not assess the differences among intelligent design, creationism, and the scientific theory of evolution.

    Items assessing a scientific claim, the development of a theory, or the differences between theories and laws are limited to the scientific theory of evolution.

  • Stimulus Attributes :

    Scenarios referring to specific species will include a description of the species in relation to context of the item.

    Scenarios addressing scientific inferences are limited to the scientific theory of evolution and trends in hominid evolution.

  • Response Attributes :
    None specified
  • Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply scientific knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge of SC.7.L.15.1, SC.7.L.15.2, SC.7.L.15.3, SC.8.E.5.10, SC.6.N.2.1, SC.6.N.2.2, SC.6.N.3.1, SC.6.N.3.2, SC.6.N.3.3, SC.7.N.1.6, SC.7.N.1.7, SC.7.N.2.1, SC.7.N.3.1, SC.8.N.1.6, SC.8.N.2.1, SC.8.N.2.2, and SC.8.N.3.2.
Sample Test Items (1)
  • Test Item #: Sample Item 1
  • Question:

    The scientific theory of evolution is supported by different types of evidence. The diagrams below show the skeletons of two different animal species.

     

    How does comparing the skeletons of these animals provide support for the scientific theory of evolution?

  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: MC: Multiple Choice

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000330: Biology 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000370: Botany (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2001310: Earth/Space Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2001320: Earth/Space Science Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002400: Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002410: Integrated Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002440: Integrated Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002450: Integrated Science 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000410: Zoology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7920020: Access Earth/Space Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7920025: Access Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 and beyond (current))
2002405: Integrated Science 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2002445: Integrated Science 3 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
7920040: Fundamental Integrated Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.L.15.In.1: Identify that prehistoric plants and animals changed over time (evolved) or became extinct.
SC.912.L.15.Su.1: Match fossils to related species.
SC.912.L.15.Pa.1: Recognize that plants and animals change as they age.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Meet the Family: Investigating Primate Relationships:

In this lesson students will see the different types of evidence scientists use to understand evolutionary relationships among organisms. They will first practice by using shared physical characteristics to predict relationships among members of the cat family and then use this approach to predict primate relationships. They will compare their predictions to evidence provided by analyzing amino acid sequences and build a phylogenetic tree based on these sequences. Finally, they will look at the tree in the context of time in order to see divergence times.

Type: Lesson Plan

This Dinosaur Can't Sing:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article presents new research that suggests dinosaurs were not able to vocalize or "sing" in a way similar to modern birds. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Ancient DNA Gives Clues to Dog Evolution:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that addresses the genetic analysis of a 4,800-year-old dog found in a tomb in Ireland and how this information gives rise to a new hypothesis that dogs may have been domesticated at least twice, once in East Asia and also in Europe. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Link to Evolution:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that presents the major discovery of a nearly-intact cranial fossil of an ancient mammal from the Southern Hemisphere. The article discusses the significance of the discovery of this previously unknown mammal, a mammal scientists have named Vintana sertichi. This lesson plan is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Bioluminescent Millipedes Spark Bright Ideas!:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text by scientist Paul Marek, who re-charted the millipede Motyxia Bistipida's evolutionary tree based on new information about its bioluminescence. This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Fossil Evidence of Evolution on Earth:

This lesson will be used to teach about fossil evidence found in layers on the Earth and how it shows how life has evolved.

Type: Lesson Plan

Name That Embryo:

This lesson introduces the concept of comparative embryology. Students will work in groups to observe similarities and differences in embryos from different organisms, and will make inferences to an evolutionary relationship between them.

Type: Lesson Plan

What is the Evidence for Evolution? Finding Scientific Proof:

Richard Dawkins, an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and writer of the 21st century, has said, "You can't even begin to understand biology, you can't understand life, unless you understand what it's all there for, how it arose - and that means evolution." his quote emphasizes the importance of the comprehension of the theory of evolution in the discipline of biology. Living beings may seem diverse, but under the eyes of evolution, every living being comes from a common ancestor. Therefore, all species in the planet Earth are related. Thanks to the discovery of DNA and the technological advances being made in molecular genetics, we know that all organisms share the same four nitrogen bases which codifies within the same 20 amino acids: the difference is just the sequence. The evolutionary theory explains relationships between organisms by common ancestry. With all this knowledge, it's imperative to understand the foundation and what supports this theory.

