Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What will students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will be able to describe the structure and function of skin.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students need to recall that tissue is composed of cells. The Engage activity will be a great way to activate prior knowledge and see what students already know about the integumentary system.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
How do the different layers of skin compare to one another?
What are the major functions of the integumentary system?
Engage: What object, event, or questions will the teacher use to trigger the students' curiosity and engage them in the concepts?
The teacher will pose the question "What is a tattoo?" to which many students will respond.
Should students fail to answer what a tattoo is, the teacher can post an image digitally or printed of a tattoo. Teacher can have the kids make an analogy or simile comparing a tattoo to something they already know about to activate prior knowledge and make a connection to new content.
When the students have a firm idea of what a tattoo is, the teacher can then ask "What is the purpose of tattoos?" or "Why do people get tattoos?"
This should lead to a discussion about different reasons why people get tattoos. Some students may already have a tattoo and share why they got theirs or explain that a relative or friend has one and why they got it. If no students respond to these questions the teacher can try using these probing questions:
- What images are often conveyed in tattoos? Followed up with, why would people want that on their bodies?
- A lot of people get tattoos in honor of relatives that passed away, whether its an image or a name. What do you think inspired them to get those?
- Some people get tattoos of cultural symbols, like clovers or flags. What rationale do you think inspired them to get those?
Possible student responses:
- I have a tattoo. See?
- My dad has a tattoo of my sister and my name on his arm.
- My mom has a rose on her foot. She said she got it when she was younger to remember her late grandmother, Rose.
Explore: What will the students do to explore the concepts and skills being developed through the lesson?
Tea Party with Skin
Prep Time: 10 minutes
Activity Time: 10 minutes
Students will partake in a Tea Party using different terms associated with skin structures, disorders and diseases. The teacher will prepare index cards with a different term on each card. Make as many as your class needs. Thirty terms are provided (see below), but feel free to replace words or add more. The teacher can make cards by hand or print the attached PDF and cut out the cards.
The teacher can play music during time students are supposed to be finding a partner. Students should be with their partner by the time the music stops. The teacher can monitor students off task by noting students who don't find partners in the allotted time. If a teacher notices a student and/or group struggling with a term, the teacher can pose these guided questions.
- Have you heard of the term before?
- If you can't remember the definition of it, can you recall what was associated with the word?
- Does the word have any similarities to another word you might know?
- Can you identify and recall the meaning of any prefixes, suffixes, or root words in the term?
The teacher will pass out an index card and a Tea Party Student Handout (see attachments) to each student.
The teacher will explain to class how a Tea Party works as follows:
- The teacher says, "An index card has been placed in front of you. I want you to read the term on the index card and fill in the first blank in Box 1, after the word 'term.' Now, I want you to brainstorm or predict what our topic might be based on your term alone. Whatever topic you think we are discussing, fill in the next blank in Box 1, after the word 'discussing.' Now, in the last blank for Box 1, I want you to explain why you think whatever topic you wrote down is the subject of our next lesson. When you're finished look up so I know that you've completed Box 1."
- The teacher then waits for everyone to complete the first box.
- The teacher moves forward, "Now, you are going to meet up with any other student in the classroom and exchange terms. You both can share your term and rationale for what topic you think is next. You will then record your partner's name in the first blank. Their term that they share with you will go in the blank after the word 'term.' You will then predict the topic of discussion in the next blank, after the word 'discussing,' and provide your reasoning in the third blank, after the word 'because.'"
- The teacher provides time for students to record their term and rationale and monitors students.
- The teacher says, "Now I want you to find a student you have not met with yet and follow the same procedure. This time though, you are going to share your term, the term of your previous partner, your predictions as to what the topic is, and your rationale for that prediction. Feel free to walk your new partner through your thought process when coming up with this new prediction."
- The teacher will instruct students that filling Box 3 is similar to Box 2. The teacher says, "Once you and your partner have shared terms and rationales, fill in Box 3 blanks, similar to those in Box 2, with your partners name, their term, your predicted unit topic, and your rationale."
- The teacher allots enough time for students to record their responses and then signals students to meet with one more student, someone they have not met with yet.
- The teacher will instruct students that filling Box 4 is similar to Box 2 and 3. The teacher says, "Once you and your partner have shared terms and rationales, fill in Box 4, blanks similar to those in Box 2 and 3, with your partners name, their term, your predicted topic, and your rationale."
