Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
By the end of this lesson, students should know and be able to:
- Create a two-way frequency table from two categorical variables;
- Read and interpret data displayed in a two-way table and calculate the relative frequencies;
- Describe patterns and trends observed in the data.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
- Students should be able to read a table.
- Students should be able to convert between a ratio, decimal, and percentage.
- Students should understand that the sum of all the parts should equal 1 or 100%
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
1. How are joint and marginal frequency values organized in a two-way table? (Answer: Joint frequencies make up the body of the table (where the rows and columns intersect), and the marginal frequencies are the row and column totals along the perimeter of the table.)
2. What is the process for calculating relative frequency? (Answer: Divide the sum of the sub-parts (joint frequencies) by the total of the category.)
3. How is association determined for two categorical variables? (Answer: If the conditional relative frequencies are nearly equal for all categories, then there is probably no association between the variables. If the conditional relative frequencies vary significantly, an association between the variables can be assumed.)
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
The lesson is structured as a PowerPoint presentation entitled . The slides contain prompts for student engagement in addition to lesson content. Students will take notes throughout the lesson.
The lesson will begin with the analysis of a two-way frequency table. Students will answer questions based on their initial interpretation of the table. Answers and solutions will be reviewed and discussed at the end of the lesson.
The teaching phase will include:
- an introduction to joint and marginal frequencies,
- the construction of a two-way table,
- calculating relative frequencies, and
- reading and interpreting data in a table.
The teacher will distribute the guided practice worksheet to students at the start of the lesson.Students will complete the worksheet with guidance from the teacher throughout the lesson.
The teacher will ask students to answer questions about joint and marginal frequencies, categories, relative frequencies, and to draw conclusions.
Specific notes to the teacher, sample questions to ask the class, and desired responses are all included in the notes accompanying each slide.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
Students will complete the TwoWayTable_GuidedPractice.docx worksheet throughout the presentation of the lesson.
With guidance from the teacher, students will:
- Construct a two-way table using a given set of data
- Calculate relative frequencies
- Interpret data within a two-way table
As students work through each problem they will be asked to explain their methods for completing the table and calculating the relative frequencies.
Students can work individually, in pairs, or groups of three. After each problem has been completed, the answers can be discussed as a class, in which students share both their answers and their methods of problem-solving.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
The students will complete the TwoWay_IndependentPractice.docx worksheet (after the lesson or as homework) to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson. Each student will work individually with minimal assistance from the teacher. If a student should need help, they must first refer back to their notes or guided practice worksheet and find an example similar to the one they are working on. If further assistance is needed, the teacher may ask guiding or probing questions or revisit material to offer an alternative explanation.
The students should be able to complete the frequency table given, calculate relative frequencies, and answer the accompanying questions. Once the assignment is complete, the answers can be checked and discussed as a class.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
To end the lesson, students will return to the opening problem. Students will answer the questions again and compare their responses to their initial answers.
Answers and solutions will be discussed as a class. Students will be asked to discuss their prior misconceptions, if their pre- and post responses do not match.
The summative assessment is the document TwoWay_SummativeAssessment.docx Students will complete two problems, with sub-parts, that are similar to the examples completed during the lesson and guided practice.
The summative assessment will occur after students have received corrective or favorable feedback from the teacher during the formative assessment phase.
The summative assessment will measure a student's ability to construct a two-way table from a given set of data, calculate the relative frequencies for the table, and read and interpret data within the table.
The content of the assessment will provide the teacher with in-depth insight about the level of student learning that has been achieved.
Formative Assessment occurs throughout the teaching phase and during independent practice.
The teacher will formatively assess students during the course of the lesson by prompting students to answer questions and providing guidance through the completion of the TwoWayTable_GuidedPractice.docx
worksheet. Additional feedback will be given following the lesson with the completion of the independent practice worksheet to be completed as homework.
Students will demonstrate understanding by creating and interpreting two way frequency tables from a given set of data. Additionally, students will identify, define, and compute marginal, joint, and relative frequencies.
Guiding questions are included throughout the PowerPoint to keep students actively engaged while simultaneously assessing their understanding. If students demonstrate proficiency throughout the guided practice, then the teacher can move on to the next stage of the lesson. If the teacher observes that the students do not thoroughly understand something and are not ready to advance, then additional explanation, examples, or discussion is recommended.
Feedback to Students
The students will respond to questions and prompts that the teacher poses throughout the lesson. During each example, sharing of answers, techniques, and explanations will occur.
The teacher will moderate whole-class discussions and provide reinforcement of correct work or corrective feedback to responses that are not accurate.
During each segment of the lesson, students will have the opportunity to make corrections and or re-do any part of the examples where appropriate.
Common misconceptions and mistakes can be found in the notes section of the slides throughout the presentation.