This lesson contains three learning activities to achieve the learning objective. The first activity is a bell work that consist of three questions to assess prior knowledge of the students in diversity and evolution. The second activity is a collaborative research for each category that supports evolution. The last activity is the completion of notes taken by each student to ensure understanding and comprehension for every piece of evidence.

Type: Lesson Plan

Nemo's Distant Relatives:

This lesson introduces the concept of speciation through geographic isolation. It uses pictures, small groups, and a short reading article to reinforce the concepts with multiple learning styles. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Who Are My Relatives?:

This lesson will help students develop a cladogram to demonstrate the evolutionary relationships of diverse organisms.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bird Brains - Evolutionary Relationships:

Students will compare the sequence of amino acids in a gene shared between humans and six other organisms and infer evolutionary relationships among the species.

Type: Lesson Plan

MIT BLOSSOMS - Classifying Animals by Appearance vs DNA Sequence:

In this Blended Learning lesson, students will learn how to make phylogenetic trees based on both physical characteristics and on DNA sequence. The lesson model includes a video of a scientist who co-facilitates the lesson with the teacher, a teacher's guide, the handouts students will need, and a transcript. The Blended Learning model combines online learning with classroom instruction, where world-class experts, such as scientists and mathematicians from around the world use video to help teachers deliver lessons, while ensuring the students and teacher actively engage in the lesson through activities and discussion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Becoming Whales:

Students will experience the historical discovery of fossils that increasingly link whales to earlier land-dwelling mammals. This experience reveals how scientists can make predictions about past events, based on the theory and evidence that whales evolved. This lesson also provides confirmation, with multiple independent lines of evidence, that there is a series of intermediate forms, showing gradual accumulation of changes, linking certain terrestrial mammal groups with modern whales.

Type: Lesson Plan

Killer Microbe:

A lesson about the important topic of antibiotic-resistant bacteria with student activities and A/V resources.

Type: Lesson Plan

T Rex Blood?:

A PBS Nova Podcast/Video with accompanying activities that introduce and explore paleontology and the geologic timescale through analysis of fossil bones.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Strange Fish Indeed-The Discovery of a Living Fossil:

Through a series of fictionalized diary entries, this case recounts the 1939 discovery by Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer (and identification by J.L.B. Smith) of a living coelacanth, a fish believed to be extinct for over 70 million years. Developed for use in a freshman biology course as an introduction to the nature and methods of scientific inquiry, the case could also be modified for use in a number of upper-level biology courses such as ichthyology, evolutionary biology, and conservation ecology.

Type: Lesson Plan

Introduction to Darwin and evolution:

This activity will introduce Darwin and his travels. A world map is used along with excerpts from his book to plot his voyage and discoveries.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pollution Evolution - A Solution?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article in this lesson describes how a species of fish has adapted to lethal levels of toxic pollutants due to their high level of genetic variation, which allows them to evolve quickly. Scientists hope to use studies of these fish to understand human reactions to environmental chemicals. This lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson Study Resource Kits

Diversity and Evolution: An NGSSS-based biology toolkit for grades 9-12:

This toolkit supports the development of an instructional unit on diversity and evolution and aligns with Next Generation Sunshine State Standards for science as well as Florida standards for English language arts and mathematics for students in grades 9-12. The elements of this toolkit were assembled based upon their suitability for constructing a multi-day instructional unit on hominid evolution that corresponds with the 5E Learning Cycle of engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate. Your task as a lesson study team is to analyze the materials that are included in this toolkit and evaluate how they can be incorporated in a 5-E instructional unit plan that complies with the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards and Florida standards for English language arts and mathematics. As you study these resources it is important to make note of any deficiencies or gaps that will need to be addressed and make modifications in the lesson resources and activities where needed.

Type: Lesson Study Resource Kit

Exploring Diversity and Evolution: A Lesson Study Resource Kit for grades 9-12:

This lesson study resource kit is designed to support lesson study teams in developing a unit of instruction for students in grades 9-12 on the topic of diversity and evolution.

Type: Lesson Study Resource Kit

Original Student Tutorial

Evolution: Examining the Evidence:

Learn how to identify explicit evidence and understand implicit meaning in a text.