When finished, have students make their way back to their seat.
The teacher will call on a few volunteers to share their responses and walk through their understanding during the Tea Party. The teacher collects Student Handouts from all students to hear from any students that did not verbally share.
Tea Party Terms:
- Athlete's foot
- Hair Follicle
- Stratified cuboidial
- Arrector pili
- Basal cell carcinoma
Explain: What will the students and teacher do so students have opportunities to clarify their ideas, reach a conclusion or generalization, and communicate what they know to others?
Students will create a foldable diagram of the Integumentary System (see Skin Foldable Inside Example and Skin Foldable Example jpg attachments). The PowerPoint is provided for an extensive lesson on each layer of the skin. Not all portions of the PowerPoint are to be used in making the foldable. Extra slides were created as buildup notes to the actual foldable activity.
- The teacher will provide both sheets of handouts to students from the Skin Foldable attachment.
- Directions on how to cut and prepare the foldable are on the bottom of the 2nd page of each handout for student assistance.
- The teacher can model how to cut and fold foldable for struggling students.
- The teacher starts off explaining what the integumentary system is in slides 1-3.
- Slide 4 is an overview visual of all the layers of skin that the teacher can reference throughout the lesson. The teacher can have copies of this available for students when drawing their skin layers on the front of their foldable.
- Slide 5 is an overview of the epidermis. The teacher can have student take additional notes on this separate from the foldable activity.
- Slide 6 lists all the layers of the epidermis. Students can note that these layers align with sections on their foldable. These terms have already been filled in for them.
- Slide 7 is an image of the epidermis. The teacher can make multiple copies of this for students' aid when drawing their epidermis on the front of their foldable.
- Slide 8 is the notes that correlate with the first layer, and the first section of the foldable, Stratum corneum. Key terms have been bolded for ease of note taking. These notes will go on the back of Stratum corneum's flap.
- Slide 9 is the notes that correlate with the second layer, and the second section of the foldable, Stratum lucidum. Key terms have been bolded for ease of note taking. These notes will go on the back of Stratum lucidum's flap.
- Slide 10 is the notes that correlate with the third layer, and the third section of the foldable, Stratum granulosum. Key terms have been bolded for ease of note taking. These notes will go on the back of Stratum granulosum's flap.
- Slide 11 is the notes that correlate with the fourth layer, and the fourth section of the foldable, Stratum spinosum. Key terms have been bolded for ease of note taking. These notes will go on the back of Stratum spinosum's flap.
- Slides 12 and 13 are the notes that correlate with the fifth layer, and the fifth section of the foldable, Stratum basale. Key terms have been bolded for ease of note taking. These notes will go on the back of Stratum basale's flap.
- Slide 14 is the notes on the basement membrane. There isn't a spot on the foldable for this because it is so thin. There is a tiny space at the bottom of Stratum basale that students could label as Basement membrane. Students can add these notes to the back of Stratum basale's flap if there is room. If not, a sticky note can be adhered on the back of the flap for these notes or students can add the notes to the back of the flap below, Dermis, as there aren't many notes for this section.
- Slide 15 is an overview of the dermis. The dermis is composed of two layers, Dermal Papillary region and Reticular Dermis. Students should therefore divide their space into two sections and label them accordingly on the left side, where it says dermis. These should go on the first flap of the handout's second page, or flap 6 on a completed foldable. Notes can be added from this slide to the back of its flap.
- Slide 16 is an overview of the hypodermis. Key terms have been bolded for ease of note taking. These notes will go on the back of hypodermis flap.
- Slide 17 is an overview of accessory structures. Have students open their foldable so that all flaps are open. The left side should be blank next to each layer's name. Students can divide up this space on the top foldable (all 5 sections of the epidermis) to take notes on these three accessory structures.
- Slide 18 is the notes for hair. Key terms have been bolded for ease of note taking. These notes will go on the top of that space explained in step 18.
- Slides 19 and 20 are the notes on exocrine glands. Key terms have been bolded for ease of note taking. These notes will go under the notes for hair.
- Slide 21 is the notes for nails. Key terms have been bolded for ease of note taking. These notes will go under the notes for exocrine glands.
