SC.912.P.12.13

Explain the concept of dynamic equilibrium in terms of reversible processes occurring at the same rates.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: Motion -

A. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. When objects travel at speeds comparable to the speed of light, Einstein's special theory of relativity applies.

B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

C. The Law of Universal Gravitation states that gravitational forces act on all objects irrespective of their size and position.

D. Gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions. The behavior of gases can be modeled by the kinetic molecular theory.

E. Chemical reaction rates change with conditions under which they occur. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic state in which forward and reverse processes occur at the same rates.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2003340: Chemistry 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003350: Chemistry 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002440: Integrated Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002450: Integrated Science 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Chemistry 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7920011: Access Chemistry 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2002445: Integrated Science 3 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2003345: Chemistry 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plan

BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Solutions:

This lesson is designed to be part of a sequence of lessons. It follows CPALMS Resource #52705 "BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - States of Matter" and precedes CPALMS Resource #52961 "BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Atomic Models." The lesson employs a predict, observe, explain approach along with inquiry-based activities to enhance student understanding of properties aqueous solutions in terms of the kinetic molecular theory and intermolecular forces.

Type: Lesson Plan

Virtual Manipulatives

Equilibrium Constant:


Chemical equilibrium is the condition which occurs when the concentration of reactants and products participating in a chemical reaction exhibit no net change over time. This simulation shows a model of an equilibrium system for a uni-molecular reaction. The value for the equilibrium constant, K, can be set in the simulation, to observe the reaction reaching the constant.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Chemical Equilibrium:


This virtual manipulative will help the students in understanding the concept of chemical equilibrium which is a state wherein both reactants and products are present at concentrations with no further tendency to change with time. Students will also observe that chemical equilibrium does not mean the chemical reaction has necessarily stopped occurring but that the consumption and formation of substances has reached a balanced condition.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Molarity:


This virtual manipulative will help the students understand what determines the concentration of a solution. They will learn about the relationships between moles, liters and molarity by adjusting the amount of solute, and solution volume. Students can change solutes to compare different chemical compounds in water.
Some of the sample learning goals can be:

  • Describe the relationships between volume and amount of solute to concentration
  • Explain how solution color and concentration are related.
  • Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity (mol/L)
  • Compare solubility limits between solutes.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Reversible Reactions:

This virtual manipulative will allow you to watch a reaction proceed over time. You can vary temperature, barrier height, and potential energies to note how total energy affects reaction rate. You will be able to record concentrations and time in order to extract rate coefficients.
Additionally you can:

  • Describe on a microscopic level, with illustrations, how reactions occur.
  • Describe how the motion of reactant molecules (speed and direction) contributes to a reaction happening.
  • Predict how changes in temperature, or use of a catalyst will affect the rate of a reaction.
  • On the potential energy curve, identify the activation energy for forward and reverse reactions and the energy change between reactants and products.
  • Form a graph of concentrations as a function of time, students should be able to identify when a system has reached equilibrium.
  • Calculate a rate coefficient from concentration and time data.
  • Determine how a rate coefficient changes with temperature.
  • Compare graphs of concentration versus time to determine which represents the fastest or slowest rate.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Reactions Rates:

This virtual manipulative will allow you to explore what makes a reaction happen by colliding atoms and molecules. Design your own experiments with different reactions, concentrations, and temperatures. Recognize what affects the rate of a reaction.

Areas to Explore:

  • Explain why and how a pinball shooter can be used to help understand ideas about reactions.
  • Describe on a microscopic level what contributes to a successful reaction.
  • Describe how the reaction coordinate can be used to predict whether a reaction will proceed or slow.
  • Use the potential energy diagram to determine : The activation energy for the forward and reverse reactions; The difference in energy between reactants and products; The relative potential energies of the molecules at different positions on a reaction coordinate.
  • Draw a potential energy diagram from the energies of reactants and products and activation energy.
  • Predict how raising or lowering the temperature will affect a system in the equilibrium.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Virtual Manipulatives

Equilibrium Constant:


Chemical equilibrium is the condition which occurs when the concentration of reactants and products participating in a chemical reaction exhibit no net change over time. This simulation shows a model of an equilibrium system for a uni-molecular reaction. The value for the equilibrium constant, K, can be set in the simulation, to observe the reaction reaching the constant.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Chemical Equilibrium:


This virtual manipulative will help the students in understanding the concept of chemical equilibrium which is a state wherein both reactants and products are present at concentrations with no further tendency to change with time. Students will also observe that chemical equilibrium does not mean the chemical reaction has necessarily stopped occurring but that the consumption and formation of substances has reached a balanced condition.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Reversible Reactions:

This virtual manipulative will allow you to watch a reaction proceed over time. You can vary temperature, barrier height, and potential energies to note how total energy affects reaction rate. You will be able to record concentrations and time in order to extract rate coefficients.
Additionally you can:

  • Describe on a microscopic level, with illustrations, how reactions occur.
  • Describe how the motion of reactant molecules (speed and direction) contributes to a reaction happening.
  • Predict how changes in temperature, or use of a catalyst will affect the rate of a reaction.
  • On the potential energy curve, identify the activation energy for forward and reverse reactions and the energy change between reactants and products.
  • Form a graph of concentrations as a function of time, students should be able to identify when a system has reached equilibrium.
  • Calculate a rate coefficient from concentration and time data.
  • Determine how a rate coefficient changes with temperature.
  • Compare graphs of concentration versus time to determine which represents the fastest or slowest rate.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Reactions Rates:

This virtual manipulative will allow you to explore what makes a reaction happen by colliding atoms and molecules. Design your own experiments with different reactions, concentrations, and temperatures. Recognize what affects the rate of a reaction.

Areas to Explore:

  • Explain why and how a pinball shooter can be used to help understand ideas about reactions.
  • Describe on a microscopic level what contributes to a successful reaction.
  • Describe how the reaction coordinate can be used to predict whether a reaction will proceed or slow.
  • Use the potential energy diagram to determine : The activation energy for the forward and reverse reactions; The difference in energy between reactants and products; The relative potential energies of the molecules at different positions on a reaction coordinate.
  • Draw a potential energy diagram from the energies of reactants and products and activation energy.
  • Predict how raising or lowering the temperature will affect a system in the equilibrium.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Virtual Manipulatives

Equilibrium Constant:


Chemical equilibrium is the condition which occurs when the concentration of reactants and products participating in a chemical reaction exhibit no net change over time. This simulation shows a model of an equilibrium system for a uni-molecular reaction. The value for the equilibrium constant, K, can be set in the simulation, to observe the reaction reaching the constant.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Chemical Equilibrium:


This virtual manipulative will help the students in understanding the concept of chemical equilibrium which is a state wherein both reactants and products are present at concentrations with no further tendency to change with time. Students will also observe that chemical equilibrium does not mean the chemical reaction has necessarily stopped occurring but that the consumption and formation of substances has reached a balanced condition.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Molarity:


This virtual manipulative will help the students understand what determines the concentration of a solution. They will learn about the relationships between moles, liters and molarity by adjusting the amount of solute, and solution volume. Students can change solutes to compare different chemical compounds in water.
Some of the sample learning goals can be:

  • Describe the relationships between volume and amount of solute to concentration
  • Explain how solution color and concentration are related.
  • Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity (mol/L)
  • Compare solubility limits between solutes.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Reversible Reactions:

This virtual manipulative will allow you to watch a reaction proceed over time. You can vary temperature, barrier height, and potential energies to note how total energy affects reaction rate. You will be able to record concentrations and time in order to extract rate coefficients.
Additionally you can:

  • Describe on a microscopic level, with illustrations, how reactions occur.
  • Describe how the motion of reactant molecules (speed and direction) contributes to a reaction happening.
  • Predict how changes in temperature, or use of a catalyst will affect the rate of a reaction.
  • On the potential energy curve, identify the activation energy for forward and reverse reactions and the energy change between reactants and products.
  • Form a graph of concentrations as a function of time, students should be able to identify when a system has reached equilibrium.
  • Calculate a rate coefficient from concentration and time data.
  • Determine how a rate coefficient changes with temperature.
  • Compare graphs of concentration versus time to determine which represents the fastest or slowest rate.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Reactions Rates:

This virtual manipulative will allow you to explore what makes a reaction happen by colliding atoms and molecules. Design your own experiments with different reactions, concentrations, and temperatures. Recognize what affects the rate of a reaction.

Areas to Explore:

  • Explain why and how a pinball shooter can be used to help understand ideas about reactions.
  • Describe on a microscopic level what contributes to a successful reaction.
  • Describe how the reaction coordinate can be used to predict whether a reaction will proceed or slow.
  • Use the potential energy diagram to determine : The activation energy for the forward and reverse reactions; The difference in energy between reactants and products; The relative potential energies of the molecules at different positions on a reaction coordinate.
  • Draw a potential energy diagram from the energies of reactants and products and activation energy.
  • Predict how raising or lowering the temperature will affect a system in the equilibrium.

Type: Virtual Manipulative