You should be able to explain how different types of scientific evidence support the theory of evolution, including direct observation, fossils, DNA, biogeography, and comparative anatomy and embryology.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Experts

Tweeting - From Birds to Humans:

Frank Johnson discusses tweeting.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Explaining Evolution through the Fossil Record:

Dr. Gregory Erickson explains the fossil record and how it supports the scientific theory of evolution.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Debating Comparative Embryology as Evidence of Evolution:

Let this teacher tell you a tail tale about a comparative embryology idea.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Problem-Solving Tasks

Aggresion in Dogs: Evolution of a Species:

Scientists know all dogs descended from the gray wolf, but they don't know exactly how that happened. In this activity, students will engage in a card game simulation to learn how selective pressures can affect an organism's evolution.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Anolis Lizards of the Greater Antilles: Using phylogeny to test hypotheses :

Students "take a trip" to the Greater Antilles to figure out how the Anolis lizards on the islands might have evolved. They begin by observing the body structures and habitat of different species, then plot this data on a map of the islands to look for patterns in their distribution. From the patterns they observe, students develop alternative hypotheses about how these lizards colonized the islands and evolved. To test their hypotheses, they are given a phylogeny which they color code according to their previous data. By combining both types of data, students make a final hypothesis about how they think the lizards colonized the islands.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Project

Dichotomous Keys and Cladograms Performance Task:

Students will work in groups to select 5-10 organisms, create a dichotomous key that could identify them, and a cladogram to show their evolutionary relationships.

Type: Project

Text Resources

Against the Tide: Fish Quickly Adapt to Lethal Levels of Pollution:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes the evolution of a type of fish who can survive in a human-altered, toxic environment. The text discusses possible reasons for this successful evolution and what the implications are for other species, including humans.

Type: Text Resource

Analysis of Fossilized Antarctic Bird's 'Voice Box' Suggests Dinosaurs Couldn't Sing:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists have presented new findings on the fossilized voice box called a syrinx -- and its apparent absence in non-avian dinosaur fossils of the same age. This may indicate that other non-avian dinosaurs were not able to make noises similar to the bird calls we hear today.

Type: Text Resource

Scientists Discover Fossil of Bizarre Groundhog-Like Mammal on Madagascar:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This article describes a new research discovery of the fossil remains of a groundhog-like mammal found in Madagascar. The article details the methodology scientists employed to unearth the fossil skull and explains the insights it offers into early mammalian evolution in the Southern Hemisphere.

Type: Text Resource

Shedding Light on Millipede Evolution:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The author tells of his success in locating and reclassifying a species of millipedes known as Motyxia bistipita. Until his rediscovery these millipedes were not known to show bioluminescence. Once he discovered this trait he was then also able to trace their evolutionary lineage and determine the reasons for the development of this ability in bipista's relatives. This article also discusses bioluminescence in other species and its important medical applications.

Type: Text Resource

Long-held Theory on Human Gestation Refuted:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This is a fine synopsis of a previously reported (and highly technical) study that shows the thought process behind challenging an existing theory. The subject is human evolution and the biology of childbirth. It encompasses basic anthropology concepts such as walking upright, as well as the biology of energy needs in pregnancy. Long-held views (that narrow birth canals are required for bipedalism) are debunked by careful analysis of how women with varying hip widths actually walk—and the authors found no difference.

Type: Text Resource

Polar Bear Evolution Was Fast and Furious:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. New evidence shows that polar bears split off from their closest ancestors, brown bears, less than 500,000 years ago. This is a very short time for a large mammal to evolve. In that time, polar bears have evolved many adaptations to their specialized lifestyle, including the ability to process the large amount of fat in their seal-based diet. This is shown by their unique DNA sequence of genes related to fat processing and heart development.

Type: Text Resource

Seeing Double: New Study Explains Evolution of Duplicate Genes:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. A new study explains that about half of our genes are copies, made by error during DNA replication, that have escaped elimination by natural selection through the addition of methyl groups. Usually these copies would be susceptible to developing mutations, but it is newly understood that they are evolving new functions instead.

Type: Text Resource

Newly Discovered Paddle Prints Show How Ancient Sea Reptiles Swam:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area.

Scientists have found fossils in seabeds in China that are tracks left by nothosaurs, ancient sea reptiles. These tracks provide evidence that these reptiles moved by rowing their forelimbs in unison, answering a long-standing question about how they propelled themselves.

Type: Text Resource

Arctic Fox and Other Polar Predators May Have Originated in the Himalayas:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article discusses the possibility that the modern Arctic fox and other "hypercarnivorous" polar predators may have their origins in the Tibetan Plateau. The study uses fossil evidence, comparative anatomy, and biogeography to trace the evolutionary origins of the Arctic fox to the Himalayas.

