Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What will students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will be able to
- Use only reactants to classify single-replacement reactions.
- Apply the concept of metal reactivity (activity series) to predict whether a single-replacement reaction will take place.
- Predict the product of a single-replacement reaction.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students should already be able to:
- Write chemical formulas.
- Name binary ionic compounds and polyatomic ionic compounds.
- Balance chemical equations.
- Classify single-replacement reactions.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
What will be the main question(s) for students to investigate?
- What does one metal displacing another metal depend upon in a single-replacement reaction?
- How can you predict whether or not a single-replacement reaction will take place?
Predict: What event, related to the focus topic, that may surprise students, will the students make a prediction about?
What provocative phenomenon/event will students make a prediction about?
The students will predict if a single-replacement reaction between solid copper and aqueous zinc sulfate will take place.
Instructions for setting up the demonstration/lab:
For the P.O.E., the teacher will demonstrate the lesson using materials listed on the attached Handout. He/she will allow students to observe a piece of solid copper and a solution of zinc sulfate. The teacher will then drop the piece of solid copper into the zinc sulfate and allow the students to observe the zinc sulfate over time.
How will students record their predictions and justifications?
The students will record their predictions and justifications on the attached P.O.E. Introduction.
Observe: What will the students observe and/or infer during this step of the lesson? How will students communicate their observations and inferences?
The students will notice that nothing happens (no chemical reaction will take place). The students will record their observations on the attached Introduction.
What will students be asked to observe and/or infer about the phenomenon/event?
The students will look for indications of a chemical change. For example, color change, formation of a gas, energy transformation, formation of a precipitate.
How will students record their observations and inferences?
The students will record their observations and inferences on the P.O.E Introduction that has been uploaded with this lesson plan.
How will you check for student understanding?
The students will use a self-rating system to indicate their level of understanding what they observed in the first P.O.E activity. The rating system is as follows:
Level 1 is the lowest level of understanding and means the student cannot complete the assessment even with help,
level 2 indicates the student can apply the concept with help,
level 3 indicates the student can apply the concept on their own, but struggles with explaining why,
level 4 indicates the student can apply the concept, explain their reasoning, and teach the concept to other students.
Explain: How will students be encouraged to develop explanations using their observations and scientific or mathematical concepts or principles?
The students will be encouraged to use their previous knowledge to explain why nothing happened. Since this is an introduction to single-replacement reactions and the activity series, they will not have the reasoning of metal reactivity being the reason why the reaction did not take place.
How will students share their observations and inferences?
- The students will share their observations and inferences with their shoulder partner.
- They will each take turns explaining what they think happened during the experiment, meaning why nothing happened.
Instructions for leading the closing discussion:
The teacher should explain that just because you mix two substances doesn't mean you will always see a chemical reaction. Factors such as the type of chemical reaction, reactivity of metals, and temperature at which the reaction takes place all play a major role in whether or not a chemical reaction will take place.
Key talking points about the phenomenon:
- The type of chemical reaction we attempted to view (used the word "attempted" because the reaction did not take place), is classified as a single-replacement reaction. All single-replacement reactions depend upon the reactivity levels of the single element that is displacing an element from an aqueous compound. The single element must be higher in reactivity to displace the element that is within the compound (see single-replacement reactions handout-attachment).
- After the P.O.E., allow students time to read and take notes over single-replacement reactions.
- The students will read the section over single-replacement reactions in the textbook or the attached Single-Replacement Reactions Handout with their shoulder partner, while reading they will take notes over single-replacement reactions and how to use the activity series to predict the products of a single-replacement reaction using the attached Cornell Notes Template. The students will then share their findings with their shoulder partner, and if necessary add to their notes.
- Whether the students use the textbook or Single-Replacement Reactions Handout is up to the teacher!
- How to use a Cornell Notes Template:
Have the students to record their notes in the notes section Template, then generate their own questions from the notes (discourage students from rewriting the essential questions). These questions should be written under the Questions Section of the Template. Student questions do not have to be higher-ordered, but must be inquisitive enough to guide the students in answering the guided inquiry question for the Activity of Metals Lesson. Then students should write a summary about what they learned from the lesson over single-replacement reactions.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond:
- Students believe that if any two substances are mixed a chemical reaction will always take place, especially in a chemistry class (students expect to always see a chemical change). Explain to the students that for single-replacement reactions, whether or not the chemical reaction will take place depends upon the reactivity of the metals involved.
- Students forget to use the activity series to predict if a single-replacement reaction will take place. Constantly remind the students to classify their reaction first, and if they notice it is a single-replacement reaction they should use the activity series to predict if they should see a chemical change when the solid metal is dropped into the aqueous solution.
How will the students show that they met the learning objectives?
The summative assessment will be a Re-P.O.E activity that uses a different metal and a different aqueous solution (see attached Summative Assessment). For the Re-P.O.E. Summative Assessment, the teacher will demonstrate the lesson. He/she will allow students to observe a piece of solid magnesium and a solution of zinc chloride, and then make a prediction about what they expect to happen when combined together in a test tube. The teacher will then drop the piece of solid magnesium into the zinc chloride and allow the students to observe the zinc chloride over time. As the students are going through the predict, observe, and explain phases of the Re-P.O.E. the teacher will roam throughout the classroom observing the student Re-P.O.E. activity, listening to student responses, and providing feedback as necessary. The students will also rate their understanding (See Rating System under OBSERVE) once they have completed the activity, and the teacher will provide feedback according to each students level of understanding.
The teacher will use the student data to determine if he/she will need to review before moving on to the next day's lesson.
Specific suggestions for conducting Formative Assessment can be found in the Observe phase of the lesson under the sub-heading, "How will you check for student understanding?"
Feedback to Students
- Specific suggestions for providing Feedback to Students can be found in the Explain phase of the lesson where it says, "Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond" and based upon the ratings they provide after the summative assessment.
- The students may be grouped according to their ratings. For example, each group will have at least one student of each level (a level 1, 2, 3 and 4). The students will share their ratings and explanations; the level 4 student will provide clarification for all students in their group. The teacher will roam the room as a facilitator answering questions as needed.