Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will be able to:
- explain the the meaning of relative frequency.
- construct a 2-way frequency table by collecting and organizing a set of data.
- calculate the relative frequencies of the collection of data.
- draw conclusions and make connections about the data collected.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students will need to:
- know how to collect and organize data into a simple frequency table.
- understand how to calculate decimals and percentages.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
- What is the difference between a frequency and a relative frequency?
- How is a frequency converted to a relative frequency?
- How is a relative frequency table more informative that a non-relative frequency table?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
This lesson is designed to teach by modeling. Prior to guided practice, the teacher should complete phase 1 to ensure prior knowledge.
The teacher will ensure prior knowledge by reviewing (explaining and demonstrating) how to read a simple frequency table. Teacher will also identify data and categories in the table. The students will create a One-Way Frequency Table and then convert it to relative frequency tables in both decimals and percentages. (See attachment "How Hot are Hot Dogs" - #1-4). Also, see extension for additional one-way frequency tables.
The teacher will introduce the Two-Way Frequency Table. Detailed instructions are provided on the attachment "How Hot Are Hot Dogs?" #5-8.
Also, see extensions for an additional two-way frequency table.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
The students will be guided through the worksheet and will be able to:
- convert a frequency table to a relative frequency table (with decimals) by dividing each number in the frequency table by the total.
- convert the relative frequency table to percents.
The teacher will explain that a two-way frequency table shows data that pertains to two different categories. The data from one sample group (girls or boys) is shown as it relates to two different categories (Hamburgers or Hot Dogs).
The students will use the data collected to construct a Two-Way Frequency Table. With guidance from the teacher, students will collect data about food preferences of boys and girls and recorded into a frequency table.
The teacher will pose specific questions such as:
- What can you conclude from the relative frequencies that appear in the rows?
- What can you conclude after looking at the relative frequencies that appear in the columns?
- (also see guiding questions)
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
For independent practice, students will collect data from the class and complete the "Two-Way Table" worksheet on relative frequency tables. The teacher will monitor student learning and progress towards the learning objectives by circulating around the classrooms asking and answering questions.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
At the end of the lesson, the teacher will briefly re-cap the basic concepts:
- a simple (one-way frequency table) involves only one category of data
- a two-way frequency table displays data from two categories
- a non-relative frequency table involves raw data (the actual number of responses of each choice)
- a relative frequency tables displays the frequencies in the form of decimals or percentages
- relative frequencies are easier to compare and interpret
The summative assessment involves the students using previously collected data. Teachers will ask students to respond to a question about their favorite brand of clothing. The resulting data can be displayed in the classroom or inserted into the document before it is printed.
Formative assessment will occur during the teaching phase, guided practice, and independent practice.
The teacher should circulate around the classroom monitoring students' work to ensure that they have collected the data, organized the data in a table and properly completed the frequency tables. The teacher should also ensure that students are able to convert to percentages and use the percentages on the frequency table. From observing this the teacher should see that students understand how to obtain relative frequencies from a two-way frequency table.
If the teacher notices that the student does not understand how to interpret the frequency tables, scaffold the questions and use simpler examples.
Students should be able to properly answer the questions in independent practice after completing all the questions in the guided practice.
Feedback to Students
The teacher will have the tables on exhibit on the white board in the classroom for the students to refer to.
Throughout the lesson, the teacher will circulate around the classroom giving direction, asking and clarifying questions for students. The students will be able to correct their work if needed.
The teacher may need to review and remind students how to calculate decimals and percentages.