SC.912.N.1.1

Define a problem based on a specific  body of knowledge, for example: biology, chemistry, physics, and earth/space science, and do the following: 
  1. Pose questions about the natural world, (Articulate the purpose of the investigation and identify the relevant scientific concepts).
  2. Conduct systematic observations, (Write procedures that are clear and replicable. Identify observables and examine relationships between test (independent) variable and outcome (dependent) variable. Employ appropriate methods for accurate and consistent observations; conduct and record measurements at appropriate levels of precision. Follow safety guidelines).
  3. Examine books and other sources of information to see what is already known,
  4. Review what is known in light of empirical evidence, (Examine whether available empirical evidence can be interpreted in terms of existing knowledge and models, and if not, modify or develop new models).
  5. Plan investigations, (Design and evaluate a scientific investigation).
  6. Use tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data (this includes the use of measurement in metric and other systems, and also the generation and interpretation of graphical representations of data, including data tables and graphs), (Collect data or evidence in an organized way. Properly use instruments, equipment, and materials (e.g., scales, probeware, meter sticks, microscopes, computers) including set-up, calibration, technique, maintenance, and storage).
  7. Pose answers, explanations, or descriptions of events,
  8. Generate explanations that explicate or describe natural phenomena (inferences),
  9. Use appropriate evidence and reasoning to justify these explanations to others,
  10. Communicate results of scientific investigations, and
  11. Evaluate the merits of the explanations produced by others.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Nature of Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: The Practice of Science -

A: Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.

B: The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."

C: Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.

D: Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
    Also Assesses:
    SC.912.N.1.4 Identify sources of information and assess their reliability according to the strict standards of scientific investigation.

    SC.912.N.1.6 Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied.

    SC.912.L.14.4 Compare and contrast structure and function of various types of microscopes.

    LA.910.2.2.3 The student will organize information to show understanding or relationships among facts, ideas, and events (e.g., representing key points within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing, comparing, contrasting, or outlining).

    LA.910.4.2.2 The student will record information and ideas from primary and/or secondary sources accurately and coherently, noting the validity and reliability of these sources and attributing sources of information.

    MA.912.S.1.2 Determine appropriate and consistent standards of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experiment.

    MA.912.S.3.2 Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data, and present visual summaries from the following:
    • bar graphs;
    • line graphs;
    • stem and leaf plots; 
    • circle graphs; 
    • histograms; 
    • box and whisker plots; 
    • scatter plots; and
    • cumulative frequency (ogive) graphs.

  • Clarification :

    Students will design and/or evaluate a scientific investigation using evidence of scientific thinking and/or problem solving.

    Students will interpret and analyze data to make predictions and/or defend conclusions.

    Students will compare and/or contrast the structure and function of the compound microscope, dissecting microscope, scanning electron microscope, and/or the transmission electron microscope.

    Students will evaluate the merits of scientific explanations produced by others.

    Students will assess the reliability of sources of information according to scientific standards.

    Students will describe how scientific inferences are made from observations and identify examples from biology.

  • Content Limits :
    None specified
  • Stimulus Attributes :
    Scenarios will be placed in the context of experimental design, experiment(s), scientific investigation(s), or scientific observation(s) in the field of biology.
  • Response Attributes :
    None specified
  • Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply scientific knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge of SC.6.N.1.1, SC.6.N.1.2, SC.6.N.1.3, SC.6.N.1.4, SC.6.N.1.5, SC.7.N.1.1, SC.7.N.1.2, SC.7.N.1.3, SC.7.N.1.4, SC.7.N.1.5, SC.7.N.1.6, SC.7.N.1.7, SC.8.N.1.1, SC.8.N.1.2, SC.8.N.1.3, SC.8.N.1.4, SC.8.N.1.5, and SC.8.N.1.6.
Sample Test Items (1)
  • Test Item #: Sample Item 1
  • Question:

    An osmosis investigation was conducted using chicken eggs to represent cells with semipermeable membranes. The mass of each egg was measured to determine how much water diffused into or out of the eggs. The eggs were first soaked in vinegar to dissolve the shell. Each egg was then placed in one of three different solutions for 24 hours. The table below shows the results of the investigation.

