Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
At the end of this unit of instruction, the students will be able to:
- Identify and apply the relationships among the variables that affect the volume of an ideal gas (pressure, temperature, & number of molecules).
- Explain the relationship among the variables that affect the volume of an ideal gas occupies in terms of the kinetic molecular theory.
- Differentiate between a scientific law, a hypothesis and a theory.
- Relate the temperature of a gas to the average kinetic energy of the particles comprising the gas.
- Compare the average speed of gas particles for different gases at the same temperature.
- Use equal volumes of different gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure to compare numbers of molecules and their relative masses (Avogadro’s Principle).
- Determine the state of a substance at a given temperature given the freezing/melting point and normal boiling point.
- Describe states of matter and changes in states in terms of the kinetic model and electrostatic forces between particles.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Prior knowledge-Science standards
- SC.7.N.3.1: Recognize and explain the difference between theories and laws and give several examples of scientific theories and the evidence that supports them.
- SC.8.P.8.1: Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by using models to explain the motion of particles in solids, liquids, and gases.
- SC.7.P.11.1: Recognize that adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state.
Prior knowledge-State Standards for Math
- MAFS.6.RP.1.3: Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations.
- MAFS.7.EE.2.4: Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.
- MAFS.8.EE.2.5: Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways.
- MAFS.8.F.2.5: Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.
Prior knowledge developed in previous lessons for this unit of study:
- Differentiate between heat & temperature.
- Differentiate between kinetic & potential energy.
- Know the direction of net heat transfer between objects of unequal temperatures.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
How can motion, forces, and energy explain different states of matter at the molecular scale?
- How can we change the volume a gas occupies?
- What keeps the particles in a gas apart?
- What’s between the particles in a gas?
- How can a sample of hydrogen gas exert the same pressure as a sample of oxygen gas under the same conditions?
- Why does the expression: PV = a constant, not apply to gases under all conditions, or to liquids?
- Why is evaporation a cooling process?
- How does sealing a vessel containing a liquid “stop” evaporation?
- How can the liquid and solid state of a pure substance exist at the same temperature?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
This grade 9-12 lesson on states of matter is designed along the lines of a 5-E learning cycle that employs the use of a predict, observe, explain (POE) as a means of eliciting student prior conceptions during the engagement phase. After the POE, the students are guided through a sequence of explorations, activities, class discussions, and assessments that lead them to an understanding of states of matter that aligns with the learning objectives of this unit and the relevant science and mathematics standards that apply to this concept. In conjunction with the summative assessment the original POE administered at the beginning of the lesson is re-examined by the students so that they can monitor their own learning of the states of matter.
States of Matter Gas Diffusion POE
States of Matter Evaporation POE
States of Matter Evaporation POE Teacher Guide
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
A progression of major ideas for this lesson:States of Matter Progression Plan
Activity 1-Fantastic Elastic Gas:Students collect experimental data to determine the relationship between pressure and the volume occupied by a gas at a constant temperature and how this relationship can be expressed graphically and as a mathematical function.
Fantastic Elastic Gas Teacher Guide
Activity 2-Positives and Negatives of Gas: Using the electrolysis of water, students develop the concept that equal volumes of gases, under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, contain equal numbers of molecules (Avogadro’s Principle)
Positives and Negatives of Gas Teacher Guide
Activity 3-Counting on Gases: By finding the mass of equal volumes of different gases under the same conditions, the relative molecular masses are determined.
Counting on Gases Teacher Guide
Activity 4-Evaporation Is Cool: Through the use of rates of evaporation and measuring the resulting cooling effects of different liquids, differences in intermolecular forces are introduced.
Evaporation Is Cool Teacher Guide
Activity 5-It’s Freezing In Here: Students will collect temperature time data for lauric acid as it changes state (liquid to solid)
Its Freezing in Here Teacher Guide
Activity 6: Melt Away: Using ice, water and a calorimeter the heat of fusion of water is determined.
Melt Away Teacher Guide
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
At the end of each activity the teacher will lead the class in a discussion of the concepts and/or skills related to it. Finally, at the end of the lesson, the students are given back their original responses to the POE and asked to re-evaluate and re-state their initial explanations. After the Re-POE activity, the students are given a summative assessment that is designed to gauge student mastery of the concepts that frame the lesson.
The teacher will examine the initial and final student responses to the POE and analyze the results of the self-assessments in determining the effectiveness of this lesson in meeting the learning objectives.
States of Matter SelfAssessment Part 1
States of Matter SelfAssessment Part 1 Teacher Guide
States of Matter SelfAssessment Part 2
States of Matter SelfAssessment Part 2 Teachers Guide
This lesson on states of matter begins with a predict, observe, explain (POE) that is designed to elicit student understanding of the kinetic molecular model of matter and how it relates to the diffusion rates of different gases under the same conditions.
Teachers will use student data obtained from the POE to modify their instruction in accordance with the needs of the students. Teacher will use prompts during the activities to elicit and gauge and student understanding of the kinetic model.
Feedback to Students
Whole-class discussions will occur at the end of each activity, culminating in a Re-POE that challenges students to re-evaluate their initial responses to the POE in light of their experiences in the activities and inquiries that frame the lesson.