Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
- Explain why monitoring the patterns of leptospirosis infection is important for developing strategies to combat the disease
- Describe the types of environmental risk factors that promote the spread of leptospirosis
- Explain the relationship between environmental factors, humans, and the transmission of leptospirosis
- Cite specific and relevant text evidence to support analysis of the text
- Use various vocabulary strategies to define academic and domain-specific words in the text
- Construct a written response that clearly establishes a main point, contains relevant textual evidence to support the main point, utilizes transitions to maintain flow, effectively uses domain-specific vocabulary, and provides an appropriate conclusion
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
- General knowledge of bacterial diseases and characteristics; if students need a refresher, have them review the following information and slide show.
- Basic knowledge of microbial transmission; review the information in this link as needed.
- A basic understanding of how environmental conditions can lead to the spread of disease, focusing on the relationship to social factors.
- Students should have prior experience utilizing various vocabulary strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words in a text. For this lesson, prior experience in using context clues to determine the meaning of words in a text would be beneficial. In addition, students should have some dictionary skills that will enable them to look up words with multiple meanings and determine the most appropriate meaning based on how a word is used in a text.
- Students should be aware of text features that can help them locate and learn information when reading a text. The text features in the NSF article used in this lesson include: title, subheadings, photographs, and captions.
- Based on the rubric provided with this lesson, students should be able to respond to a writing prompt in a clear, organized manner that includes use of an introduction to establish the main point(s), a body paragraph(s) that support the main point(s) and includes relevant and specific textual evidence, and a conclusion that supports the main point(s).
- Students should have some awareness that use of transition words or phrases can help a piece of writing flow smoothly from one point or idea to the next.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
1. Why is leptospirosis a concern for human health, and what are some ways scientists are hoping to control the spread and transmission of this disease?
- Leptospirosis is a concern for human health because it can affect a wide variety of people in a wide variety of settings. It is most often found in tropical regions, but if an area is warm and wet, the bacteria can be found. There are several different ways in which the disease is spread, and people may not know they are coming into contact with the bacteria. It has been found in developed countries mostly in people who participate in outdoor activities such as camping or water sports. In less developed countries, it has been found in areas with high concentration of rodents and contaminated water. Because of the negative impact on human health, the research and models developed are used to make recommendations and strategies for communities where the disease is prevalent.
2. Why is it important to identify the environmental risk factors that lead to the transmission of diseases (specifically leptospirosis)?
- The recognition and identification of potential sources and high-risk behaviors for contracting leptospirois is vital to stopping and eventually preventing the disease from spreading. Scientists know the general conditions Leptospira is found in, but they are trying to link the environmental factors to economic and social conditions as well. By knowing this information, it will be easier to see patterns and trends in the types of communities it might show up in. The goal of this research is to have enough information to provide those areas most affected with a way to decrease the presence of the disease.
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
1. Begin the lesson by asking the students to brainstorm in groups and write down everything they know about bacteria. Allow approximately 10 minutes for this task; then have the groups share their findings with the rest of the class.
- Students will probably say they are microscopic, pathogenic, involved in the nitrogen cycle, involved in biotechnology, etc. Explain to the students that bacteria are both beneficial as well as harmful to other organisms.
2. Next ask students: "What different types of diseases that you know of are caused by bacteria?"
- Students might be able to say strep throat, tuberculosis, tetanus, etc. Most likely many students will mention diseases caused by other pathogens. Respond to incorrect answers as needed.
3. Next ask students: "How are bacterial diseases transmitted?"
- Students might suggest eating contaminated food or water, getting the bacteria from other people or animals. (See prior knowledge link if needed on transmission if needed.)
4. Next ask students: "Why is it important to know about the factors that spread a disease?"
- They might suggest the more we know about factors that transmit a disease, the less likely we are to get the disease by knowing and taking the necessary precautions.
5. Introduce the disease leptospirosis by showing the following video and news clips. Explain to students how this bacterial disease is becoming more common and how the increase in habitat destruction and climate change might increase the spread of leptospirosis.
6. Finally, tell students they will be reading and analyzing an article that focuses on leptospirosis and the factors that contribute to infection and exposure. Explain to them the importance of the research in gathering data to make recommendations and strategies for communities at risk.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
1. Provide each student with a copy of the article. For class discussions that will follow, it might be helpful to have students number all 6 sections, as well as the paragraphs within each section.
2. Provide each student with a note-taking guide. Have students complete this guide during or after their first reading of the article. Make sure to provide print or online dictionaries for students to use for the vocabulary section.
- Based on the needs and skills of the students, teachers can decrease the number of academic or domain-specific vocabulary students will define on the note-taking guide.