    Table with the results of investigation

    Based on this experiment, which of the following should be inferred about cells with semipermeable membranes?

  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: MC: Multiple Choice

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This benchmark is part of these courses.
2000350: Anatomy and Physiology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000360: Anatomy and Physiology Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
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2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
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2000330: Biology 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
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2001310: Earth/Space Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2001320: Earth/Space Science Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000380: Ecology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2001340: Environmental Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002480: Forensic Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002490: Forensic Sciences 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
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2002410: Integrated Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002440: Integrated Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002450: Integrated Science 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
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Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.N.1.In.1: Identify a problem based on a specific body of knowledge, including life science, earth and space science, or physical science, and do the following: 1. Identify a scientific question 2. Examine reliable sources of informtion to identify what is already known 3. Develop a possible explanation (hypothesis) 4. Plan and carry out an experiment 5. Gather data based on measurement and observations 6. Evaluate the data 7. Use the data to support reasonable explanations, inferences, and conclusions.
SC.912.N.1.Su.1: Recognize a problem based on a specific body of knowledge, including life science, earth and space science, or physical science, and do the following: 1. Recognize a scientific question 2. Use reliable information and identify what is already known 3. Create possible explanation 4. Carry out a planned experiment 5. Record observations 6. Summarize results 7. Reach a reasonable conclusion.
SC.912.N.1.Pa.1: Recognize a problem related to a specific body of knowledge, including life science, earth and space science, or physical science, and do the following: 1. Observe objects and activities 2. Follow planned procedures 3. Recognize a solution.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

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Defining Problems and Planning Investigations:

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Type: Lesson Plan

Amusement Park Physics:

Students will research various types of amusement park rides and use their findings to design a feasible ride of their own. They will summarize their findings and present their ride design to the class. Each student will then write a persuasive letter to a local amusement park describing the reasons their ride design is the best.

Type: Lesson Plan

Behavior of Gases: Disaster at Lake Nyos:

Students, through discussion and structured inquiry, will learn about the behavior of gases under various conditions. Students will be able to apply these concepts to everyday objects such as soda bottles, fire extinguishers, hot air balloons, propane tanks, and aerosol products.

Type: Lesson Plan

Blood flow: A Student-Centered Inquiry:

This is set of related lessons including direct instruction, games, readings, small group work and an inquiry activity to model factors affecting the human circulatory system.

Type: Lesson Plan

SMALL: Shape Memory Alloy Lab:

Shape Memory Alloys are metals that can return to or 'remember' their original shape. They are a cutting edge application for Chemistry, Physics, and Integrated Science. The activities in this lesson work well for the study of forces, Newton's Laws, and electricity in physics. They also lend themselves well to crystalline structures, heat of reaction, and bonding in chemistry. In addition, students could study applications for the materials in the medical and space industries.

Type: Lesson Plan

Uncertainty of Measurement:

The students will learn the application of scientific notation, significant figures, accuracy and precision as they pertain to the collection of data (measurement).

Type: Lesson Plan

Visualization of Social Networks with Node Graphs:

This lesson introduces the concept of node graphs for the purpose of visualizing social networks.

The lesson is presented with an introductory physical activity where students create a living graph. Students, building on their existing knowledge regarding common graph types, learn how node graphs can be used to visualize data from social networks.

Students will then participate in a simulated contagious infection event and will accurately record data about the transmission of the disease. These data will be used to construct a single computer file to be used to create a single node graph for describing the network. Students will then be responsible for understanding how to interpret the resulting network graph in the context of the activity.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson Study Resource Kit

Measurement Matters:

This Lesson Study Resource Kit is an introductory unit on measurement for a Chemistry I course.

Type: Lesson Study Resource Kit

Original Student Tutorials

Ecological Data Analysis:

See how data are interpreted to better understand the reproductive strategies taken by sea anemones with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Ecology Sampling Strategies:

Examine field sampling strategies used to gather data and avoid bias in ecology research. This interactive tutorial features the CPALMS Perspectives video Sampling Strategies for Ecology Research in the Intertidal Zone.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Experts

Systematic Approach to Testing Pilot Equipment:

Air Force Test Pilot discusses the need for systematic testing and collection of data for new flight technologies.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Testing New Designs: F-15 Experimental Aircraft:

F-15 Experimental Test Pilot discusses the importance of the iterative process of collecting data, analyzing data and communicating the findings when developing aircraft for the United States Air Force.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Normal? Non-Normal Distributions & Oceanography:

What does it mean to be normally distributed?  What do oceanographers do when the collected data is not normally distributed? 

