In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area.The article explains the advancements that scientists have made in understanding blood types. By reading and synthesizing the text, students will explore a real-world example of how scientific knowledge becomes more robust and durable through investigations. This lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.
Subject(s): Science, English Language Arts
Grade Level(s): 9, 10
Document Camera, Computer for Presenter, Internet Connection, LCD Projector, Speakers/Headphones, Microsoft Office
Resource supports reading in content area:Yes
Keywords: blood types, ABO blood group, antigens, antibody, immune system, Rh factor, scientific knowledge, paternity, infectious disease, Rh blood group, Duffy blood group, text complexity, informational text
Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students should be able to:
- Identify recent discoveries made in understanding blood types and explain how they contribute to the strength of science.
- Cite specific and relevant text evidence to support analysis of a text.
- Determine the meaning of unknown academic and domain-specific words in a text.
- Construct a written response that clearly establishes the main point(s), contains relevant textual evidence to support the main point, utilizes transitions to maintain flow, effectively uses domain-specific vocabulary, and provides an appropriate conclusion.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
- Students should have basic knowledge of the characteristics of science and its methods.
- If students need a review of this concept, Live Science provides a good summary of the characteristics of science and the scientific methods.
- This video titled "The Scientific Method" (4:05, uploaded by YouTube user Teacher's Pet) offers a great summary of the scientific method.
- Students should have general knowledge of the immune system.
- If students need a review of this concept, CPALMS provides an original tutorial called The Immune System. This would be an appropriate homework assignment for students before teachers begin this lesson.
- This video titled "The Immune System Explained" (6:48, uploaded by YouTube user Kurzgesagt - In a Nutshell) offers a quick review for students on the immune system.
- Students should have general knowledge of blood, its composition, and function.
- If students need a review of this concept, the CPALMS approved resource, Blood: The Stuff of Life by MIT Blossoms, provides a great review video. This would be an appropriate homework assignment for students before teachers begin this lesson.
- Students should have prior experience utilizing various vocabulary strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words in a text including use of context clues, word parts, and dictionary skills.
- Students should be aware of text features that can help them locate and learn information when reading a text. The text features in "The Mystery of Human Blood Types" include the title, subtitle, a picture and caption, and a chart with a caption.
- Based on the writing rubric provided with this lesson, students should be able to respond to a writing prompt in a clear, organized manner that includes use of an introduction to establish the main point(s), body paragraph(s) that support the main point(s) and include relevant and specific textual evidence, and a conclusion that supports the main point(s).
- Students should have some awareness that use of transition words or phrases can help a piece of writing flow smoothly from one point or idea to the next. This site provides transitions teachers might provide to help students when they write their multi-paragraph response for the summative assessment.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
- How does scientific knowledge evolve?
- The goal of science is to know, understand, and comprehend the natural world. Scientists seek answers to questions such as how and why. Knowledge is gained through scientific experimentation and this may lead to further explorations or offer new insights into other areas. Consider blood types. Scientists had to first discover that blood has different groups and types. Then scientists questioned the purpose of the different groups and types. This has lead scientists to learn about the associations between blood types and disease.
- What is scientific knowledge and how is it made more durable/robust?
- Scientific knowledge is information gained through a systematic and logical approach to studying the natural world. It is made more durable and robust through the continuous examination and re-examination of claims. As more evidence is accumulated, scientific knowledge becomes more robust, stronger, and durable.
- What istheABO blood group?
- The ABO blood group is one of more than 20 human blood groups. It consists of 4 different types that are differentiated from each other by the presence or absence of certain antigens on red blood cells. For example, type A has A antigens and anti-B antibodies and type O has no antigens and anti-A and –B antibodies.
- What are some discoveries about blood types and their purpose that occurred over the last century?
- Discovery of the ABO blood group enabled doctors to increase their success with blood transfusions. We are aware now that providing a patient with a mismatched blood type will result in complications and potentially death.
- There are associations between blood types and disease. For example, people who are type A are more susceptible to smallpox.
- There are more than 20 known blood groups. The ABO was the first discovered and the most well-known. Another group, the Rh factor, plays a role in eythroblastosis fetalis that can develop in newborns if an Rh negative woman has an Rh positive baby and her antibodies attack her child.
- With some blood groups, like MN, humans don't produce antibodies to attach the antigens.
- Those who lack the Duffy antigen tend to be immune to a form of malaria.
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
- Begin by having the students play the blood typing game on NobelPrize.org.
- Have the students play the game using only their prior knowledge of blood types and blood transfusions. Tell them to complete the following table using the information they learn from the game. Let students make mistakes and learn through trial and error as it will help them in understanding that science is a progress.
Can receive blood from
- On the board, recreate the table above.
- Call on students to complete the table with the information they learned from the blood typing game. As incorrect responses arise, have students discuss what the correct answer might be.
- There are three tutorials that may be reviewed after the game. These tutorials will go through what is blood type, how to blood type, and how to perform a transfusion. Compare the chart on the board with the chart in the tutorials.