Type: Text Resource

The Oldest Fish in the World Lived 500 Million Years Ago:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes the discovery of an ancient fish that provides scientists with a "missing link" in the fossil record, helping them understand when and how organisms transitioned from boneless, jawless organisms into the fish that dominate the oceans today. The text details the adaptations these ancient fish had and draws connections to adaptations found in later species.

Type: Text Resource

International Research Team Close Human Evolution Gap with Discovery of 1.4 Million-Year-Old Fossil :

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists discover a fossil which dates back 1.42 million years and shows the development of a bone not found in human fossils prior to this date.

Type: Text Resource

Why Did Penguins Stop Flying? The Answer Is Evolutionary:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. This news article describes evidence from a recent study of seabirds that may help explain why penguins lost the ability to fly.

Type: Text Resource

Bacteria Learn New Trick:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article shows how, through experimentation, bacteria evolve over a short period of time. The E.coli bacteria show the ability to eat a new food, citrate, after 13,000 generations of gene mutation.

Type: Text Resource

"The Riddle of the Human Species," a New York Times Opinionator blog by biologist E. O. Wilson :

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This New York Times Opinionator blog by one of the world's leading biologists is an explanation of the important role that "eusociality" has played in human evolution.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorial

Endosymbiosis:

The theory of endosymbiosis suggests that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living, small prokaryotes that were taken up by larger prokaryotes. It also describes how a large host cell and ingested bacteria could easily become dependent on one another for survival, resulting in a permanent relationship. This tutorial will help the learners to understand the process of endosymbiosis.

Type: Tutorial

Unit/Lesson Sequence

Modeling for Understanding Natural Selection:

This series of lessons introduces students to evolutionary reasoning and to the explanatory power of the Darwinian model of natural selection. Students read three evolutionary scientists' (Paley, Lamarck and Darwin) original work and compare their thinking, proposed mechanism of evolution, use of evidence, and explanatory power of their theory. They apply the three scientists thinking to another scenario to refine their understanding of the explanations.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Video/Audio/Animations

Marine fossils in the Arctic landscape:

In this video, research is presented describing scientific studies of marine fossils found in Arctic regions.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Pocket Mouse Evolution:

This simulation shows the spread of a favorable mutation through a population of pocket mice. Even a small selective advantage can lead to a rapid evolution of the population.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

WebQuest

What is the Evidence for Evolution?:

This lesson on evolution consists of two activities.
In the first, students will take on the role of a paleontologist who is investigating a particular period of time in Earth's history using the Web Geological Time Machine at the University of California, Berkeley Museum of Paleontology Web site to make a detailed journal entry with illustrations.
In the second activity, Evolution WebQuest, students investigate a variety of types of evidence for evolution from different areas of science. Students divide into groups of six and each member of the group becomes a specialist in anatomy and physiology, paleontology or molecular biology. The anatomists study the structure, physiologists study function, molecular biologists study genetics, and the paleontologists study fossils to find examples of evidence for evolution.

Type: WebQuest

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

Evolution: Examining the Evidence:

Learn how to identify explicit evidence and understand implicit meaning in a text.

You should be able to explain how different types of scientific evidence support the theory of evolution, including direct observation, fossils, DNA, biogeography, and comparative anatomy and embryology.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Evolution: Examining the Evidence:

Learn how to identify explicit evidence and understand implicit meaning in a text.

You should be able to explain how different types of scientific evidence support the theory of evolution, including direct observation, fossils, DNA, biogeography, and comparative anatomy and embryology.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Lesson Plan

Meet the Family: Investigating Primate Relationships:

In this lesson students will see the different types of evidence scientists use to understand evolutionary relationships among organisms. They will first practice by using shared physical characteristics to predict relationships among members of the cat family and then use this approach to predict primate relationships. They will compare their predictions to evidence provided by analyzing amino acid sequences and build a phylogenetic tree based on these sequences. Finally, they will look at the tree in the context of time in order to see divergence times.

Type: Lesson Plan

Tutorial

Endosymbiosis:

The theory of endosymbiosis suggests that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living, small prokaryotes that were taken up by larger prokaryotes. It also describes how a large host cell and ingested bacteria could easily become dependent on one another for survival, resulting in a permanent relationship. This tutorial will help the learners to understand the process of endosymbiosis.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

Marine fossils in the Arctic landscape:

In this video, research is presented describing scientific studies of marine fossils found in Arctic regions.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Pocket Mouse Evolution:

This simulation shows the spread of a favorable mutation through a population of pocket mice. Even a small selective advantage can lead to a rapid evolution of the population.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.