Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
- Relate structure to function of cells by explaining the role of the lysosome in a eukaryotic cell, and explaining the process of exocytosis
- Explain why it is important for scientists to have an understanding of cellular biology and the processes that occur in cells
- Cite specific and relevant text evidence to support analysis of a text
- Determine the meaning of selected domain-specific vocabulary used in a text
- Provide an accurate summary of a text
- Construct a written response that clearly establishes the main point(s), contains relevant textual evidence to support the main point, utilizes transitions to maintain flow, effectively uses domain-specific vocabulary, and provides a concluding statement
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
In regards to science:
- Students should have a basic knowledge of cell organelles and their functions.
- Students should understand the definition of homeostasis and why it is important that cells maintain a constant internal environment.
- Students should know that one method of maintaining homeostasis is through the removal of cellular waste.
- Students should understand there are diseases and illnesses that are caused by defective cellular function.
In regards to literacy:
- Students should have prior experience utilizing various vocabulary strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words in a text. For this lesson, prior experience in using context clues to determine the meaning of words in a text would be beneficial.
- Students should be aware of text features that can help them locate and learn information when reading a text. The text features in the text for this lesson include: title, headings, images, and captions.
- Students should be able to respond to a writing prompt in a clear, organized manner that includes use of an introduction to establish the main point(s), a body paragraph(s) that support the main point(s) and includes relevant and specific textual evidence, and a concluding statement.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
1. What would happen if the lysosomes were removed from a cell?
Cells rely on their organelles in order to function properly and remain healthy. Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes inside of them allowing them to perform a variety of jobs. These jobs include the digestion of old or worn out organelles, food particles, and viruses.
2. Why is it necessary for cells to dispose of unwanted material?
Cells need to get rid of their waste in order to stay balanced or the cell may die or not work properly. If there is a build up of unwanted proteins within the cell, there can be reactions that ultimately could lead to cancer or other diseases. If there are old or worn out organelles within the cells, those organelles can be recycled and the material may be used again by the cell for growth and other needs.
3. How does scientific development rely on our knowledge of cells?
All diseases and disorders are problems or mistakes that occur at the cellular or molecular level. If we are to understand what is actually occurring inside of the cell for someone who has Alzheimer's, cancer, or diabetes, scientists must clearly recognize what is happening inside the individual cell. As a result, scientists and doctors can design new treatments and medicines that are more effective.
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
Lesson opener/attention getter:
1. Begin the lesson by reviewing the cell organelles and their main function. The teacher may have three dimensional models of the cells to review the organelles. Students are likely to remember the main parts of the cell: Nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts (plant cells), cell membrane, etc. It will be necessary to review the other organelles and structures, as well including the lysosome and vesicles. Teachers may want to show this seven minute video to review the parts of the cell.
2. Ask students how the cell maintains homeostasis. Remind students that homeostasis means maintaining an internal stable environment. One way cells maintain homeostasis is by getting rid of waste. Cells can get rid of waste in many ways.
(Homeostasis refers to the internal balance or equilibrium within a cell or organism. Homeostasis is an important characteristic of living things and if disrupted, can cause the death of the cell or organism. Cells can maintain homeostasis by regulating what enters and exits the cell by osmosis, diffusion, or active transport.)
3. Finally, ask students: What could happen if cells could not maintain homeostasis or organelles did not work properly? Tell students to keep in mind this question as they read an article about the different ways cells get rid of waste.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
1. Provide each student with a copy of the article "How Cells Take Out the Trash."
2. Provide each student with a note-taking guide.
3. Before students begin reading, direct them to pay attention to the text features of the article to help them learn and locate information:
- Title: How Cells Take Out the Trash
- Headings: Garbage Disposal, Cellular Stomach, Scrap Pile
- Captions: Located under each image
4. Have students fill out the note-taking guide as they read the text. This can be done individually, in pairs, or in a small group. The teacher should monitor students as they work and provide support and guidance as needed.
- Note: Based on the needs and skills of the students, teachers can increase or decrease the number of domain-specific vocabulary students will define on the note-taking guide.
5. Depending on the needs of the students, students may also need to work on defining the following academic vocabulary words. Access to print or online dictionaries would be needed.
- malfunction (paragraph 2): failure to function properly.
- (Students can use a context clue two sentences prior where it mentions something "going wrong" with the biological process. Students can also use the prefix "mal" which means bad, wrong, or defective.)
- processor (paragraph 3): a person or thing that carries out a process.
- (In this case one of the cell's processors that help it deal with cell trash is the proteasome.)
- disassemble (paragraph 3): to take apart.
- (Students can use a context clue that is provided in the same sentence where "disassemble" is used. It states, "... unwanted proteins, breaking them into bits...." Students can also use the prefix "dis," which in this case means "apart.")
- refuse (paragraph 4): something that is discarded; trash; garbage.
- (Students can use the context clue that comes in the first sentence of paragraph 4 where it asks: How does the cell know which proteins to keep and which to trash?)
