General Information
Subject(s): Science, Mathematics, English Language Arts
Grade Level(s): 9, 10, 11
Suggested Technology:
Graphing Calculators, Computer for Presenter, Internet Connection, Interactive Whiteboard, Probes for Data Collection, Basic Calculators, LCD Projector, Overhead Projector
Instructional Time:
2 Hour(s)
Resource supports reading in content area:Yes
Freely Available: Yes
Keywords: Frame of Reference, Distance, Displacement.
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Lesson Content

Lesson Plan Template:
General Lesson Plan

Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
 Explain the meaning of motion
 Describe an object's position relative to reference point
 Evaluate that all motion is relative to whatever frame of reference is chosen, and that there is no absolute frame of reference from which to observe all motion
 Distinguish between distance and displacement
 Identify appropriate SI units for measuring distance, position, and displacement
 Calculate displacement using vector addition.

Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students MUST understand the following concepts:
 units of measurement (Metric and English systems)
 coordinate system (on a plane)
 slope of a line
 the differences between scalar and vector
Misconceptions:
Students believe that the distance an object travels and its displacement are the same.

Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
 How would you describe the motion of the people and objects around you?
 How do we know when an object is moving?
 What is a frame of reference?
 How do you decide which frame of reference to use when describing people or objects movements?
 How far did the object go from the reference point?
 Which direction is the object moving?
 What is an object displacement?
 How do distance and displacement differ?
 What is a vector?

Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
Motivation: Ask students for examples of motion in the world around them. Encourage them to think of both large and small examples, such as the motion of Earth and the motion of atoms. Also ask for both fast and slow examples, such as a plane and a turtle. Also, discuss the importance of having a frame of reference when describe motion. (Verbal)
1. Ask students if they have ever been in a situation where they could not tell if they or some other object was moving. Have them describe the situation.
(Briefly outline each student's description on the board).
2. For each description recorded in the previous discussion, have students describe which seemed to be the moving object, and which seemed to be the stationary object. Develop the idea that an object has motion only in relation to a frame of reference which seems to be fixed.
3. Make an extension discussing these examples:
If you jump up in a moving school bus, will you land in the same spot? Why or why not? (You will because both you and the bus have the same speed; relative to the bus you are not moving.)
When you are sitting at your desks, are you moving? (It depends : Relative to the Earth and other objects in the classroom, no; but relative to the Moon or other objects in the space, yes.)
After you finished discussing all these different situations a simple demo, physics clip, movie or power point presentation will be helpful to reinforce the concepts of position, distance, and displacement, as well as the motion is relative, depends of the frame of reference selected.
(PhysClips Constant velocity) http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/
4. The teacher will do a quick lab to compare Distance and Displacement.(See attachment)
5. The teacher will use a clip to introduce vectors ( A physical quantity that has magnitude and direction; magnitude can be size, length, or amount, direction could be North, South, East, West, up, down, left, right, etc.) and some operations as addition and subtraction in one direction at a very simple level. When motion is a straight line, vectors add and subtract easily, show it on the board using some manipulative arrows of different size. They should conclude that the resultant vector is the one that connect the tail of the first vector and the tip of the last one(graphically).

Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
Students will participate in class discussion and actively answer questions about the content, guided by the teacher. Also they should be able to model and predict others scenarios. They have to read and write about what they are learning in the lesson.
As a class activity, students will record their observations from demo and quick lab ( frame of reference, position at different time intervals, shape of the path; line or curve, etc. ), and will graph position and time on a coordinate system at a qualitative level and interpret their results, presenting them orally to the rest of the class.
Students will discuss some transparencies activities or photos, or presentations with the teacher addressing distance and displacement.(examples are found at http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1dkin/u1l1c.cfm ( Unit 1 Motion )

Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
 Students are asked to write a definition for frame of reference in your own words in the left column of the table. (Answers may vary)
 Frame of Reference
 Frame of reference probably means (example: The range of distances from an object).
 Frame of reference actually means (example: An object or objects not moving with respect to one another, a coordinate system (x, y) and a clock to record time).
 Reading Strategy: Students will read the content from their core textbook and using other resources available on the web or newspaper, or magazines. After you read the section, compare your definition to the scientific definition and explain why a frame of reference is important.
Students will answer the following questions about the content:
 What two things must you know to describe the motion of an object? (Direction the object is moving and how fast the objects is moving).
 Is the following sentence true or false? A frame of reference is not necessary to describe motion accurately and completely. (False Movement in relation to a frame of reference is called Relative Motion).
 Imagine that you are a passenger in a train. Circle the letter of the best frame of reference you could use to determine how fast the train is moving relative to the ground. (b) a. The driver of the train b. A sign post on the side of the road c. The people sitting next to you in the frontseat. d. Car traveling in the lane next to your car
 Distance is the length of a path between two points. Circle the letter of the SI unit best suited for measuring the length of a room in your classroom. (c) a. Millimeters b. Centimeters c. Meters d. Kilometers
 Is the following statement true or false? Three blocks north is an example of displacement. (True)
 What would your total displacement be if you walked from your school, around two blocks, and then stopped when you reached your school again? (Zero)
 A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction.
 Circle the letter of each answer that could describe the magnitude of a vector. (b) a. size b. length c. direction d. amount
 Circle the letter that answers the question. What is the displacement of a motorcycle who travels 2 miles South, then 2 miles North, and finally 3 miles? (d. 3 miles East) a. 2 miles South b. 2 miles c. 4 miles d. 3 miles East.
The vector sum of two or more other vectors is called the resultant vector

Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
Teacher will ask students:
What have you learned about in today's lesson?
Possible outcomes should be:
 To describe motion accurately and completely, a frame of reference is needed(recall the definition of frame of reference)
 To determine how fast something is moving, you need to choose an object of reference, a coordinate system, and a clock to record time.
 Motion is relative, it depends on the frame of reference chosen.
 Distance is the length of the total path. (scalar) and displacement(vector) is the direction from the starting point and the length of a straight line from the starting point to the final or ending point.
 The SI units for measuring distance(d), displacement (final position  initial position) is meters(m)
 Vectors are quantities that have magnitude and direction.
http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/mot.html

Summative Assessment
 The teacher will determine if the students have reached the learning targets for this resource by making students take traditional Multiple Choice, Modified True/False, Completion or Filling the blank assessments as the PreTest. ( Have student retake the PreTest) NOTE: Assessments created on Examview are from various resources
 The teacher will ask students to write a paragraph describing a situation in which the same motion appears differently from different frames of reference for homework.
 Also the questions from the independent work should be used as a way to check gains attain for students at this point.

Formative Assessment
They are may opportunities to gather information about the student understanding throughout the lesson.
 Engaging: A pretest will be given at the beginning of the chapter to check students foundation in math and physics, and collect formal data ( see attachment).
 Explaining: After every student is finished with the pretest, a discussion about possible answers could allow the teacher to collect informal data about strengths and weaknesses of the class overall.
 Defining: Ask students to rate their knowledge of the vocabulary terms for this section in a chart with the following heading: Term, Can Define or Use it, Have Heard or Seen It, Don't Know, on their journals. Teacher will walk around the classroom to observe students work and will assess them verbally.
DistanceandDisplacementVocabulary.docx

Feedback to Students
Students will get feedback about their performance or understanding throughout the lesson at several parts:
 After they have read the section in the textbook, handout, or other material, they have to return to the chart and update it to reflect any increase in understanding, also the teacher will add any missed information in relation to the learning goals.
 SelfQuestioning and SelfAdjusting while reading will help students to understand difficult technical material. This strategy enables students to focus on their own thought processes as they actively question and apply fixup strategies to improve comprehension.
 During the lesson, students are encouraged to participate by supporting or refuting questions, solving problems or lab results on white boards and presenting them to the rest of the groups, after they finished, teachers may take over and add any new idea or material not covered by students. Later, students will have an opportunity to apply this feedback to improve their performances.
Assessment
 Feedback to Students:
Students will get feedback about their performance or understanding throughout the lesson at several parts:
 After they have read the section in the textbook, handout, or other material, they have to return to the chart and update it to reflect any increase in understanding, also the teacher will add any missed information in relation to the learning goals.
 SelfQuestioning and SelfAdjusting while reading will help students to understand difficult technical material. This strategy enables students to focus on their own thought processes as they actively question and apply fixup strategies to improve comprehension.
 During the lesson, students are encouraged to participate by supporting or refuting questions, solving problems or lab results on white boards and presenting them to the rest of the groups, after they finished, teachers may take over and add any new idea or material not covered by students. Later, students will have an opportunity to apply this feedback to improve their performances.
 Summative Assessment:
 The teacher will determine if the students have reached the learning targets for this resource by making students take traditional Multiple Choice, Modified True/False, Completion or Filling the blank assessments as the PreTest. ( Have student retake the PreTest) NOTE: Assessments created on Examview are from various resources
 The teacher will ask students to write a paragraph describing a situation in which the same motion appears differently from different frames of reference for homework.
 Also the questions from the independent work should be used as a way to check gains attain for students at this point.
Accommodations & Recommendations
Additional Information/Instructions
By Author/Submitter
This resource is an important foundation for students understanding Kinematics; the concepts of frame of reference, distance, position, displacement, vectors and scalars represent a strong base for mechanics coming later in the physical science course.
Source and Access Information
Contributed by:
Rafael Suarez
Name of Author/Source: Rafael Suarez
District/Organization of Contributor(s): MiamiDade
Is this Resource freely Available? Yes
Access Privileges: Public
* Please note that examples of resources are not intended as complete curriculum.