
Lesson Plan Template:
General Lesson Plan

Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will be able to:
 Determine relationships between two sets of categorical data
 Determine the marginal and conditional distributions within sets of data on a two way frequency table

Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
 Determine key information contained in a graph
 Calculate percentage
 Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions
 Create twoway frequency tables
 Create and interpret dot plots
 Create and interpret histograms
 Create and interpret bar graphs

Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
Is there a relationship between gender and cellphone usage/social media usage?

Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
The lesson will start with an overview of collecting and organizing data. The teacher could ask "What are some important steps to remember when gathering data?" Students may reply with remember to label your data, make sure the data is accurate, determine what kind of graph to use to display the type of data, etc.
The teacher will use the PowerPoint (What's Your Story: Review of Two Way Tables), which shows students a two way table. Students will be asked to discuss with their shoulder partner (the partner either to their left or their right) what the table tells us. Students should identify this as a twoway frequency table that shows the relationship between age of students and whether or not they skip breakfast. Some questions to ask may include: "How many students are age 1013 and skipped breakfast?" (14), etc.
The teacher will then engage students by telling students that something has been on the teachers mind: that the other day the teacher heard some students asking if they saw another student's story, and another student said well on my story I have… It made the teacher wonder, what would our class story be? The teacher then will instruct students that they will be asked to answer a series of 10 questions pertaining to cellphone use and social network accounts. These 10 questions are in the attached PowerPoint (What's Your Story: Data Collection Questions). The questions asked will allow data to be collected within the classroom in regards to the number of cellphones and how social network accounts are represented in the classroom. This data can be collected through thumbs up/thumbs down, the use of clickers, or by using ballots for secret voting.
Pass out the "Here's Our Story Student Worksheet" so that the students can write down the data collected. Have the students fill in the tally chart as the questions are asked.
Data collections questions:
 Do you have a cellphone?
 Do you use your cellphone while at school?
 Do you have a social network account?
 How many social network accounts do you have?
 Have you ever texted while in class?
 Have you ever posted to a social network site while in class?
 Have you sent a video while in class?
 Have you carried on a conversation with another student using a cellphone while in class?
 About how many texts do you send while in class?
 About how many posts do you submit while in class?
Using the data obtained through the classroom questions the students will begin to create twoway frequency tables to look at the relationship between gender and use of cell phone at school. Use the whiteboard, a smartboard, or overhead projector to build the table with the students. Ask students what the frequencies are for each cell. Make sure to ask for interpretations of what the numbers are.
See this example twoway frequency table from data collected with a sample classroom consisting of 12 boys and 13 girls:

Uses a cell phone while at school

Does not use a cellphone while at school

Total

Boys

7

5

12

Girls

12

1

13

Total

19

6

25

The total columns and rows show the marginal frequencies, while the body of the table shows the joint frequencies. Marginal frequencies are also called marginal distributions, while joint frequencies are also called conditional distributions.
The teacher will then discuss how the data representation changes depending on whether the relative frequency is by rows or by columns.
By Columns:

Uses a cell phone while at school

Does not use a cellphone while at school

Total

Boys

7/19

5/6

12/25

Girls

12/19

1/6

13/25

Total

19/19

6/6

25/25

By Rows:

Uses a cell phone while at school

Does not use a cellphone while at school

Total

Boys

7/12

5/12

12/12

Girls

12/13

1/13

13/13

Total

19/25

6/25

25/25


Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
The teacher will then have students partner up. The teacher will ask the students to pick a variable to match with gender from what was collected and represent the data in a twoway frequency table.
The teacher will provide students with the data collection and evaluation sheet "Here's Our Story." Students will then analyze the data with a partner or a small group of three (if equal partners are not available). Encourage students to try to choose variables that other groups have not.
Students will use the worksheet "Here's Our Story" to record their twoway frequency table and to identify the joint and marginal frequencies.
The student will also answer questions as they identify the fractions, decimals and percent of the relative frequencies.
The teacher will circulate the classroom during this section of the lesson while providing guiding questions and validation for student work and thought processes.
Once the teacher notices that students are progressing in their work and thought processes, the teacher will pass out poster paper to student groups. If poster paper is not available, use whiteboards, or even 8.5 by 11 inch computer paper.
Students, working in pairs, will record their twoway frequency table onto the poster paper to display in the classroom.
The teacher will say to students: On the poster paper you have been provided, please create your relative frequency table using the data you chose to represent. You may create your relative frequency table using relative frequency of rows, or relative frequency of columns. Be sure to choose the one that best represents your argument for the data. Make sure you leave some blank space around your table to write about your relative frequency.
Once the teacher has noticed that many students are almost completed with creating their table on the poster paper, the teacher will say to students: Once you have created the relative frequency table onto your poster. Please write a paragraph describing and comparing the marginal and conditional distributions. This paragraph must be included on your poster paper.
Sample student responses have been provided in the attachments to this lesson.
Students must correctly label each section while identifying the joint and marginal sections of the data. This part of the lesson should be more independent with the teacher observing and providing guidance oneonone as needed. Once completed, students will put their posters up around the classroom.
As the teacher notices students finishing up their posters and paragraphs, pass out the "That's Our Story: Part 1" worksheet.
The teacher will instruct the students to walk around the room and look at the twoway frequency tables completed by their peers.
Instruct students to complete the worksheet "That's Our Story: Part 1" by comparing two or more of the twoway frequency tables posted in the classroom.

Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
The teacher will pass out "That's Our Story: Part Two" to obtain a formative assessment of student mastery of the concept of this lesson. Students should at this point work independently and not with a partner. As students complete this worksheet, the teacher will go about the room checking to make sure individual students are understanding how to determine marginal and conditional distributions and describe relative frequencies.

Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
The teacher can collect exit tickets at the end of the lesson, or students can hand exit tickets to the teacher on their way out the door. Students answer the following questions for an exit ticket:

Summative Assessment
At the conclusion of the lesson, students will complete a summative assessment entitled "What's Your Story" that is comprised of 5 questions. The summative assessment will be turned in at the end of the class and reviewed during the next class period.

Formative Assessment
Formative assessment will be collected through observation of student discussions during guided and independent instruction. The teacher will also use circulation time to assess student understanding and ask guided questions as needed for students who are struggling with evaluating the data.

Feedback to Students
As the teacher circulates around the classroom while students are working as partners or three student groups, the teacher will provide verbal feedback and probe student understanding by asking guiding and inquiring questions. The teacher is to provide positive praise when student is extending their thinking and as students are discussing data interpretations.