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In this lesson students will explore aerobic and anaerobic respiration with a real world case of a 3-year-old boy who suffers from a mitochondrial disorder. Students will compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration and relate it with the boy's symptoms.
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will identify the products and reactants of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Students will compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
The following standards should be addressed prior to this lesson (see teaching phase for questions to access background knowledge):
SC.912.L.14.2: Relate structure to function for the components of plant and animals cells. Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (active and passive transport).
SC.912.L.14.3: Compare and contrast the general structures of plant and animal cells. Compare and contrast the general structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
SC.912.L.18.10: Connect the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to energy transfers within a cell.
SC.912.L.18.9: Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
How does aerobic respiration compare/contrast to anaerobic respiration?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
Tell students that today you will be working on a lesson about aerobic and anaerobic respiration. We will be using a case study featuring a 3-year-old boy who struggles with a mitochondrial disorder. As we read through the article please keep in mind the guiding question for today's lesson: "How does aerobic respiration compare/contrast to anaerobic respiration?"
You might utilize a close reading strategy for this activity. For example, introduce the article and set the purpose for the reading (review the guiding question). Read the article out loud to the class as students follow along. Have students annotate the article (use circles for unknown words, lines for main points, question marks for passages that students are unsure about, check marks for passages that students understand, stars for important passages). Then have students discuss the article with a partner while the teacher acts as a discussion guide.
You can create a printable and ad-free version of the article by clicking on the "Print" button below the headline.
As you are reading the article, ask the following questions to assess prior knowledge and engage the class in discussion:
Based on your knowledge of the function of cellular organelles, what is the function of the mitochondria?
How does the body obtain energy?
Do the symptoms stated in this article support your answer above?
As the class answers the questions, use their responses to address any misconceptions.
Responses to the above questions are included in the attached teacher's notes.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
Periodically stop the videos to review the processes being described. Be sure to clarify that cellular respiration is aerobic respiration, and lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation are types of anaerobic respiration.
Have students draw a table in their notes and fill in information as you are reviewing the videos. The table should be completed for each of the following processes:
Electron transport chain
Lactic acid fermentation
For each process, summarize the following:
Location (in the cell) where the process takes place
An example of this table is included in the teacher's notes under the section "Presentation Responses."
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
Separate students in to 6 groups.
Assign each group one of the following process:
Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)
Electron transport chain (oxidative phosphorylation)
Lactic acid fermentation
Groups will have the options of a number of approaches to exploring their process. Students may create drawings, presentations, infographics (Piktochart.com), skits, videos, or songs that define their process.
For each process, the students need to address the following items:
Name of process
Location (in the cell) of process
Organisms that use the process
Overall function of process
Reactants of process
Products of process
Summary of steps involved in the process
Groups will present their process to the whole class. Each presentation should last no longer than 5 minutes. Student instructions and a grading sheet are included in the Presentation Instructions and Rubric document. A summary of expected answers during the presentation is in the teacher's notes in the "Presentation Responses" section.
Prior to group presentations, tell students that they will need the information presented to assist them in developing a diagram that compares aerobic respiration to anaerobic respiration. See summative assessment for details.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
Redirect students to the article "3-year-old struggles with mitochondrial disorder."
Explain to students that as a result of this genetic disease, the 3-year-old is also afflicted by a condition known as Lactic Acidosis. Have the class read "Lactic Acidosis" by Health Grades and ask the following questions:
What process takes place in the mitochondria?
Recall some of the symptoms exhibited by the 3-year-old. Why are these symptoms occurring?
Which parts (or systems) of the body would be most affected by a mitochondrial disorder? Why?
What is lactic acidosis?
The article mentions the child being place on a diet that will reduce the amount of lactic acid in his body. What do you believe is the link between lactic acid and a mitochondrial disorder?
Explain why lactic acidosis occurred in the 3-year-old.
The responses to these discussion questions are in the teacher's notes.
You may extend the lesson further by having students suggest ways to treat and support the 3-year-old.
Have students complete the compare and contrast diagram as their summative assessment (see the Summative Assessment section for directions).
Prior to group presentations, tell students that they will need the information presented to assist them in developing a diagram that compares aerobic respiration to anaerobic respiration.
Provide students examples and instructions for creating a table, mind map, Venn diagram, or double bubble map to diagram their information. If necessary, you may provide a template for students to use.
In this diagram, they will need to address the following for aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration (lactic acid fermentation), and anaerobic respiration (alcoholic fermentation) with the question "How does aerobic respiration compare/ contrast to anaerobic respiration?":
Location in the cell
Net energy gain
An example of responses to the above assessment are included in the teacher's notes.
Throughout the lesson the teacher will ask questions to check for understanding before moving forward.
During group work, the teacher will move through the classroom, checking each group's progress, and asking questions to ensure students understanding of their process. The teacher should address any misconceptions by redirecting students to their notes and text resources.
Example questions include:
How do we obtain energy?
What is ATP?
What is the function of mitochondria?
What are the reactants of cellular respiration?
What are the products of cellular respiration?
What does aerobic mean?
What process do organisms, in an aerobic environment, use to obtain energy?
What does anaerobic mean?
What process do organisms, in an anaerobic environment, use to obtain energy?
What are the two types of anaerobic respiration? How do they differ?
Feedback to Students
Throughout the lesson, the teacher will address any misconceptions prior to moving forward and offer verbal praise to students with correct responses. If students are not grasping the material, the teacher should guide students to an appropriate response.
During group work, allow students to share their ideas and offer verbal praise and positive feedback. Prompt students to be creative during this process.
After group presentations, provide positive feedback for ideas and group effort and immediately address any misconceptions.
Accommodations & Recommendations
Provide instructions both verbally as well as printed.
Paraphrase the most important concepts for each process.
Have students work in pairs to enlist help with misconceptions.
Preview the article with them prior to class (provide a brief summary the class before).
Provide a copy of the article to the reading coaches, language art teachers or resource teachers so that they may assist students with the article
Utilize a close reading strategy. For example, introduce the article and set the purpose for the reading. Read the article as students follow along. Have students annotate the article (use circles for unknown words, lines for main points, question marks for passages that students are unsure about, check marks for passages that students understand, stars for important passages). Then have students discuss the article with a partner as the teacher acts as a discussion guide.
Provide templates for comparison diagrams.
The students can do a lab comparing CO2 production in aerobic respiration versus anaerobic respiration.
Students can develop an informational brochure on a type of mitochondrial disorder.
Suggested Technology: Document Camera, Computer for Presenter, Computers for Students, Internet Connection, Adobe Acrobat Reader, Microsoft Office, Computer Media Player
Special Materials Needed:
Students may request materials for their presentations. Provide what you can and then suggest that they bring in materials from home.
Source and Access Information
Name of Author/Source: Heather Singler
District/Organization of Contributor(s): Miami-Dade