- Next, ask students: "With the completion of the chart, how does this information show that science is a progress?"
- Students might respond that science is not certain. Experiments allow us to discover and learn about nature, and as new evidence is presented, ideas about nature evolve.
- Ask students: "What is the importance of knowing one's blood type?"
- Students might respond that if a person is in need of a blood transfusion receives the wrong type of blood, their body may reject the blood, which could potentially result in death.
- Ask the students: "Why do humans have different blood types? Does it pose an advantage to have one type of blood versus another?"
- Some responses may include the following: Like our skin, which evolved in different shades to protect us from different levels of UV radiation, blood types may have evolved to protect us from certain environmental conditions.
- End the discussion by informing students that we will be reading an article that explores blood types and the recent discoveries scientists have made about the associations between blood types and diseases. Tell students that scientists still don't have a definitive purpose behind the existence of blood types. Inform students that as they read the article they should be looking at how scientists are examining and re-examining discoveries to build knowledge on the purpose of blood types.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
- Provide each student with a copy of the article "The Mystery of Human Blood Types." For class discussions that will follow, it might be helpful to have students number each paragraph within the article.
- Provide each student with a note-taking guide.
- Before students begin reading, direct them to pay attention to the text features of the article to help them learn and locate information:
- Title: "The Mystery of Human Blood Types"
- Subtitle: The ABO blood group evolved at least 20 million years ago, but scientists still don't understand the purpose of blood types.
- Direct their attention to one photograph and caption, and one chart and caption.
- If students struggle with determining the meaning of some terms in the text, teachers might use the following tips:
- Trigger – Encourage students to use a dictionary. There are multiple meanings for trigger. Have students plug in the meanings into the text to determine which meaning is the correct one. (Trigger: anything, as an act or event, that serves as a stimulus and initiates or precipitates a reaction or series of reactions)
- Transfusion – Encourage students to use context clues to define this word. In this article, the author talks about how doctors have to make sure a donor's blood type is compatible with the recipient's blood. Using this sentence, students might be able to derive that transfusion means the transfer of blood from one individual to another.
- Antibody – Encourage students to explore the meanings of prefixes and suffixes. Dictionary.com defines the prefix anti- as against. Body is defined as the physical structure of a living thing.
- Compatible - Encourage students to use prefixes. Com- means with, together, or in association. (Compatible: Capable of being grafted, transfused, or transplanted from one individual to another without reaction or rejection.)
- Elicit - Students might be able to use context clues to determine that elicit means to evoke. In paragraph two, in the sentence after elicit is used, the text describes a response that is brought about.
- Paternity - Have students think about the word paternal, which means of or relating to a father, to determine this word's meaning.
- Susceptible - Encourage students to use context clues. Susceptible is used at the end of paragraph three. In the same sentence where it is used, the text states "appear more affected;" this could help students determine the meaning of susceptible (especially liable or subject to some influence or agency; likely to be affected with a disease, infection, or condition).
- Have students fill out the note-taking guide as they read the text. This can be done individually, in pairs, or in small groups. The teacher should monitor students as they work and provide support and guidance as needed.
- For academic vocabulary, students will likely be able to use a variety of vocabulary strategies to define the meaning of the words. For domain-specific (in other words, subject-specific) vocabulary, students will typically need to draw on prior knowledge and use a dictionary to define the words.
- Based on the needs and skills of the students, the teacher can increase or decrease the number of vocabulary students will define on the note-taking guide.
How will you check for student understanding? (Formative Assessment):
- Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting their completed note-taking guides, checking their work, providing written feedback, or grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
- Teachers should use the sample answer key provided at the end of the note-taking guide to help them assess students' answers.
- For discussion of students' answers to the defined vocabulary words, teachers are encouraged to not only ask students to explain the meaning they determined for a word, but the strategy they used to arrive at that meaning. This will allow the teacher to provide alternative suggestions as to how the student could have arrived at the correct meaning of the word.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond:
- Students may believe that the only function of blood is to provide nutrients and transfer waste. Blood also aids the immune system by transferring white blood cells and platelets.
- Students may think that science is certain. However, science is a work in progress. Ideas continue to evolve as new evidence is presented. Continued examinations help to strengthen the body of scientific knowledge.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
Provide each student with a copy of the text-dependent questions to complete. Students should be reminded to continually refer back to the text and to use relevant and specific evidence from the text to support their answers.
How will you check for student understanding? (Formative Assessment):
- Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting their answers to the text-dependent questions, checking their work, providing written feedback, and maybe grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share out their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
- Teachers should use the sample answer key provided with the text-dependent questions to help them assess students' answers.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond: Please see the text-dependent questions answer key.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
- Before students complete the writing prompt for the summative assessment, be sure to review their responses to the other text-dependent questions as a class, including covering the misconceptions and key points described in the sample answer key.
