Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
- Identify and describe the use of the scientific method in a real world scenario.
- Cite specific and relevant text evidence to support analysis of the text.
- Use various vocabulary strategies to define academic and domain-specific words in the text.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
- Students should have basic knowledge of the characteristics of science and its methods.
- If students need a review, Live Science provides a good summary of the characteristics of science and the scientific methods.
- This short video by Teacher's Pet gives a detailed but clear review of the scientific method.
- This longer video called The Times and Troubles of Scientific Method does a great job of reviewing the scientific method, but it also discusses how some answers in science are not found by following the scientific method.
- Students should have general knowledge of the link between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. This will enable students to better understand the benefits of the algae-sea slug relationship.
- If students need a review of this concept, CPALMS provides a tutorial called Energy and Carbon in Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. This would be an appropriate homework assignment for students before you begin this lesson.
- This short video shows the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. The video does not have any narration, so it can be used as a review or tutorial depending on what is needed in the classroom.
- Students should have general knowledge of protein synthesis.
- If students need a review of this concept, CPALMS provides a tutorial called Protein Synthesis: Your Personal Protein Factory. This would be an appropriate homework assignment for students before you begin this lesson.
- Teacher's Pet provides another short video that gives a direct yet precise summary of protein synthesis.
- Students should have prior experience utilizing various vocabulary strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words in a text. For this lesson, prior experience in using context clues to determine the meaning of words in a text would be beneficial. In addition, students should have some dictionary skills that will enable them to look up words with multiple meanings and determine the most appropriate meaning based on how a word is used in a text.
- Students should be aware of text features that can help them locate and learn information when reading a text. The text features in A Green Sea Slug Steals Power from Algae include the title and subtitle.
- Students should be aware that authors can organize or structure a text in many different ways. In A Green Sea Slug Steals Power From Algae, some of the text structures include cause/effect and problem/solution.
- Based on the provided writing rubric, students should be able to respond to a writing prompt in a clear, organized manner that includes use of an introduction to establish the main point(s), body paragraph(s) that support the main point(s) and include relevant and specific textual evidence, and a conclusion that supports the main point(s).
- Students should have some awareness that use of transition words or phrases can help a piece of writing flow smoothly from one point or idea to the next. This site provides transitions teachers might provide.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
1. Why are repeated experimentation and peer review important in the process of scientific research?
It is important to continue to test and observe phenomenon to ensure prior observations truly reflect the natural world and are not anomalies. Repeated experimentation allows scientific knowledge to become more robust. In addition to the original scientists conducting many trials, the final results should then be shared with other scientists so that a peer-review is conducted. It is necessary for other scientists to be able to replicate the experiment and obtain the same results. This will eliminate bias that can occur naturally when you are focused on one problem for a long time.
2. What is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
Photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose and oxygen in the presence of sunlight. Glucose is then broken down with the help of oxygen in the process of cellular respiration, which creates ATP, the molecule all living organisms use for energy. The waste products of cellular respiration are carbon dioxide and water, which are used by producers for the process of photosynthesis.
3. How do animals benefit from producers?
Animals consume other organisms, both autotrophs and heterotrophs, to obtain sugars that are then broken down during the process of cellular respiration to generate ATP. The ATP provides an energy source for animals to grow, develop, and reproduce. Producers also release oxygen, which is needed by animals to undergo the process of cellular respiration. Carbon dioxide is a waste product of cellular respiration that can be transformed into sugars with the help of water and sunlight.
4. How do genes play a role in cellular processes such as photosynthesis?
Genes provide the "blueprints" to build proteins. Proteins are used to build cellular structures, organelles as well as enzymes. Photosynthesis is controlled by many enzymes. For example, the enzyme RUBISCO is used in one step of the production of glucose.
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
1. Begin by having students do the "The Puzzle Theory" lab.
- Divide a 1000 piece puzzle (no edges) into 6-8 envelopes.
- Provide groups of students with an envelope and have them remove one piece and describe what they believe the picture of the puzzle will look like.
- Have them repeat the previous step but remove 10 pieces, then 15 pieces, then 20 pieces.
- After each removal, have students revise their idea of what the picture of the puzzle will look like.
- Then ask students to walk around the class and look what the other students have found.
- Have the students revise their idea of what the picture looks like one last time.
- Show the students the picture from the puzzle box.
- Discuss how students gained knowledge and revised their ideas through multiple examinations of puzzle pieces.
2. Ask students how they used prior knowledge to help identify the image of the puzzle.
- Students may respond that they created mental images of objects that they are familiar with and then compared these images to what they were observing with the puzzle.
3. Ask students: how are discoveries made?
- Students may respond that discoveries are made by being in the right place at the right time. In addition they may discuss hard work, passion for their work, or use of the scientific method.
4. End the discussion by informing students that they will be reading an article that explores a recent discovery about the relationship between sea slugs and algae. Inform students that as they read the article they should be looking at how the scientists use the scientific method in their discovery of a new link between sea slugs and algae.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
1. Provide each student with a printed copy of "A Green Sea Slug Steals Power from Algae."
- For class discussions that will follow, it might be helpful to have students number each paragraph in the article.
2. As students read through the article, have them underline examples of the following parts of the scientific method:
3. Provide each student with a note-taking guide.
4. Before students begin reading, direct them to pay attention to the text features of the article to help them learn and locate information:
o Title: A Green Sea Slug Steals Power from Algae
o Subtitle: The discovery makes this a true plant-animal hybrid
5. Have students fill out the note-taking guide as they read the text. This can be done individually, in pairs, or in small groups. The teacher should monitor students as they work and provide support and guidance as needed.
o For academic vocabulary, students will likely be able to use a variety of vocabulary strategies to define the meaning of the words. For domain-specific (in other words, subject-specific) vocabulary, students will typically need to draw on prior knowledge and use a dictionary to define the words.
o Based on the needs and skills of the students, the teacher can decrease the number of academic or domain-specific vocabulary students will define on the note-taking guide.
