SC.912.P.8.5

Relate properties of atoms and their position in the periodic table to the arrangement of their electrons.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Standard: Matter -

A. A working definition of matter is that it takes up space, has mass, and has measurable properties. Matter is comprised of atomic, subatomic, and elementary particles.

B. Electrons are key to defining chemical and some physical properties, reactivity, and molecular structures. Repeating (periodic) patterns of physical and chemical properties occur among elements that define groups of elements with similar properties. The periodic table displays the repeating patterns, which are related to the atom's outermost electrons. Atoms bond with each other to form compounds.

C. In a chemical reaction, one or more reactants are transformed into one or more new products. Many factors shape the nature of products and the rates of reaction.

D. Carbon-based compounds are building-blocks of known life forms on earth and numerous useful natural and synthetic products.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2002110: M/J Comprehensive Science 3, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003340: Chemistry 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003350: Chemistry 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002400: Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002410: Integrated Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003400: Nuclear Radiation (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
2020710: Nuclear Radiation Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003310: Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003320: Physical Science Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003020: M/J Physical Science, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Chemistry 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7920011: Access Chemistry 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7920025: Access Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2002085: M/J Comprehensive Science 2 Accelerated Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002405: Integrated Science 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2003345: Chemistry 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7920022: Access Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.P.8.In.4: Recognize that the periodic table includes all known elements.
SC.912.P.8.Su.4: Recognize examples of common elements, such as oxygen and hydrogen.
SC.912.P.8.Pa.3: Recognize that the parts of an object can be put together to make a whole.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Periodic Organization:

This lesson explores how Mendeleev organized the periodic table by explaining the different trends and properties of elements. Students can determine the different relative properties of an element based on its location on the periodic table.

Type: Lesson Plan

Rodent Infestation:

The lesson integrates language arts and science through the use of a Model Eliciting Activity. The lesson requires student collaboration to develop a solution to a problem. Chemistry is integrated because they must utilize their knowledge of the periodic table.

Type: Lesson Plan

BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Atomic Models:

This lesson is designed to be part of a sequence of lessons. It follows CPALMS Resource #52952 "BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Solutions." The lesson employs a predict, observe, explain approach along with inquiry-based activities to enhance student understanding of atomic structure.

Type: Lesson Plan

Last...but certainly not the least:

Through this activity, students will create a periodic table with Electron Dot Diagrams. This investigation allows students to explore and recognize patterns of the periodic table. This lesson allows students to draw conclusions and clearly demonstrates that atoms of elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons while sharing similar properties and characteristics.

Type: Lesson Plan

To Friend or Not Friend:

The in this activity on chemical bonding, students will mimic Facebook, choosing "friends" based on their oxidation number. When the oxidation numbers of two or more elements equal zero, a stable bond has been formed. The purpose of this activity is for students to understand the rules for which elements bond to make compounds.

Type: Lesson Plan

All in the Family:

This lesson allows the students to become familiar with the elements on the periodic table. The students play a game of go fish using cards they've made from index cards. The students match the cards according to their oxidation number in a similar pattern to how the game go fish is played. The students also use the index cards to make flash cards of their elements and use the cards as a study tool. The students will learn how subatomic particles and chemical characteristics determine the placement of elements on the periodic table.

Type: Lesson Plan

Teaching Idea

Island of Stability:

A video and supporting activities about the Periodic Table. The context is man's quest to create elements. The focus is atomic structure and atomic theory.

Type: Teaching Idea

Text Resources

Periodic Table of the Elements:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This simple text explains the basics of how the periodic table is organized and summarizes the information that the table includes about each element.

Type: Text Resource

Chemistry Unearths the Secrets of the Terracotta Army:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In 1974 a group of Chinese farmers digging a well came across a great discovery: the Terracotta Army from the tomb of the first emperor of China. Since the discovery, archaeologists have been researching many aspects of the artifacts. Recently, with the use of chemistry, they have been able to determine many details of the weapons of the Terracotta Army, including their chemical composition and production techniques.

Type: Text Resource

American Elements:

This web site features an interactive periodic chart that provides information on the elements, including a description, physical and thermal properties, abundance, isotopes, ionization energy, the element's discoverer, translations of element names into several languages, and bibliographic information on research-and-development publications involving the element. Additional information includes technical information and information on manufactured products for elemental metals, metallic compounds, and ceramic and crystalline products. The American Elements company manufactures engineered and advanced material products.

