A. Energy is involved in all physical and chemical processes. It is conserved, and can be transformed from one form to another and into work. At the atomic and nuclear levels energy is not continuous but exists in discrete amounts. Energy and mass are related through Einstein's equation E=mc2.
B. The properties of atomic nuclei are responsible for energy-related phenomena such as radioactivity, fission and fusion.
C. Changes in entropy and energy that accompany chemical reactions influence reaction paths. Chemical reactions result in the release or absorption of energy.
D. The theory of electromagnetism explains that electricity and magnetism are closely related. Electric charges are the source of electric fields. Moving charges generate magnetic fields.
E. Waves are the propagation of a disturbance. They transport energy and momentum but do not transport matter.
Differentiate between kinetic and potential energy. Recognize that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed. Identify examples of transformation of energy: Heat to light in incandescent electric light bulbs; Light to heat in laser drills; Electrical to sound in radios; Sound to electrical in microphones; Electrical to chemical in battery rechargers; Chemical to electrical in dry cells; Mechanical to electrical in generators [power plants]; Nuclear to heat in nuclear reactors; Gravitational potential energy of a falling object is converted to kinetic energy then to heat and sound energy when the object hits the ground.