Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
At the end of this unit of instruction, the students should be able to:
• Associate the type of motion with the net force on an object.
• Recognize that the acceleration produced by a net force is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
• Recognize that whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object.
• Construct free-body diagrams showing the significant forces on an object.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Prior knowledge developed in previous lesson for this unit of study:
Recognizing acceleration from motion data.
Associated Science standards
SC.6.P.13.1 Investigate and describe types of forces including contact forces and forces acting at a distance, such as electrical, magnetic, and gravitational.
SC.6.P.13.2: Explore the Law of Gravity by recognizing that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object and that the force depends on how much mass the objects have and how far apart they are.
SC.6.P.13.3: Investigate and describe that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed, or direction of motion, or both.
SC.8.P.8.2: Differentiate between weight and mass recognizing that weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object and is distinct from, though proportional to, mass.
Associated Math Standards
MAFS.6.EE.3.9: Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation.
MAFS.7.RP.1.2: Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.
a. Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin.
b. Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships.
c. Represent proportional relationships by equations.
d. Explain what a point (x, y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0, 0) and (1, r) where r is the unit rate.
MAFS.7.EE.2.4: Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.
MAFS.8.EE.2.5: Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
How are forces related to motion?
a. What is the relationship between the acceleration of an object and the direction of the net force?
b. How can the forces acting on an object be diagrammed in order to analyze its motion?
c. How do graphs of acceleration vs time compare to graphs of force vs time for a given motion?
d. What is the relationship between the net force and the mass of an accelerating object?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
This CPALMS grade 9-12 lesson on forces is designed along the lines of a 5-E learning cycle that employs the use of predict, observe, explain (POE) as a means of eliciting student prior conceptions during the engagement phase. After the POE, the students are guided through a sequence of explorations, activities, class discussions, and assessments that lead them to an understanding of how the motion of objects relates to net force. This lesson aligns with the learning objectives of this unit and the relevant science and mathematics standards that apply to this concept. In conjunction with the summative assessment the original POE administered at the beginning of the lesson, is re-examined by the students so that they can monitor their own learning of how forces affect the motion of an object.
Force POE - acceleration graphs
Force POE - Teacher Guide This file has a sample of the general graphs that should be observed.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
A progression of the major ideas of the lesson: Lesson Progression
Activity 1-Enforcing Newton’s Laws: In this collaborative activity students discover Newton’s second law by experimenting with force, mass, and calculating acceleration.
Enforcing Newtons Law
Enforcing Newtons Law Teacher Guide
Activity 2-Free-Body Diagrams: This activity is designed to enhance student understanding of free body diagrams.
Free-Body Diagrams worksheet
Free-Body Diagrams worksheet answer key
Activity 3-This is the way we roll: In this activity small groups of students work together to interpret motions in a series of velocity vs. time graphs, and use motion detectors and dynamics carts to replicate the motion displayed in each graph.
This is the way we roll(graph matching activity)
This is the Way We Roll Teacher Guide
Activity 4-Acceleration station – In this activity small groups of students work together to experimentally determine the mass needed to create a specific acceleration. Then the students discover a theoretical method using a system of equations.
Acceleration Station Teacher Guide
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
There is no independent practice for this lesson. All activities are done collaboratively in the classroom with the teacher.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
At the end of each of the four activities listed in the previous section (Guided Practice), the teacher will lead the class in a discussion of the concept or skills related to it. Finally, at the end of the lesson, the students are given back their original responses to the POE and asked to re-evaluate and re-state their initial explanations. After the Re-POE activity, the students are given a summative self-assessment that is designed to gauge student mastery of the learning goals of the lesson.
The teacher will administer the Re-POE to students at the end of the lesson and look for evidence in student responses that indicate they have met the four learning goals for this lesson.
A 15-question unit assessment (see attached assessment and answer key) will be given to students at the end of the lesson.
Forces Self-Assessment Teachers Guide
Force POE with explanations to observations
This lesson on forces begins with a predict, observe, explain (POE) that is designed to elicit student understanding of graphs that correlate net force with type of motion of an object. The teacher will use student data obtained from the POE and activities to modify their instruction in accordance with the needs of the students.
Feedback to Students
Whole-class discussion will occur at the end of each activity and student self-assessment, culminating in a Re-POE activity that challenges students to re-evaluate their initial responses to the POE in light of their experiences in the activities and inquiries that frame the lesson.