Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will be able to create and compare histograms. Students will be able to answer questions based on their interpretations of the graph(s).
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students should know how to calculate the mean, mode, and median, and how to construct and use a frequency table.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
How can I use the shape of a histogram to better understand the data it is representing?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
The teacher will provide a Warm-Up Exercise (see attached with answer key) at the start of class. The teacher should monitor student responses and clarify any misconceptions as the students are working independently. Provided an opportunity for pairs, or groups, of students to compare answers and to have a brief discussion if clarification is necessary. Have the students compile the responses from their partner/group to formulate a complete and concise explanation for each question. Teacher should review the Warm-Up Exercise as a whole group to ensure the accuracy of these responses (see Warm-Up Exercise Key attached). He or She should address during this discussion any misconceptions or gaps that were not addressed while the students were completing the assignment.
Teacher will introduce lesson using Frequency and Histogram PowerPoint (see attached) and Guided Notes worksheet simultaneously (see attached with answer key). Depending on the students understanding of the Warm-Up Exercise, the teacher can spend as much or as little time as needed to ensure a thorough understanding of creating and interpreting histograms.
When presenting the Frequency and Histogram PowerPoint (see attached), the teacher should provide background information on the frequency table (e.g., a frequency table is a list of categorical data (quantitative) and its corresponding frequencies (counts). Students should also be familiar with the difference between histograms and bar charts. The teacher may need to remind the students that a histograms is used to show the distributions of quantitative variables while bar charts are used to compare categorical variables. Because of this, bar charts does not have a low end or a high end x-axis, therefore, one would not typically consider the skewness of a bar chart. The x-axis of a histogram is continuous, therefore, there are no gaps between the bars (bins). The only exception is when the frequency for a particular interval is zero. There are spaces between the variables of a bar chart and the order in which the bars occur are not usually relevant.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
Have the students complete the Guided Practice worksheet (see attached with answer key). After completing the assignment, the students should compare answers with a partner or in a group. The teacher should provide the answers to the Guided Practice to allow students to self-check. The teacher should monitor student responses to ensure a thorough understanding of the lesson objectives. If the teacher identifies students who are not ready to move on, he or she can work with these students individually or in a group while the remaining students move on to the Independent Practice (see attached with answer key).
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
The students will complete the Independent Practice (see attached with answer key) individually, in pairs, or in a group of four. The students should complete the worksheet individually, or in pairs, if additional practice is needed creating histograms. If the students complete the worksheet as a group of four, the teacher should assign one data set to each group member (i.e., Teacher A, Teacher B, Teacher C, and Teacher D).
If needed, explain the difference between open and closed intervals, e.g., (0,60] and [0,60).
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
Student will be asked to write down one potential test question from the day lesson.
The teacher may choose to discuss with the class the information that would be needed to graph a box plot instead of a histogram. The teacher can have the students fabricate the data for their data set and create a box plot. Have the students compare the advantages and disadvantages of both graphs.
The students will complete the Summative Assessment (see attached with answer key). This can be given individually, in pairs, or as a group. The grouping strategy used to complete the Independent Practice (see attached) would also lend itself well to completing the Summative Assessment. The teacher should provide the students with the histograms for the Independent Practice (see attached) in order to more easily answer the questions posed on the Summative Assessment.
The students will be given a Warm-Up Exercise (see attached) as they enter the room. The teacher should use the student responses to this worksheet to gauge students' understanding and prior knowledge of histograms which should determine the depth in which he or she should go (time on which he or she should spend) when using the PowerPoint to review histograms with the class.
Feedback to Students
Feedback to the Warm-up Exercise (see attached) should be provided to students during teacher observation, peer interaction, and whole group instruction.
The teacher will review and return Summative Assessment (see attached).