- For academic vocabulary, students will likely be able to use a variety of vocabulary strategies to define the meaning of the words. For domain-specific (subject-specific) vocabulary, students will typically need to draw on prior knowledge, use context clues, and/or use a dictionary to define the words.
- Students can work individually, in pairs, or in small groups.
3. If students struggle with determining the meaning of the selected vocabulary, teachers might use the following tips to help them:
- Meningitis (paragraph 3): swelling of the protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord. There are not any context clues for this specific word; however, students should realize it has something to with a serious health condition, since it is listed as a symptom of leptospirosis and is considered severe. Students should use a dictionary.
- Proximity (paragraph 7): nearness to. There are a few context clues for this word ("infection is linked to") and clues related to infected animals. If students are unable to determine the definition, have them use a dictionary.
- Epidemiology (multiple uses): science of how diseases can spread, how they are caused, how they can be controlled. Students will probably be able to determine by the suffix -ology that it is some type of science or study. It is referenced with different types of data and factors involved with the spread of the disease. Have students use a dictionary as needed.
- Urban (paragraph 14): relating to cities. There are context clues provided for students to determine the meaning of this word. When communities are being described, the word refers to slums, which are usually found in cities, and then they mention rural villages and farms, which should give them context as well.
- Trough (paragraph 20): a long shallow container animals drink from. There are context clues for the students to use to determine the meaning of the word: "when scientists collected water."
Formative Assessment (How will teachers check for student understanding?):
1. Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting students' completed note-taking guides, checking their work, providing written feedback, or grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share out their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
2. Teachers can use this sample answer key to help them assess students' answers.
3. For discussion on students' answers to the defined vocabulary words, teachers are encouraged to not only ask students to explain the meaning they determined for a word, but the strategy they used to arrive at that meaning. This will allow the teacher to provide alternative suggestions as to how the student could have arrived at the correct meaning of the word.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond:
- Students might believe everyone who gets leptospirosis becomes very sick. Some people who contract the bacteria do not have any symptoms, while others might only have mild flu-like symptoms.
- Explain to students that leptospirosis is considered a zoonotic disease (passed from animals to humans), but that there have been rare cases of human-to-human transmission.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
Provide each student with a copy of the text-dependent questions to complete. Students should be reminded to continually refer back to the text and to use relevant and specific evidence from the text to support their answers.
Formative Assessment (How will teachers check for student understanding?):
1. Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting students' answers to the text-dependent questions, checking their work, providing written feedback, and maybe grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share out their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
2. Teachers can use the sample answer key at the end of the text-dependent questions document to help them assess students' answers.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond: See the answer key for the text-dependent questions.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
1. Before students complete the writing assignment for the summative assessment, review the responses to the text-dependent questions completed earlier by the students. Make sure the misconceptions are corrected and the key points (as found in the sample answer key) are discussed.
2. After students' written responses have been graded and returned with feedback, teachers might wish to use the provided sample response with the class. Students who are struggling writers can benefit greatly from seeing a well-organized, detailed written response. The teacher could show the sample response on an overhead or with an LCD projector and discuss some of the following:
- How the topic is introduced in the opening sentences of the introductory paragraph; have students identify the main point of the piece. Brainstorm with students other ways the writer could have opened the piece.
- Have students examine each of the body paragraphs and explain how each supports the main point of the piece. Have students identify where the writer effectively uses textual evidence from the article for support of his or her points.
- Have students identify the use of transition words or phrases that make the ideas flow.
- Ask students to identify where domain-specific vocabulary is used accurately and effectively.
- Have students read the final paragraph to see how the writer wrapped up the piece and connected back to the main point established in the introduction.
1. Ask students to sketch or draw three concepts they learned from the lesson (remind them of the lesson objectives), and then label them. Allow approximately 5-10 minutes.
2. Students can share their results with the class or turn them into the teacher. Teachers may use this as another formative assessment to help them prepare for the next day's lesson.
1. Students will individually respond to the writing prompt. They should be directed to respond with a multi-paragraph response with a clear introduction, body section, and conclusion. They can refer back to the text as they construct their response.
2. Provide students with a copy of the rubric and go over it with them so they will know how their written response will be assessed.
3. Go over the writing prompt with students and make sure students understand what the prompt is asking them to address.
Many factors are involved in the transmission of leptospirosis. Using evidence from the text, explain the relationship between social, epidemiological and environmental conditions and how they influence the spread of leptospirosis.
4. Teachers will use the rubric to assess students' written responses.
Specific suggestions for conducting Formative Assessment can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson where it says, "How will you check for student understanding?"
Feedback to Students
Specific suggestions for conducting Feedback to Students can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson where it says, "How will you check for student understanding?"