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Residuals and Laboratory Standards:

Laws and regulations that affect the public are being formed based on data from a variety of laboratories. How can we be sure that the laboratories are all standardized?

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

KROS Pacific Ocean Kayak Journey: Training, Simulation, and Modeling:

Complex problems require complex plans and training. Get in shape to get things done.

Related Resources:
KROS Pacific Ocean Kayak Journey: GPS Data Set[.XLSX]
KROS Pacific Ocean Kayak Journey: Path Visualization for Google Earth[.KML]

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

The Value of Marine Science Field Research Experiences for Teachers:

In this video, Angela Lodge describes the value of hands-on experiences gained from field research for transforming both teachers and their classroom practices. 

This research is made possible by a grant from the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI/C-IMAGE II).
This research is made possible by a grant from the NOAA Gulf of Mexico BWET program.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Enhancing Teaching Practices through Watershed Research Outreach Programs:

Field experiences are powerful and capable of improving teachers' ability to impact students in the classroom. Watch as USF Outreach Coordinator Teresa Greely explains the experiences offered to teachers through the NOAA Bay Watershed Education and Training (B-WET) program.

This research is made possible by a grant from the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI/C-IMAGE II).
This research is made possible by a grant from the NOAA Gulf of Mexico BWET program.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Applying Marine Field Experiences to Classroom Practices: Susan Cullum:

In this video, science teacher Susan Cullum describes the impact of field research experiences on classroom teaching practices.

This research is made possible by a grant from the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI/C-IMAGE II).
This research is made possible by a grant from the NOAA Gulf of Mexico BWET program.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Applying Marine Field Experiences to Classroom Practices: Patty Smukall:

Listen as science teacher Patty Smukall recounts past and present marine field experiences and how they affect teaching practices back in the classroom. 

This research is made possible by a grant from the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI/C-IMAGE II).
This research is made possible by a grant from the NOAA Gulf of Mexico BWET program.

 

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Getting Started in Science with a Goldenrod Paper Inquiry:

This simple inquiry helps students learn about the scientific method while trying to unlock the mystery of goldenrod paper.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Project

Transpirational Design Lab:

This is an inquiry design lab for students to understand transpirational pull of plants. Like all inquiry labs, it is open for more designs than the one presented in the PowerPoint example. The example in the PowerPoint is the easiest to implement in the classroom. It requires a growlite (a bulb that produces the UV light plants need to grow), a fan, a light source with a 100 Watt bulb, Ziplock bags, rope, and plants that are the same (I use petunias).

Type: Project

Teaching Ideas

An Ecological Field Study with Statistical Analysis of Two Populations:

Students will design an investigation that compares a characteristic of two populations of the same species. Students will collect data in the field and analyze the data using descriptive statistics.

Type: Teaching Idea

Showdown at Crayfish Corral-SeaWorld Classroom Activity:

Students will be able to describe the concept of dominance and hierarchy displayed by other animals after observing dominance behavior displayed by crayfish.

Type: Teaching Idea

All Numbers Are Not Created Equal:

Although a sheet of paper is much thinner than the divisions of a ruler, we can make indirect measurements of the paper's thickness.

Type: Teaching Idea

Text Resources

Languages Are Still a Major Barrier to Global Science:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes a Google Scholar survey, focusing on environmental issues, as the basis for presenting an argument that language is a barrier to global communication in the scientific community. The recognized barriers are two-fold: the limitation of knowledge transfer and the inability of local policy makers to make decisions based on existing knowledge. The article provides possible solutions to the problem, including the "multilingualization" of texts through changes in journal requirements.

Type: Text Resource

Why Artificial Sweeteners Can Increase Appetite:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how researchers at the University of Sydney have discovered a correlation between artificial sweeteners, like sucralose, and an increased appetite. There are estimates that over 4,000 types of food contain sucralose. Billions of people around the world consume artificial sweeteners in hopes of losing weight, and until this study, little has been known about how these sweeteners affected the brain.