- After students' written responses have been graded and returned with feedback, teachers might wish to use the provided sample response with the class. The teacher could show the sample response on an overhead or withanLCD projector and discuss:
- How the topic is introduced in the introductory paragraph; have students identify the main point of the piece. Brainstorm with students other ways the writer could have opened the essay. (The writer could have started with a hook. Various 'hook' strategies include use of an attention getting quote, thoughtful question, statistic, shocking statement, vivid description, anecdote, etc.)
- Have students examine each of the body paragraphs and explain how each supports the main point of the piece.
- Have students identify where the writer effectively uses textual evidence from the article for support of his or her points.
- Have students identify the use of transition words or phrases that make the ideas flow.
- Ask students to identify where domain-specific vocabulary is used accurately and effectively.
- Have students read the final paragraph to see how the writer wrapped up the essay and connected back to the main point established in the introduction.
- Teachers might have students use the rubric to provide a score for the sample written response and have them justify the score they gave, possibly providing revision suggestions for any categories they scored lower than a 4.
To close the lesson:
- Have students turn in an exit ticket listing the following:
- An interesting fact from the lesson.
- One thing you still have a question about.
- One thing you still want to learn about in more detail.
- Allow the students to go back and play the blood typing game again now that they have learned more about blood typing.
- Students will individually respond to the writing prompt. They should be directed to respond with a multi-paragraph response, with a clear introduction, body section, and conclusion.
- Provide students with a copy of the rubric and go over it with them so they will know how their written response will be assessed.
- Go over the writing prompt with students and make sure students understand what the prompt is asking them to address. Encourage students to underline key parts of the prompt as the teacher goes over it so they will remember to answer all the required parts.
- The prompt: Scientific knowledge can change because it is often examined and re-examined through investigations. Though the article "The Mystery of Human Blood Types" presents us with one of science's unanswered questions, it does provide us with an example as to how scientific knowledge changes as new evidence is presented. Use evidence from the article to show how scientific knowledge is open to change and explain the importance of these findings.
- Teachers will use the rubric to assess students' written responses.
Specific suggestions for conducting Formative Assessment can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson where it says, "How will you check for student understanding?"
Feedback to Students
Specific suggestions for providing Feedback to Students can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson.
Accommodations & Recommendations
For students struggling with the science content:
- This ten-minute Crash Course video offers a detailed introduction to blood types, blood composition, and function for students who may benefit from receiving the information in a visual format. This video may be shown before students read the text "The Mystery of Human Blood Types."
- ScienceBuddies has a great website that reviews scientific methods, provides science project ideas, and provides a guide on performing science projects. Teachers may ask struggling students to read through this website.
For struggling readers:
- Teachers might want to fill in some of the answers on the chart, leaving others for students to complete on their own.
- It might benefit students to chunk the text. Have students independently read section one, then have several strong readers read section one aloud. Repeat this process for additional sections of the text.
- Students can highlight selected vocabulary as each section of the article is read. The teacher can work with students to model ways to define a few of the vocabulary words to get them started. The teacher can think aloud as he or she decides which vocabulary strategy or strategies to use to define a word, and as he or she works to define a word's meaning. Then students can work together to determine the meaning of additional vocabulary, report out their definitions and receive feedback on their work.
For struggling writers:
It might help struggling writers to provide them with an outline to help them structure their response for the summative assessment. The outline might include places for them to record:
- Ideas on how to introduce the topic
- A few specifics from the text they might want to use to support or explain the topic
- A place to write down their main point(s)
- Topic sentences (the first sentence of each body paragraph that will reveal the point of the paragraph and will connect to the paper’s overall main point)
- Specific evidence from the text for support in each body paragraph
- Ideas for transition words
- Ideas for use of selected vocabulary
- Ideas on how to wrap up their piece and connect back to the main point(s)
Students could complete "The Puzzle Theory" lab.
- Divide a 1000-piece puzzle (no edges) into 6-8 envelopes.
- Provide groups of students with an envelope and have them remove one piece and describe what they believe the picture of the puzzle will look like.
- Have them repeat the previous step but removing 10 pieces, then 15 pieces, then 20 pieces.
- After each removal, have students revise their idea of what the picture of the puzzle will look like.
- Show the students the picture from the puzzle box.
- Discuss how students gained knowledge and revised their ideas through multiple examinations of puzzle pieces.
Suggested Technology: Document Camera, Computer for Presenter, Internet Connection, LCD Projector, Speakers/Headphones, Microsoft Office
For teachers who would like more support in understanding and implementing Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects into their science curriculum, please see the teacher tutorials featured in the section of this lesson's CPALMS resource page labeled "Attached Resources."
The text's grade band recommendation reflects the shifts inherent in the Florida Standards and is based on a text complexity analysis of a quantitative measure, qualitative rubric, and reader and task considerations.
Source and Access Information
Name of Author/Source: Heather Singler
District/Organization of Contributor(s): Miami-Dade
Access Privileges: Public
* Please note that examples of resources are not intended as complete curriculum.