Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will be able to:
- Create a two-way frequency table using data collected on two categorical variables.
- Read and interpret data displayed in a two-way frequency table.
- Calculate relative frequencies in each of three different ways.
- Use a two-way frequency table to clearly describe relationships between two categorical variables and provide supporting evidence.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
- Understand the distinction between categorical and quantitative data.
- Know how to display one-variable data in a one-way frequency table.
- Be able to calculate decimals and percents.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
How can the relationship between two categorical variables be analyzed?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
To begin the lesson, the teacher should put a copy of the first frequency table from the Independent Investigation sheet on the board. The teacher can have students add a tally mark in the appropriate cell of the table as they enter the class. As an alternative, the teacher can ask each student to indicate a preference by a show of hands in a whole-class setting and record counts in the displayed table. This table will be used later for the Independent Investigation.
The teacher should use this opportunity to review the structure of a two-way frequency table. Make explicit that there are two categorical variables represented in the table (gender and music type) and that there are two levels of each variable (male and female; hip-hop and rap). Clearly explain what the values in each cell represent. Introduce the terms joint frequencies and marginal frequencies and illustrate these terms using entries from the table.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
The teacher should then transition to the Guided Practice. A Guided Practice worksheet is provided and intended to be used as an integral part of the lesson. The teacher will facilitate the completion of this worksheet.
Display the two-way frequency table for gender and ice cream flavor preference. Guide students to complete the marginal frequencies and then engage them in a discussion of possible interpretations of the table.
Next, guide students to complete the relative frequency tables in each of three different ways (using the grand total, column totals, and row totals as the denominator). Engage students in a discussion of the differences in what each table conveys. Then ask students to answer the question, "Is there a relationship between gender and ice cream preference?" Circulate through the class and provide assistance and feedback, as needed. Next, engage the class in a whole-group discussion of their responses to the question. Model how to clearly write a response that includes supporting evidence drawn from one or more of the tables.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
After the guided practice, students are challenged to interpret the data on music preference and gender collected at the start of class. An Independent Investigation worksheet is provided which should be distributed to each student.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
Eventually, reconvene the class to discuss responses to the Independent Investigation, review the main points of the lesson, and transition to the summative assessment. Collect all written work; provide written feedback and return papers the next day.
Before transitioning to the summative assessment, review the main points of the lesson:
- Frequency tables are used to examine the relationships between two categorical variables.
- Frequency tables can contain frequency counts or relative frequencies.
- There are three ways that relative frequencies can be calculated. Each conveys different information.
After the guided practice portion of the lesson and the Independent Investigation, students will complete the Summative Assessment worksheet. This can be completed in class or as homework, depending on time constraints.
The teacher will have the opportunity to monitor student progress and provide feedback throughout the lesson. Analysis of responses on the Independent Investigation worksheet can provide additional opportunities to uncover and address any misconceptions students might hold.
Feedback to Students
Throughout the lesson, the teacher will have the opportunity to circulate through the room to monitor student progress and provide feedback. Additionally, written student work will be collected, evaluated, and returned with comments.