Type: Text Resource

Parasites: Rulers of the Reef:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text informs readers about the influence of parasites on damselfish, a coral reef species. The author explains how his team determined the reason for the consistent behavior of damselfish leaving their aggressively guarded territory each morning to go to a cleaning station. Through the scientist describing how his research lead to new observations that lead to new questions and research, the text is a good example of how scientific investigations are conducted, including working collaboratively and communicating important results.

Type: Text Resource

Ultracold Atoms:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Most students are familiar with the four most common states of matter, but what about the 5th state of matter, the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC for short)? This article explains what a BEC is and how researchers are exploring this unique state of matter.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorial

Scientific Method Tutorial and Virtual Experiment:

Site takes the student through a tutorial, then a virtual experiment designed to test the affect of various environmental variables on the rate of chirping in crickets. The steps in the tutorial and the experiment are - Define the Problem, Collect Information, Formulate a Hypothesis, Test the Hypothesis, and Draw a Conclusion.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Will an Ice Cube Melt Faster in Freshwater or Saltwater?:

With an often unexpected outcome from a simple experiment, students can discover the factors that cause and influence thermohaline circulation in our oceans. In two 45-minute class periods, students complete activities where they observe the melting of ice cubes in saltwater and freshwater, using basic materials: clear plastic cups, ice cubes, water, salt, food coloring, and thermometers. There are no prerequisites for this lesson but it is helpful if students are familiar with the concepts of density and buoyancy as well as the salinity of seawater. It is also helpful if students understand that dissolving salt in water will lower the freezing point of water. There are additional follow up investigations that help students appreciate and understand the importance of the ocean's influence on Earth's climate.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulative

Mesquite - Phylogenetic Trees:

Students use software to create evolutionary trees by comparing and contrasting physical traits.

This activity demonstrates the complexity of creating evolutionary trees when multiple traits are being analyzed. The use of the software simplifies the analysis without compromising the learning objectives.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Corn Conundrum:

The Corn Conundrum MEA provides students with an agricultural problem in which they must work as a team to develop a procedure to select the best variety of corn to grow under drier conditions predicted by models of global climate change. Students must determine the most important factors that make planting crops sustainable in restricted climate conditions for the client. The main focus of this MEA is manipulating factors relating to plant biology, including transpiration and photosynthesis.

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

Ecological Data Analysis:

See how data are interpreted to better understand the reproductive strategies taken by sea anemones with this interactive tutorial.

Ecology Sampling Strategies:

Examine field sampling strategies used to gather data and avoid bias in ecology research. This interactive tutorial features the CPALMS Perspectives video Sampling Strategies for Ecology Research in the Intertidal Zone.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Ecological Data Analysis:

See how data are interpreted to better understand the reproductive strategies taken by sea anemones with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Ecology Sampling Strategies:

Examine field sampling strategies used to gather data and avoid bias in ecology research. This interactive tutorial features the CPALMS Perspectives video Sampling Strategies for Ecology Research in the Intertidal Zone.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Will an Ice Cube Melt Faster in Freshwater or Saltwater?:

With an often unexpected outcome from a simple experiment, students can discover the factors that cause and influence thermohaline circulation in our oceans. In two 45-minute class periods, students complete activities where they observe the melting of ice cubes in saltwater and freshwater, using basic materials: clear plastic cups, ice cubes, water, salt, food coloring, and thermometers. There are no prerequisites for this lesson but it is helpful if students are familiar with the concepts of density and buoyancy as well as the salinity of seawater. It is also helpful if students understand that dissolving salt in water will lower the freezing point of water. There are additional follow up investigations that help students appreciate and understand the importance of the ocean's influence on Earth's climate.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Getting Started in Science with a Goldenrod Paper Inquiry:

This simple inquiry helps students learn about the scientific method while trying to unlock the mystery of goldenrod paper.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Tutorial

Scientific Method Tutorial and Virtual Experiment:

Site takes the student through a tutorial, then a virtual experiment designed to test the affect of various environmental variables on the rate of chirping in crickets. The steps in the tutorial and the experiment are - Define the Problem, Collect Information, Formulate a Hypothesis, Test the Hypothesis, and Draw a Conclusion.

Type: Tutorial