Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
Prior to class, the teacher needs to divide students into groups of four. One pack of playing cards will be needed for each group.
Upon walking into class, students should respond to whether or not they ate breakfast today. This can be done via clickers, text responses, on a classroom computer, or on the board (via tally system). Then, students should independently answer the question: Does eating breakfast improve response time? (5 minutes)
The teacher can lead a brief discussion (5 minutes) on the question and ask for the students to voice their opinion about the relationship between breakfast and their ability to perform a task. Students can then split into prearranged groups.
The teacher will need a timer. In each group of four, split into pairs, Student A and Student B. Each pair will get half the deck of cards. Student A will shuffle the cards and then deal them out to Student B. As the cards are dealt, Student B must say "red" or "black" based on the color of the card in front of them. They must do this as quickly as they can for thirty seconds– if the student gets a card incorrect or does not complete the pile in thirty seconds, they are considered to have failed the test. Set the timer and start the groups and tally up the results for students on the board. Those who passed (were able to say the correct colors in thirty seconds) will be tallied in one column and those who failed in another. This data should be displayed so that students can see it, along with the data on how many students ate breakfast. This can be done via excel or tables on the projector or on the whiteboard/poster paper. (10 minutes)
If students had trouble with the concept of two-way frequency tables, the teacher can facilitate students in setting up the table at this point by having students decide how to label the rows and columns and determining how to organize the data within the tables. (10 minutes)
Once all data is completed, student groups will create a two-way frequency table on the Breakfast for Champions? Worksheet with the following data categories: Students who did eat breakfast, Students who did not eat breakfast, Students who passed the card test, Students who failed the card test. (Students who need additional scaffolding can use the Breakfast for Champions? Accommodated Worksheet.) Students must analyze and calculate the joint, marginal, and conditional frequencies. Then, groups discuss if their hypothesis was true or not, and choose a frequency to best defend their answer. However, students will be responding independently on the worksheet and they do not have to agree with the group on what answer to give. (20 minutes)
During this time, teacher should walk around the room and ask groups formative assessment questions to explain their current course of action, misconceptions, as well as determine understanding of joint, marginal, and conditional frequencies, such as:
- What does the joint frequency represent in the data?
- What does the marginal frequency represent in the data?
- What does the conditional frequency represent in the data?
- Given that the population is _______, what percentage will be _______?
- Describe a relationship between the two variables, if any.
For the remaining part of class, split students into two new groups based off of how they answered based on the last question of the "is breakfast for champions" worksheet: yes breakfast improves time or no, breakfast does not improve reaction time. In these groups, students will use their data to try and convince their classmates (to agree with their opinion) in a critical thinking/speaking activity called Philosophical Chairs. Philosophical Chairs is a strategy to promote discussion and critical thinking. Students will divide the classroom into two sides: those who believe breakfast improves reaction time and those who do not. Students then defend their opinion (using data and frequencies from their chart) to try and convince the students on the other side of the room to cross over. Students will use a discussion tool (passing a yard stick, ruler, throwing ball, stuffed animal, etc.) to indicate who is able to speak, and this tool should be passed from one side to another. The teacher's role is to facilitate and ensure that students are debating based on data and not using personal attacks. If discussion stagnates, the teacher can ask open ended questions to the students (such as: Student A, why are you standing on that side of the room? Does anyone disagree with Student A? Why?) or they can have an option of "undecided students" in the middle of the room. With this option, students on the ends of the room must try to present their data to sway the students in the middle of the room (as opposed to those who disagree). (15 minutes)
Outcomes that may be seen: students may change their mind throughout the discussion as to whether or not breakfast helps reaction time. Students may try to shout out, but make sure that the discussion tool is passed and students are being polite and respectful.
As an exit slip, students should answer the exit slip questions.