6. If students struggle with determining the meaning of the selected academic vocabulary teachers may offer the following tips;
- Hybrid: Encourage students to use a dictionary; there are multiple definitions. The term hybrid in the context of cars may be more familiar to students. Tell students that this use has the same meaning as in the article; the combination of more than one type of "thing." However, this article is using hybrid in the context of more than one type of organism.
- Fluorescent: Encourage students to use context clues to define. In this article, the author talks about how researchers use fluorescent DNA markers to light up algal genes. Using this sentence, students may be able to derive that fluorescent means capable of lighting up, glowing.
- Multicellular: Encourage students to explore the meanings of prefixes and suffixes. Multi- means more than one, and cellular referring to cells.
Formative Assessment (How will teachers check for student understanding?
1. Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting their completed note-taking guides, checking their work, providing written feedback, or grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
2. Teachers should use the sample answer key provided with the note-taking guide to help them assess students' answers.
3. For discussion of students' answers to the defined vocabulary words, teachers are encouraged to not only ask students to explain the meaning they determined for a word, but the strategy they used to arrive at that meaning. This will allow the teacher to provide alternative suggestions as to how the student could have arrived at the correct meaning of the word.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond:
- Students may believe that the sea slug-algae relationship is another example of mutualism. In mutualism both organisms benefit: for example, the mutualistic relationship between zooxanthallae and coral. The coral provides protection for the zooxanthallae and the zooxanthallae provides food for the coral. In the sea slug-algae relationship, the sea slug consumes the algae. As the algae is consumed, the slug retains the plastids and genes needed for photosynthesis. This would be more of a parasitic relationship. One organism receives benefits while the other is harmed.
- Based on the results from this research, scientists have found the only example of a plant-animal hybrid. As of now, this may be the only example where gene transfer between multicellular organisms has been observed. However, prior to this research it was believed that this phenomenon only existed amongst bacteria. So it then may be possible with further research, to discover more plant-animal hybrids. In addition, there is also the possibility that as the research obtains more peer-review and is researched further that some of the finding may have to be changed or modified. Scientists do not currently have all the information.
- Students should also be reminded that scientific method does not have to follow a specific order. In addition, they should also be reminded that just because a scientist doesn't find all the answers the first time, doesn't mean the problem is answered. Collaboration is an essential element in scientific method.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
Provide each student with a copy of the text-dependent questions to complete. Students should be reminded to continually refer back to the text and to use relevant and specific evidence from the text to support their answers.
Formative Assessment (How will you check for student understanding?):
1. Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting their answers to the text-dependent questions, checking their work, providing written feedback, and maybe grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share out their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
2. Teachers should use the sample answer keyprovided with the text-dependent questions to help them assess students' answers.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond: Please see the text-dependent questions sample answer key.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
1. Before students complete the writing prompt, be sure to review their responses to the other text-dependent questions as a class, including covering the misconceptions and key points described in the sample answer key.
2. Before assigning the writing prompt, have students read "The Story of Serendipity" from Understanding Science. The information provided in this text will be integrated into their response to the writing prompt.
3. After students' written responses have been graded and returned with feedback, teachers might wish to use the provided sample response with the class. The teacher could show the sample response on an overhead or with an LCD projector and discuss:
- How the topic is introduced in the opening sentences of the introductory paragraph; have students identify the main point of the piece. Brainstorm with students other ways the writer could have opened the piece.
- Have students examine each of the body paragraphs and explain how each supports the main point of the piece.
- Have students identify where the writer effectively uses textual evidence from the article for support of his or her points.
- Have students identify the use of transition words or phrases that make the ideas flow.
- Ask students to identify where domain-specific vocabulary is used accurately and effectively.
- Have students read the final paragraph to see how the writer wrapped up the piece and connected back to the main point established in the introduction.
4. Teachers may have students use the rubric to provide a score for the sample written response and have them justify the score they gave, possibly providing revision suggestions for any categories they scored lower than a 4.
1. Have students turn in an "exit ticket" listing the following:
- An interesting fact from the lesson.
- One thing you still have a question about.
- One thing you still want to learn.
2. Elevator speech
Ask students to summarize the main idea in under 60 seconds to another student acting as a well-known personality who works in your discipline. After summarizing, students should identify why the famous person might find the idea significant.
1. Students will individually respond to the writing prompt. They should be directed to respond with a multi-paragraph response, with a clear introduction, body section, and conclusion. They must refer back to both texts as they construct their response.
2. Provide students with a copy of the rubric and go over it with them so they will know how their written responses will be assessed.
3. Go over the writing prompt with students and make sure students understand what the prompt is asking them to address. Encourage students to underline key parts of the prompt as the teacher goes over it so they will remember to answer all the required parts:
- As quoted in the Story of Serendipity, "even when scientists feel that they just got lucky, the steps leading to a new finding or idea tell a different story." Describe the steps that lead to the discovery of the plant-animal hybrid. Then discuss an attribute of the scientists that assisted them in making this discovery.
4. Teachers will use the rubric to assess students' written responses.
Specific suggestions for conducting Formative Assessment can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson where it says, "How will you check for student understanding?"
Feedback to Students
Specific suggestions for conducting Feedback to Students can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson where it says, "How will you check for student understanding?"