Type: Text Resource

Unit/Lesson Sequence

Middle School Chemistry Unit | Chapter 4 | The Periodic Table & Bonding:

Students look more deeply into the structure of the atom and play a game to better understand the relationship between protons, neutrons, electrons, and energy levels in atoms and their location in the periodic table. Students will also explore covalent and ionic bonding.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Video/Audio/Animations

Alkali Metals in Water:

This short YouTube video offers an amusing means for students to learn about the way alkali metals react in water. When teaching trends of the Periodic Table this video works well emphasizing similar properties of groups.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Science Crossword Puzzles:

A collection of crossword puzzles that test the knowledge of students about some of the terms, processes, and classifications covered in science topics

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Periodic Table:

This unique periodic table presents the elements in an interesting visual display. Select an element to find an image of the element, a description, history, and even an animation. Other chemical data is linked as a PDF file (requires Acrobat Reader).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Electron Configurations:


The electron configuration of an atom is the representation of the arrangement of electrons that are distributed among the orbital shells and subshells. The simulated activity will help the learners practice the arrangement of the electrons. The learners will be required to follow rules in order to correctly divide the electrons in the orbitals based on the valency of the atom.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Introduction to Compounds - How Atoms Bond:

I use this simulation as an introduction to molecules and compounds to help students understand that atoms are not randomly joined to form a compound/molecule, but join in very specific patterns. In order to successfully complete the simulation activity, students must re-arrange molecules various ways. (In CH3COOH, both oxygens are bonded to the carbon atom, for example)

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Understanding Polarity:

Understanding molecular polarity by changing the electron-negativity of atoms in a molecule to see how it affects polarity. See how the molecule behaves in an electric field. Change the bond angle to see how shape affects polarity. See how it works for real molecules in 3D.

Some learning goals:
•predict bond polarity using electron-negativity values
•indicate polarity with a polar arrow or partial charges
•rank bonds in order of polarity
•predict molecular polarity using bond polarity and molecular shape

Type: Virtual Manipulative

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Rodent Infestation:

The lesson integrates language arts and science through the use of a Model Eliciting Activity. The lesson requires student collaboration to develop a solution to a problem. Chemistry is integrated because they must utilize their knowledge of the periodic table.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Text Resource

American Elements:

This web site features an interactive periodic chart that provides information on the elements, including a description, physical and thermal properties, abundance, isotopes, ionization energy, the element's discoverer, translations of element names into several languages, and bibliographic information on research-and-development publications involving the element. Additional information includes technical information and information on manufactured products for elemental metals, metallic compounds, and ceramic and crystalline products. The American Elements company manufactures engineered and advanced material products.

Type: Text Resource

Video/Audio/Animation

Science Crossword Puzzles:

A collection of crossword puzzles that test the knowledge of students about some of the terms, processes, and classifications covered in science topics

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Periodic Table:

This unique periodic table presents the elements in an interesting visual display. Select an element to find an image of the element, a description, history, and even an animation. Other chemical data is linked as a PDF file (requires Acrobat Reader).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Electron Configurations:


The electron configuration of an atom is the representation of the arrangement of electrons that are distributed among the orbital shells and subshells. The simulated activity will help the learners practice the arrangement of the electrons. The learners will be required to follow rules in order to correctly divide the electrons in the orbitals based on the valency of the atom.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Understanding Polarity:

Understanding molecular polarity by changing the electron-negativity of atoms in a molecule to see how it affects polarity. See how the molecule behaves in an electric field. Change the bond angle to see how shape affects polarity. See how it works for real molecules in 3D.

Some learning goals:
•predict bond polarity using electron-negativity values
•indicate polarity with a polar arrow or partial charges
•rank bonds in order of polarity
•predict molecular polarity using bond polarity and molecular shape

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Virtual Manipulatives

Electron Configurations:


The electron configuration of an atom is the representation of the arrangement of electrons that are distributed among the orbital shells and subshells. The simulated activity will help the learners practice the arrangement of the electrons. The learners will be required to follow rules in order to correctly divide the electrons in the orbitals based on the valency of the atom.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Understanding Polarity:

Understanding molecular polarity by changing the electron-negativity of atoms in a molecule to see how it affects polarity. See how the molecule behaves in an electric field. Change the bond angle to see how shape affects polarity. See how it works for real molecules in 3D.

Some learning goals:
•predict bond polarity using electron-negativity values
•indicate polarity with a polar arrow or partial charges
•rank bonds in order of polarity
•predict molecular polarity using bond polarity and molecular shape

Type: Virtual Manipulative