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In this lesson, students will learn how important enzymes are by functioning as a catalyst in most all biological processes. In learning about the functions of enzymes, they will also see how they are related to things they come across in everyday life. Students will observe the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase from potatoes.
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will be able to describe what an enzyme does in terms of a biological process.
Students will be able to relate a catalyst to an enzyme.
Students will be able to explain how activation energy operates when it comes to analyzing the rate of a biochemical reaction.
Students will be able to identify the role of enzymes as it acts as a catalyst in lowering the activation energy of a biochemical reaction.
Students will be able to explain how factors such as pH and temperature affect enzyme activity.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students should be able to identify what an acid or a base is on a pH scale.
Students should be able to have knowledge about the structure and function of a protein so that they can relate this to how an enzyme operates.
Students should be familiar with factors such as temperature and pH that can affect biological systems, specifically, how they affect protein.
SC.912.P.12.12 Explain how various factors, such as concentration, temperature, and presence of a catalyst affect the rate of a chemical reaction.
SC.912.L.18.4 Describe the structures of proteins and amino acids. Explain the functions of proteins in living organisms. Identify some reactions that amino acids undergo. Relate the structure and function of enzymes.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
What is a chemical reaction?
How does an enzyme speed up a chemical reaction?
How is energy related to the reactants and products of a chemical reaction?
What role do enzymes play in living things?
What factors affect the function of an enzyme?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
The teacher will introduce the topic of enzymes to students with the attached PowerPoint presentation, "Enzyme Basics."
To verify that the students understand the basics of enzymes and catalysts, have them complete the attached "Enzyme Basics Worksheet." The teacher will walk around and check the students' progress. Before moving on to the lab portion of the lesson, present the answers to the worksheet to the class.
After reviewing the worksheets, introduce the Independent practice activity, the Catalase Lab.
The PowerPoint, worksheet, and introduction of the lab activity will take one class period.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
The "Catalase Lab Activity" (see attachments) will help to bring to life the science concept that was taught in the presentation. The students will be able to see how enzymes operate and how factors such as temperature and pH affect the function of the enzyme. Students should work in groups of 4. It is recommended that the activity be completed over the course of two days, allowing the students time to digest the information as well as answer the necessary questions in the activity. Students will carry out the "Catalase Lab Activity" and analyze data to show the results from the experiment.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
Students will have an opportunity for independent practice during the Teaching Phase (Enzyme Basics Worksheet). The "Catalase Lab Activity" will also provide independent practice, as students will work independently to take measurements and analyze the lab data.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
As closure, the teacher will lead a class discussion of the questions at the end of the "Catalase Lab Activity" (key included at the bottom of the document). Have the students present examples of enzymes from their personal experiences. Encourage them to think about biological processes such as digestion, macromolecule synthesis, energy production, and cell division, as well as everyday chemicals such as laundry detergent or stain remover.
After students have completed the lesson activities, administer the attached "Enzyme Quiz."
After the teacher presents the PowerPoint lecture, the students will complete the "Enzyme Basics Worksheet." The teacher will walk around the class, looking at the students' work and offering suggestions if the students get stuck on a question. The class will review the worksheet together prior to the lab activity.
Feedback to Students
During the "Catalase Lab Activity," the teacher will engage with the students as they are working to make sure they understand what is happening in the process.
Accommodations & Recommendations
When introducing vocabulary words to students, break down each work using prefixes, suffixes, and root words. This will help students deduce the meaning of each new word and may even help them to remember what it means. It's a good idea to keep a list of scientific root words, prefixes, and suffixes in the classroom.
Provide pictures, phrases, and sentences with every new set of vocabulary terms.
Having the students work in groups to explain information to their peers is another way to help them to learn.
If the class has difficulty following instructions for a lab, the teacher could provide data for the second part of the activity that addresses the effect of temperature. The hot water could pose a safety concern for some student populations.
For students with good focus and behavior, consider including another activity that addresses the effect of pH on enzyme function.
Students can model the digestion of different foods such as proteins, fats, and sugar and identify the enzymes used to digest them.
Students can explore how lemon juice can be used to keep apples from browning (the acidity of lemon prevents enzymatic browning of the apple). Boiling the apple in a sugary substance can also prevent enzymatic browning of the apple.
* Potato puree can be prepared by blending 1 cup of diced potato with 1 cup of water. Blend until potato pieces are smaller than ¼ inch.
** Dilute hydrogen peroxide solution to 3% if a higher-concentration solution is available.
Person SuccessNet offers graphic organizers as well as images that the teacher can use to help explain the concepts of the lesson. The teacher can sign up for a free account by following the steps on the website. Resources can be found under Teacher Resources once the current textbook has been selected.