Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will be able to:
- identify situations that relate Newton's Second Law.
- understand and explain that if forces with different magnitudes are applied to objects with the same mass, the largest force will produce the largest acceleration, and the lowest force will produce the lowest acceleration.
- understand and explain that if the same force is applied to objects with different masses, it will produce the largest acceleration on the object with lowest mass, and the lowest acceleration on the object with the largest mass.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students should be familiar with the following concepts:
- Gravitational Acceleration
- Newton's First and Second Laws
Students should be familiar with the use of the motion sensor and data collector.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
How does force affect an object's motion?
How does the mass affect an object's motion?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
The teacher will ask students the following questions:
- If you are driving a car and you want to increase your speed, what do you have to do? (Most of the students will probably answer, "We have to hit the gas.")
- What is the effect on the car's engine produced when you hit the gas? (Most of the students will probably answer that the engine will exert a larger force.)
- If you want to reach the speed of 100 Km/h in 30 seconds, will you have to hit the gas more intensely if there is just one person in the car or if four people are in the car?
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
The teacher will present the following questions to the students:
- There are two identical frictionless carts on two identical horizontal tracks pulled by hanging masses. The hanging masses and the carts are attached by strings and frictionless pulleys are used to change the direction of the forces. Cart "A" has a hanging mass of 50 g; Cart "B" has a hanging mass of 100g. Which cart is going to accelerate the most? Explain your answer.
- There are two identical frictionless carts on two identical horizontal tracks pulled by two identical hanging masses. A 50 g cylinder was placed on the top of Cart A. A 100g cylinder was placed on the top of cart "B". Which cart is going to accelerate the most? Explain your answer.
Students are going to express their opinions and make a hypothesis.
In order to support their hypotheses students will investigate:
- How the pulling mass (hanging mass) will affect the acceleration of the cart.
- How the mass of the cart will affect it's acceleration keeping the same pulling mass (hanging mass).
The teacher will provide students the equipment they need.
The students will set up the equipment, without help from the teacher, based on the information given on the questions.
Students will record their work on separate sheets of paper for Investigation 1 and Investigation 2. This attached document shows how the students will calculate the acceleration:
How to Calculate the Acceleration Using Vernier Labquest
The students will design the necessary tables to record the data.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
As homework for the next class, the students will write three examples in which the Newton's Second Law is applied. They will have to include details of the situation and also include a diagram.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
As a conclusion, the teacher will write the formulation of Newton's Second Law on the board and will explain it in the following terms:
F = m x a - Here you can see that if you increase the force over the same mass, the acceleration will increase. Force and acceleration are directly proportional. In this situation, acceleration changes in response to a change of force, so force is the independent variable and acceleration is the dependent variable.
a = F / m - Here you can see that if you increase the mass while keeping the force constant, the acceleration will decrease. Mass and acceleration are inversely proportional. In this situation, acceleration changes in response to a change of mass, so mass is the independent variable and acceleration is the dependent variable.
Students will verbally present their three examples in which the Second Newton's Law is applied the next day during class.
As a conclusion of the activity, each group will present their findings on two 2'x2' white boards, one white board for each activity.
On each white board students will reproduce a table including mass of the cart, hanging mass and average acceleration. On the same white board, students will represent average acceleration vs. time and velocity vs. time graphs.
Students will be graded using the attached rubric.
The teacher will present to students two specific questions related to Newton's Second Law. Students will have the opportunity to express their opinions and make a hypothesis. The teacher will divide students in to groups of 5-6. Students in the same group do not have to have the same hypothesis. Students will design an experiment to test their hypothesis.
Each student will present a Lab Report in which the data is the same as the rest of the group, but the format is not necessarily the same. On the report the students are going to answer and explain the initial questions.
Feedback to Students
The teacher will give feedback to each group after their presentations. If the results are different from the ones they expected, then the teacher will ask students to explain the possible reasons. The teacher will ask each group to answer the two initial questions. The teacher will not deny or confirm any of the answers until the last group presentation.