- Slides 22 and 23 are the notes for the physiology of the integumentary system. Students can write the acronym TV PASS down the left side of the blank space on the second page of the handout (across from the dermal and hypodermis notes). Students can write down the notes for the 6 different functions of the integumentary system in this space. The acronym should help students remember the numerous functions.
- You could print copies of the PowerPoint for the class so that students can move at their own pace as some students work faster/slower than others.
- The teacher should monitor students to make sure they are filling in their notes in the correct location for each layer and to monitor completion. As the PowerPoint is lengthy, the teacher wants to move quickly.
- If the teacher wants the students to focus on the correct layering of the layers and drawing the actual structures, notes can be made for student so they can adhere them to the back of the flaps instead of writing.
- Slide 7 should be used to guide the students in drawing the 5 layers of the epidermis on the front of their foldable, the first 5 flaps.
- Slide 4 should be used to guide the students in drawing the two layers of the dermis, the hypodermis, and the accessory structures.
- Drawing and coloring can be assigned for homework if class time does not permit.
- An example of the completed foldable is available for viewing and clarification (Skin Foldable Example jpgs).
Elaborate: What will the students do to apply their conceptual understanding and skills to solve a problem, make a decision, perform a task, or make sense of new knowledge?
Students will predict which layer of skin is used for the art of tattooing. Students should be able to determine which layer is actually inked when getting a tattoo based on each layer's function. The teacher will then ask students to apply their new-found knowledge of skin to answer the question "Which layer of the integumentary system actually gets tattooed?" If students struggle with this, pose the probing question "Are tattoos permanent or temporary?" If students still struggle, remind students that some layers of skin are constantly shedding, while others do not.
Answer: The correct answer to the tattoo layer question is the dermis, specifically the dermal papillary region. This layer of the skin is below the epidermis, the ever-shedding layers of skin. Below the epidermis ensures the tattoo permanence, as it is more stable than the upper layers. This layer also has a direct blood source from the capillaries stored in the Reticular Dermis, nourishing the newly-inked connective tissue.
A unit Summative Assessment and key are provided (Integumentary System Summative Assessment attachments). This assessment should be given at the end of the entire unit, after everything in the Integumentary System has been taught, and not just this resource.
The teacher can grade the foldable, if desired, or use the Elaborate question as an exit slip for grading for this specific lesson.
In the Tea Party Activity, the teacher can be circulating the classroom while students engage in conversation about the terms. The teacher will listen to student conversations and make note of misconceptions the students have. The teacher will also be able to gather prior knowledge the students have to make connections to new content in the unit. After having students share their reasoning on what they think the unit topic is, the teacher can address any misconceptions the students had during this discussion.
The teacher will monitor students completing the foldable during the PowerPoint presentation. The teacher should guide any struggling students so the desired effect is met. If a student is struggling, the teacher can supply the students with their own copy of the PowerPoint and the example of the foldable. This should assist struggling students in finishing their foldable.
Students will complete a concept map on the integumentary system as a formative assessment. A concept map is a type of graphic organizer used to help students organize and represent knowledge of a subject. The main concept is placed in the center with surrounding subtopics. Notes can then come off of each subtopic. It allows students to visually represent connections in content. This should be assigned at the end of Day 1, after the foldable has been completed and students receive all notes. If the students do not finish the PowerPoint and foldable on Day 1, the teacher will then assign the students to draw and color the layers as homework, and complete the notes at the beginning of Day 2. Only after the notes have been completed are they to move on to the formative assessment, the concept map.
Feedback to Students
If students finish the concept map for homework, have students compare their concept maps with each other in pairs. Students can revise their recordings if they got anything incorrect. If students cannot come to a decision as to which student is correct, have the students review their foldable. If students are still confused, the teacher can be called over to aid in completing the concept map. If students have to finish the notes on Day 2, then have students work in pairs to complete the concept map in class. Students can refer back to their foldable if they need help in completing the concept map. The teacher can monitor students working on concept maps and guide any students having difficulty. The teacher should be able to visit all students and view their concept maps at this time. They can address the class as a whole with any misconceptions or misunderstandings the students had. The teacher can review any topics the students are having difficult with at this time as well. The teacher can use this opportunity to share any great topics students included on their concept map that other students missed.