Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
- Students will analyze how poetic devices, word choice and form of the poem "The New Colossus" convey the poem's content, meaning, tone and theme.
- Students will demonstrate, through small group work and presentations, their ability to cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
- Students will analyze the representation of a subject in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized about immigration to the U.S. and civic participation and responsibilities, through literature and photography.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students will have had academic experience with the following:
- analyzing how meaning is enhanced through various features of poetry, including sound, structure and form;
- identifying and analyzing descriptive language (e.g. tone, irony, mood, imagery, allusion) and figurative language (e.g., symbolism, metaphor, personification, hyperbole), and how they impact meaning of text.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
- Considering past periods of immigration to the U.S. to current waves of immigration, how has the influx of immigrants shaped the development and continuity of American ideals?
- What are the challenges and responsibilities that face Americans, including those who immigrated in the past and those who have newly arrived to the country?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
The "Hook" and Activation of Prior Knowledge
1. Teacher will discuss with students the guiding questions (from above) to gauge students' understanding and introduce the topic of immigration and what it means to be an American, with the challenges and responsibilities of personal and civic life.
2. Teacher can show students a short video from the History Channel such as Arriving at Ellis Island to hear and see information on Ellis Island and voices from those who entered the U.S. and were excited when they first saw the Statue of Liberty. Background knowledge can be provided here or after the next step, so that students who may not have knowledge of immigration at the turn of the century can have some visual and personal references. Also, from the History Channel students could watch a video of how the Statue of Liberty came to be, and/or stories by recent immigrants and how they felt being naturalized.
Introducing the Concept/Modeling the Skill
1. From this discussion, the teacher will move into a presentation to students of photographs showing Ellis Island immigrants. Photographs of Ellis Island immigrants can be found at the following Ellis Island Museum collection: flickr or the National Park Service (includes family stories) or Google Images (Search "Ellis Island immigrants"). Teacher may use these links to select 4 photographs for students to analyze. Teacher can model analysis of one photograph prior to having students do the same with the other three photographs.
2. Teacher can use the How to Read a Photograph handout from the National Park Service to model answers to the first image located at: flickr. Suggested answers are provided: Photograph Reflection handout answer key.doc
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
Students will then conduct the same type of photo analysis just modeled by the teacher with three other photographs. They could work with partners or in small groups to spur discussion. Ask students to engage in conversation regarding these images. They will be motivated because their responses will not be deemed "correct" or "incorrect" and they will have opportunity to share ideas with their peers and teacher. The use of the Photograph Reflection handout will help engage them in writing and discussion. Please see the steps below:
1. The teacher will select three photographs of Ellis Island immigrants that can be found at the following Ellis Island Museum collection: flickr or nps (includes family stories) or Google Images (Search "Ellis Island immigrants") for students to analyze in pairs or small groups.
2. Teacher provides students a copy of the Photograph Reflection handout and a copy of the photographs or, preferably, projects the photographs on an Interactive whiteboard.
3. Students will complete their How to View a Photograph handout for three images, using the teacher's modeling of photograph one, the woman with her children, as an example of what to include in their analyses. The teacher will circulate among groups asking them to back up what they have viewed with evidence from the photograph.
4. Students will use their completed handout and be asked to discuss their photographs with classmates in the same way that the teacher has modeled viewing photograph one.
5. Teacher will then lead a whole group discussion projecting the photographs on the white board while students from each group share their responses. Teacher ensures that students back up their comments by asking students to pinpoint details in the photographs to support their answers. Students from other groups may add points to the discussion that may have not been included by other groups.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
1. After discussing the photographs and what details or messages students think the photographer was conveying, or how life was for those being photographed, teacher places students in small groups of varying abilities in order for students to read the poem "The New Colossus" and to answer the questions on the poem. A Poetry Analysis Guide handout is available from ReadWriteThink.org OR the POETRY ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK.docx can be used (an Answer Key.docx has been provided). Links to the poem can be found at the Liberty State Park site as well as at this link which includes an interpretation of the poem as a teaching resource.
2. After students read the poem, self-selecting reader(s) to read the poem aloud to the group, teacher reads the poem aloud to the entire class to model fluency. Teacher may choose questions to suit the needs of their class or may choose both to differentiate instruction. The Poetry Analysis Guide is more open-ended and can be used by more advanced students, whereas the framework handout is more structured and can help students in need of more teacher direction.
3. Students will work in their groups to record answers to the questions on their chart paper. Students will select a scribe and a presenter who will present their ideas to the larger class.
4. While students are engaged in this task to complete the answers, teacher circulates from groups to clarify, probe and maintain student accountability for their work.
5. Students will present their analyses to the group, adding only new information as groups present, to save time. Teacher provides immediate feedback, clarifies or redirects with probing questions in order for students to fully understand the poem. Teachers may use this rubric, or create their own, to assess student presentations.
6. Students will return to their photo analysis to reflect upon which words or lines from the poem, if any, compare or contrast to details in the photos. Students need to cite textual support for their answers. The teacher will discuss how students' perceptions of the photographs may have changed due to their study of the poem. The teacher will be able to gauge students' ability to analyze photographs and make connections to text.
7. Students will view and discuss a photograph of The Colossus of Rhodes to help students, especially ELL, to envision the differences between the Colossus and the Statue of Liberty, and why Lazarus chose this comparison in her poem. They will determine what word(s) from the poem convey the appearance of The Colossus of Rhodes. They will work to determine how the description differs from Lazarus's description of the Statue of Liberty. Images of The Colossus of Rhodes can be found at this link.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
At the completion of all the presentations, students will be asked to take a Gallery Walk, reviewing not only their groups' answers but those of their peers, to take pertinent notes in their Writing Journals. Teacher will tell them that these notes will be used as brainstorming for the subsequent culminating writing assignment at the end of Lesson 3 of this unit, in which they will be asked to compare the poem to a speech and artwork. Tell students to write down at least one of the most important points from each chart paper.
The Gallery Walk in which students transfer the most important points from the chart papers into their Writer's Notebooks will provide students the organization and preparation for Lessons 2 & 3 forthcoming.
A closing discussion led by the teacher to ascertain commonalities of what students selected to write in their journals will enable the teacher to determine if students grasped the most salient points of the poem, and if not, to provide further clarification to students prior to moving into Lessons 2 & 3.
After each student presentation the chart paper will be updated and displayed on the classroom walls. This chart paper of sample responses to the questions on the poem and students' discussion will serve as brainstorming for the following, independent writing summative assessment:
Students will independently conduct a brief written analysis in which they analyze how poetic devices, word choice and form of the poem "The New Colossus" convey the poem's content, meaning, tone, and theme.
1. As introduction to the study of "The New Colossus" poem by Emma Lazarus, the teacher will use an Interactive whiteboard or LCD projector and screen to show students four photographs dealing with immigrants to Ellis Island and will complete a handout in which they describe and analyze details in the photos.
2. Students will share their responses in whole group discussion. They will be asked to support their answers with details from the photographs. If students do not offer much in terms of their reactions to the photographs, perhaps, due to a lack of background knowledge of immigration from this era, then the teacher may allow students to "wrestle" with the poem and then return to the photographs to solicit more reaction and response from the students.
3. Students will then read, or reread, the poem and in small groups will be asked to analyze the poem in terms of content, language, meaning, and theme. They will record their answers to questions on the handout on chart paper and will be asked to choose a group member to serve as spokesperson to share out to the entire group their findings in presentation format. As new groups present, only new or different information from each group is added to the discussion. Teacher will provide feedback throughout this process to develop and gauge students' understanding of the poem.
4. Students will return to their photo analysis to reflect upon which words or lines from the poem, if any, compare or contrast to details in the photos. Students need to cite textual support for their answers. The teacher will discuss how students' perceptions of the photographs may have changed due to their study of the poem. The teacher will be able to gauge students' ability to analyze photographs and make connections to text.
5. Students will view and discuss a photograph of The Colossus of Rhodes to help students, especially ELL, to envision the differences between the Colossus and the Statue of Liberty, and why Lazarus chose this comparison in her poem. They will determine what word(s) from the poem convey the appearance of The Colossus of Rhodes. They will work to determine how the description differs from Lazarus's description of the Statue of Liberty. Images of The Colossus of Rhodes can be found at this link.
Feedback to Students
The teacher will provide feedback on students' handouts as they work to analyze the first photograph. The teacher will show a Photograph Reflection handout answer key.docof the handout filled in for the first picture, focusing on pointing out to students the evidence in the photograph that was used to make inferences. Students can apply this feedback as they analyze three additional photographs independently.
The teacher will rotate to small groups as students work on answering the questions for the poem to provide direction and assistance. The teacher will direct students with such probing questions as "Which words in the poem support your answer?" and/or "How do you know from the text that is the correct answer?" Which line(s) provided you the clues?" to ensure that students are including references to text in their answers.
Students will receive oral feedback from the teacher as small groups are making their presentations about the poem. The teacher may create a rubric of their own or they may use the following rubric to assess student's presentations: sites4teachers. During the presentations, the teacher will provide corrective feedback as needed if students demonstrate any misunderstandings about the poem. Students can apply this feedback to their summative assessment writing assignment where they will independently conduct their own analysis of the poem.