Lesson Plan Template: Learning Cycle (5E Model)
Learning Objectives: What will students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
The students will demonstrate the ability to:
- identify skin, muscle, bone, cartilage, ligament, tendon and bone marrow as well as their purposes.
- compare/contrast the chicken leg anatomy with human anatomy.
- identify how the animal structures correlate to plant structures and convey these ideas clearly in writing using a thesis statement (see attached example), correct scientific terminology, labeled diagrams and a concise conclusion.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students should be familiar with animals and how they are classified: mammal, bird, reptile, insects, amphibians, and fish) and the characteristics of each group.
Students will also need to be familiar with plant structures and their functions such as: leaves, flowers, xylem, phloem, roots, stem, seeds and sap.
If used as an introduction to structures and organs, students should know the vocabulary such as: skin, muscle, tendon, bone, blood, marrow, cartilage.
If used as a culminating activity, students should have a working knowledge of the vocabulary and structures of the human body (bones, muscles, lungs, heart, cartilage, blood, and skin).
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
1. What makes animals unique from other organisms?
2. How can a chicken leg be compared to a human leg?
3. Why are there so many muscles?
4. Do you think all organisms have the same amount of muscles or bones? Why/why not?
5. What is a muscle? How does it work?
Engage: What object, event, or questions will the teacher use to trigger the students' curiosity and engage them in the concepts?
1. Ask the students the following questions:
- How many students love fried chicken?
- What is your favorite kind of chicken: leg, wing, etc...?
- Have you ever wondered what you are eating?
2. Then show them the raw leg and tell them that today they will examine and dissect the chicken leg.
3. Pass out goggles, gloves, wax paper, skewers and chicken legs. Make sure the students are gloved and goggles on before passing out the skewers, wax paper and chicken legs.
Safety Note: Raw chicken carries Salmonella and gloves/goggles should be worn when handling the raw meat. It is recommended that hand sanitizer be available to all students and used after washing hands with soap and water at the completion of the lab. All surfaces should be cleaned thoroughly with soap or antibacterial cleaner.
Explore: What will the students do to explore the concepts and skills being developed through the lesson?
Please review the PowerPoint prior to the lesson so that you are familiar with the content.
1. Have the students examine the chicken leg observing the cut ends showing cartilage. Have students discuss the importance of cartilage. (Cartilage cushions joints and allows for easier movement. Without it, bone grinds on bone and destroys the bone.)
2. Have the students observe the chicken skin noting the bumps and discussing why they are there. (The bumps are the follicles for the feathers. In some cases, feathers may still be present. If not, there may be pins present. These pins are the clear ends of a feather.)
3. As the students begin pulling off skin, they should note that the skin is attached to the muscle by a thin membrane.
Pose question as to why this is important. (If the skin was not attached to the muscles, then the skin would slip and bunch up.)
4. When the students are finished pulling skin to bottom of the leg (see PowerPoint slide for example of how far to pull skin down), have them examine the muscle noting that it is in bundles rather than in one large piece. Pose the question again as to why this is important (Allows for greater range of motion). Also ask them how the muscles work together if they are individual bundles. (They work together by connected by ligaments and tendons to each other and the bones. As a result, movement is possible.)
5. Have the students begin to separate the muscles using their fingers or the skewer. Remind them to look for ways the muscles are joined together and identify the structures (Tendon muscle to bone. Ligament muscle to muscle or bone to bone).
6. Students should remove all muscles from the bone so that it is exposed (See PowerPoint slide for example of how it should look).
7. Carefully have the students break the bone. The easiest way is to use the edge of the table. Hold the bone over the edge with one hand while applying downward pressure to the other end. I recommend the teacher does the breaking due to possible safety issues.
Safety Note: Teachers need to be careful, as the broken ends are very sharp which could lead to cuts. If his occurs, thoroughly clean wound with soap and water and apply a band aid before finishing lab.
8. Using the skewer, the students may remove the bone marrow and examine.
Explain: What will the students and teacher do so students have opportunities to clarify their ideas, reach a conclusion or generalization, and communicate what they know to others?
Students will discuss their findings during the lab with their partners. They will then will share out with the whole class focusing on what is an opinion and what can be backed up with facts or research. Remember if they say it "looks like" it is an inference or opinion. "It is brown, lumpy, etc." is an observation. Then have them record the information in their lab journals. Questions should also be recorded to be researched via computer to determine validity of information. Time permitting, share out the answers to questions to ensure that accurate information is gleaned from the research.
Elaborate: What will the students do to apply their conceptual understanding and skills to solve a problem, make a decision, perform a task, or make sense of new knowledge?
1. Students will now compare and contrast the cartilage, bone, bone marrow, skin, muscle, tendon and ligament as seen in the chicken leg with the structures in the human leg.
- The human leg is made of cartilage, bone marrow is also red and makes red and white blood cells as is the chicken.
- Our skin also has pores and follicles as does the chicken's skin. We have hair instead of feathers like the chicken. The purpose of feathers, hair, and skin is to regulate body temperature, protect animals from diseases and injury, and prevent dehydration.
2. Then have the students take this information and compare it to the structures of plants and how they correlate. For example, humans have bones for protection and support. Plants have cell walls to provide protection of cells and support. Stems are for support and transport of nutrients/water. Humans use veins and arteries. Plants have "hair" for purposes of protection similar to hair and feathers. (See examples for comparisons attached)
3. Have students, working in groups, continue this lesson by creating a research paper or Power Point comparing the chicken leg structures to that of a plant. Students should include drawings, labeled illustrations, a thesis statement (see attached example) and concluding statement explaining the connections they make.
Teacher will observe labeled diagrams created by students to assure they have mastered the structures and functions of the structures. The students will extend this lesson by comparing/contrasting the chicken leg to the human leg and then to plant structures creating a Power Point or writing a research paper. The students will develop a thesis statement which introduces the topic clearly (see attached examples). Research and observations will be used to develop facts related to thesis statement/topic linking ideas within and across the categories of information being researched. Students will be evaluated on use of precise language and domain-specific vocabulary (correct scientific vocabulary) used to explain their comparisons and research. The students should also provide a concluding statement that explains the information/arguments/connections they have made while relating the chicken leg structures to plant structures (see attached example comparisons).
Students will record ten things in their science journals they observed about the chicken leg during the dissection. Students will also record any additional questions they have about the dissection. The teacher will have the students share this information at the end of the lab for group discussion.
Feedback to Students
Students will formulate any questions they have before the lab begins that they want answered during the lab. After the lab, the students will work in groups to answer as many of their questions as possible before whole group discussion. After the whole group discussion, students will draw a diagram, label it and describe the functions of structures based on their observations and any feedback from whole group discussion. The teacher will evaluate the diagrams created by the students to ensure accuracy.