SC.5.P.13.2

Investigate and describe that the greater the force applied to it, the greater the change in motion of a given object.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 5
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Big Idea: Forces and Changes in Motion - A. It takes energy to change the motion of objects.

B. Energy change is understood in terms of forces--pushes or pulls.

C. Some forces act through physical contact, while others act at a distance.

Clarification for grades K-5: The target understanding for students in the elementary grades should focus on Big Ideas A, B, and C.

Clarification for grades 6-8: The target understanding for students in grades 6-8 should begin to transition the focus to a more specific definition of forces and changes in motion. Net forces create a change in motion. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

Grades 9-12, Standard 12: Motion - A. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: MC item(s)
  • Also Assesses
    SC.4.P.12.1 Recognize that an object in motion always changes its position and may change its direction.

    SC.4.P.12.2 Investigate and describe that the speed of an object is determined by the distance it travels in a unit of time and that objects can move at different speeds.

    SC.5.P.13.3 Investigate and describe that the more mass an object has, the less effect a given force will have on the object’s motion.

    SC.5.P.13.4 Investigate and explain that when a force is applied to an object but it does not move, it is because another opposing force is being applied by something in the environment so that the forces are balanced.

  • Clarification :
    Students will describe the relationship among mass, force, and motion.

    Students will identify and/or describe that an object in motion always changes its position and may change its direction.

    Students will describe that the speed of an object is determined by the distance an object travels and the time it takes the object to travel that distance.

    Students will describe that objects can move at different speeds.
  • Content Limits :
    Items assessing relationship between mass, force, and motion are limited to a conceptual understanding. Items will not involve mathematical calculations or formulas.

    Items will address a conceptual understanding of speed and not require mathematical computations.

    Items may require the identification of the direction of motion but not the magnitude of motion.

    Items may refer to balanced forces and/or unbalanced forces but not net force.

    Items assessing forces applied to objects of different masses are limited to pushes, pulls, and friction.
  • Stimulus Attributes :
    Scenarios should use newtons (N) as the unit of measure for forces
  • Response Attributes :
    None specified
  • Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.P.13.1, SC.1.P.13.1, SC.2.P.13.1, and SC.2.P.13.4.
Sample Test Items (1)
  • Test Item #: Sample Item 1
  • Question: Stephanie started pushing a bookcase across the room, as shown in picture 1. Then, she removed the books and continued pushing with the same force and direction, as shown in picture 2.

    how does removing the books affect the motion of the bookcase?
  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: MC: Multiple Choice

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5020060: Science - Grade Five (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7720060: Access Science Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
5020120: STEM Lab Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.5.P.13.Pa.1: Recognize that pushing or pulling makes an object move.
SC.5.P.13.In.2: Identify that heavier objects take more force to move than lighter ones.
SC.5.P.13.Su.2: Recognize that a heavier object is harder to move than a light one.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Bottling Rockets:

In this lesson, students will explore the concepts of force and motion as they use the engineering design process to create and test rockets. Students will demonstrate their understanding of familiar forces by creating and presenting a poster. Take students up, up, and away with this engaging lesson!

Type: Lesson Plan

Pendulum Inquiry - Wrecking Balls:

In this lesson, students will mimic a wrecking ball by manipulating the variables of a pendulum in order to move objects with different masses. It is recommended this lesson follow Pendulum Inquiry (see Related CPALMS Resources), which will build students' content knowledge on pendulums. Students can apply their understanding of pendulums gained from the lesson Pendulum Inquiry to assist them in designing wrecking ball pendulums in this lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Newton's Second Law of Motion Part 2 of 3:

This lesson plan is the second in a series of connected lessons on Sir Isaac Newton's laws of motion published to CPALMS. This lesson teaches Newton's second law of motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sail Away - An Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of forces from SC.5.P.13.1 and SC.5.P.13.2 as well as energy and its ability to cause motion from SC.5.P.10.1 and SC.5.P.10.2 by designing a boat and racing it. It may also be used as introductory instruction of the content.

Type: Lesson Plan

Blast Off - An Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of forces from SC.5.P.13.1 and SC.5.P.13.2 by building and launching straw rockets. It may also be used as introductory instruction of the content.

Type: Lesson Plan

We're Curious!—An Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of forces as they build containers to protect their eggs in an egg drop. It is not intended as an initial introduction to this benchmark.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

I Sense a Disturbance in the Force… and Motion.:

Explore forces and how changes in forces can affect the motion of objects in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Amplifying Forces with an Atlatl:

Ancient weapons technologies developed by humans proved that they were better at physics than the saber-toothed cats.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Horses and Forces:

What is the force of a horse on a course? It depends on the size of the horse, of course!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Teaching Idea

Newton Laws of Motion-SeaWorld Classroom Activity:

Students will correlate Newton's Laws to various animal behaviors.

Type: Teaching Idea

Virtual Manipulatives

Explore the forces:


Students can create an applied force and see how it makes objects move. They can also make changes in friction and see how it affects the motion of objects.

  • Identify when forces are balanced vs. unbalanced.
  • Determine the sum of forces (net force) on an object with more than one force on it.
  • Predict the motion of an object with zero net force.
  • Predict the direction of motion given a combination of forces.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Forces in 1 Dimension:

This is a virtual manipulative which demonstrates the principles of force. Students can click on a man and push different objects of varying masses across the screen. The resulting forces (frictional and total force) are shown. Graphs show forces, position and acceleration as a function of time. Free body diagrams of all the forces can also be viewed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades K-8

I Sense a Disturbance in the Force… and Motion.:

Explore forces and how changes in forces can affect the motion of objects in this interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

I Sense a Disturbance in the Force… and Motion.:

Explore forces and how changes in forces can affect the motion of objects in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Amplifying Forces with an Atlatl:

Ancient weapons technologies developed by humans proved that they were better at physics than the saber-toothed cats.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Virtual Manipulatives

Explore the forces:


Students can create an applied force and see how it makes objects move. They can also make changes in friction and see how it affects the motion of objects.

  • Identify when forces are balanced vs. unbalanced.
  • Determine the sum of forces (net force) on an object with more than one force on it.
  • Predict the motion of an object with zero net force.
  • Predict the direction of motion given a combination of forces.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Forces in 1 Dimension:

This is a virtual manipulative which demonstrates the principles of force. Students can click on a man and push different objects of varying masses across the screen. The resulting forces (frictional and total force) are shown. Graphs show forces, position and acceleration as a function of time. Free body diagrams of all the forces can also be viewed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Amplifying Forces with an Atlatl:

Ancient weapons technologies developed by humans proved that they were better at physics than the saber-toothed cats.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Virtual Manipulative

Explore the forces:


Students can create an applied force and see how it makes objects move. They can also make changes in friction and see how it affects the motion of objects.

  • Identify when forces are balanced vs. unbalanced.
  • Determine the sum of forces (net force) on an object with more than one force on it.
  • Predict the motion of an object with zero net force.
  • Predict the direction of motion given a combination of forces.

Type: Virtual Manipulative