- inhibitor (paragraph 6): a substance that restrains or retards physiological, chemical, or enzymatic action.
- engulfed (paragraph 7): to swallow up
6. Alzheimer's is mentioned in the article. It would be a good idea to make sure students have some basic knowledge about this disease. Teachers might wish to share:
Alzheimer's disease is a disease that causes the death of brain cells which leads to progressing memory loss and dementia. Because a true diagnosis cannot be made until after death, a vast amount of research has been done on the brain postmortem. The presence of two types of protein structures always show up. There is a build-up of plaque deposits from a protein called beta-amyloid and the presence of twisted fibers from a protein called tau. The exact role of these proteins is still not completely known, but it is thought that they block vital processes and communication of nerve cells.
This link provides a detailed explanation of the functioning of the brain and the effects that Alzheimer's has on the brain.
7. The article also mentions cancer cells and it would be a good idea to make sure students have a basic understanding of cancer cells.
Cancer can be described as uncontrolled cell growth or cells that do not undergo apoptosis, which is programmed cell death. When a cell becomes cancerous, homeostasis is no longer maintained and the cell no longer functions normally. In non-cancerous cells, the proteasome degrades proteins tagged by ubiquitin and also rids the cell of abnormal proteins. There are medicines being developed that are proteasome inhibitors that can be used for specific types of cancers, such as some myelomas (cancer of plasma cells) and lymphomas (cancers of the lymphatic cells).
This link describes the drug Bortezomib (which is mentioned at the end of section one in the article) and provides information on the uses and how it works.
How will you check for student understanding? (Formative Assessment):
1. Teachers can check students' understanding by having students share out their responses from the note taking guide (and also their definitions for the academic vocabulary provided above) and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
2. Teachers can use the sample answer key provided with the note-taking guide to help them assess students' answers on the note taking guide.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond:
1. Getting rid of cell waste only occurs in humans (human cells). While the article focuses on humans and how certain cell waste impacts human diseases, these processes occur in other organisms as well. The teacher might wish to discuss the role of the central vacuole in the plant cell in terms of cellular waste.
2. Cells have the ability to remove unwanted material or waste through specific processes. Organisms also have specialized structures or systems to remove waste on a larger scale. Mammals have the excretory system which is involved in the removal of nitrogenous waste, the circulatory system which is involved in the removal of carbon dioxide from the body, etc.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
Provide each student with a copy of the text-dependent questions to complete. Students should be reminded to continually refer back to the text and to use relevant and specific evidence from the text to support their answers.
How will you check for student understanding? (Formative Assessment):
1. Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting students' answers to the text-dependent questions, checking their work, providing written feedback, and maybe grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share out their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
2. Teachers can use the sample answer key provided with the text-dependent questions0 to help them assess students' answers.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond: Please see the text-dependent questions sample answer key; several common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond are located there.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
1. Before students complete the writing prompt:
Be sure to review responses to the text-dependent questions as a class, including covering the misconceptions and key points described in the sample answer key.
2. After students' written responses have been graded and returned with feedback, teachers might wish to use the provided sample multi-paragraph response with the class. Students who are struggling writers can benefit greatly from seeing a well-organized, detailed written response. The teacher could show the sample response on an overhead or with an LCD projector and discuss some of the following:
- Point out the engaging opening line and possibly brainstorm with students other ways to open up the piece of writing. (Students often start a piece of writing by repeating the prompt back because they don't know other strategies to use.)
- Point out how the intro paragraph briefly describes, while using specifics from the text, the different ways cells remove waste.
- Point out how the last sentence of the introduction reveals the main point of the piece.
- In the body paragraphs, ask students to identify the use of textual specifics from the article, and emphasize how these paragraphs support the main point of the piece.
- Point out how this writer chose not to write a concluding paragraph but did provide a concluding statement to wrap up the piece and tie back to the main point.
- Have students identify accurate use of domain-specific vocabulary. Examples include: proteasome, proteins, lysosomes, organelles, and aggregates.
3. At the end of the lesson: Students will reflect on the lesson before leaving the room. Have students reply on a notecard to the following prompts:
- I really understood the idea about...
- I have a few more questions about...
- I'd like to learn more about...
1. Students will individually respond to the writing prompt. They should be directed to respond with a multi-paragraph response, with a clear introduction, body section, and conclusion or concluding statement. They can refer back to the text as they construct their response.
2. Provide students with a copy of the rubric and go over the rubric with them so they will know how their written response will be assessed.
3. Go over the writing prompt with students and make sure students understand what the prompt is asking them to address.
The prompt: Knowing how cells “take out the trash,” explain how scientists are using this information to help people with Alzheimer’s, cancer, and other diseases. Be sure to include multiple methods of cell waste removal referenced in the article.
4. Teachers will use the rubric to assess students' written responses. A sample response to the writing prompt is also provided to help teachers.
Specific suggestions for conducting Formative Assessment can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson where it says, "How will you check for student understanding?"
Feedback to Students
Specific suggestions for providing Feedback to Students can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson where it says, "Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond."