Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Prior Knowledge, DNA Replication/Chargaff's Base-pairing Rule:
(PP Lesson 0a and PP Lesson 0b), 50 minutes
- Identify the organic macromolecules involved in the process of replication (DNA, RNA, Protein) and the site and function of cellular organelles (specifically the nucleus and ribosome).
- Describe the basic process of DNA replication using Chargaff's base-pairing rule, and how it relates to the transmission and conservation of the genetic information.
Lesson 1, Transcription/Translation:
(PP Lesson 1), 50 minutes
- Explain the basic processes of transcription and translation using Chargaff's base-pairing rule.
- Prove graphically that transcription and translation are the processes involved in the expression of genes.
Lesson 2, Lac Operon (Enrichment Extension/Supplemental Materials):
(PP Lesson 2), 50 minutes
- Connect symbols that represent the parts and the process of transcription and translation in the following activity (Lesson 2) using the automated interactive tutorial from pHET.
- Build on knowledge of transcription and translation by discussing the mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes after building and connecting key components of a lac operon in an interactive activity (pHET Gene Machine Lac Operon-transcription/translation).
Lesson 3, Proteins and Cancer (Enrichment Extension/Supplemental Materials):
(PP Lesson 3), 50 minutes
- Analyze and explain how mutations in the DNA sequence may or may not result in phenotypic change.
- Explain the relationship between mutation, cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth potentially resulting in cancer.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
The student should understand how nucleotide base pairing works in DNA synthesis.
The student should know the parts of the cell so that they can associated them with DNA replication, and protein synthesis and the endomembrane system (nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum....)
The students should know the form and function of proteins (macromolecule).
If necessary the teacher may use the attached Power Points (PP Lesson 0a and PP Lesson 0b, See attachments) to review concepts with the students prior to the lesson.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
How is genetic information conserved?
How is the production of protein, a macromolecule, important to life?
How does the form and function of a protein contribute to its intended function or its deleterious effect as with cancer?
How is gene expression regulated in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms?
How could mutations result in both desirable and undesirable phenotypes?
How are the mechanisms for the development of cancer influenced by the cell cycle or the transcription and translation of proteins?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
Optional: If necessary, the teacher will review macromolecules, specifically proteins using the Famous Pair activity (PP lesson 0a). They may also review nucleotide base-pairing using the attached Power Points (PP lesson 0b) and the first column of the sequenced graphic organizer. 50 minutes
1. The teacher will then connect those concepts with the base-pairing required in transcription and translation using the next Power Point (PP Lesson 1 and the sequence graphic organizer, see attachments). 50 minutes
2 (optional enrichment extension). The teacher and students will work together to analyze, revise and critique several variations of transcription and translation using the PhET interactive tutorial (PP Lesson 2, tab 1). 10 minutes
3 (optional enrichment extension) The teacher will provide support to the students while they work independently to design their own animation using PhET to connect the concepts of transcription and translation from the handout to the computer tutorial (PP Lesson 2, tab 2). 40 minutes
4 (optional enrichment extension) After introducing PP Lesson 3 on mutations in DNA replication/protein synthesis that lead to genetic maladies- cancer, the teacher will foster predictive discussions or a Socratic seminar using the content learned to provide opportunities for the students to reflect in groups and individually (50 minutes):
- Observation 1 (we do)/Prediction 1 (we do/you do)
- Observation 2 (we do)/Prediction 2 (we do/you do)
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
(optional) The student will take notes (PP lesson 0) as the teacher helps them to review concepts involved with base pairing rules in replication.
1. The student will use the sequenced graphic organizer to follow the pathways involved in protein synthesis as the teacher narrates them. The questions posted at the top or bottom of each section will orient the student to the location of the process within the cell. (50 minutes- PP Lesson 1)
2. (optional enrichment extension) After the completion of the sequenced graphic organizer (50 minutes), the student will provided suggestions as the teacher models the lac operon using the first tab in PhET tutorial(10 minutes- PP Lesson 2).
The student will then navigate the simulation with support from the teacher- the goal: to identify the parts of and steps to transcription and translation in the interactive animation (40 minutes- PP Lesson 2).
The student will be able to identify the molecules involved in transcription and translation. They will deduce the out come of various choices made in the pHET simulation and they will strive to understand the importance of the production of proteins in a prokaryotic cell (pp lesson 2).
3. (optional enrichment extension) Lastly, after the presentation (PP Lesson 3), the students will reflect verbally on the hazards and benefits to changes in the sequence of the genetic code of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes in terms of evolutionary processes and biomedical technology and the causes of these modifications.
Finally, they should connect concepts learned from the lesson to real-life conditions such as mutations in the BRCA 1 gene resulting in the dysfunction of a tumor suppressor gene (pp lesson 3).
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
pp lesson 0a & 0b: Review
- The students will do a "Famous Pairs" activity to connect nucleotide bases to their corresponding part using Chargaff's base-pairing rule or macromolecules with their function. (timeline depends on the students' prior knowledge.
pp lesson 1: Transcription/Translation
- The students will assign three nucleotide bases (acodon) to the first column. 10 minutes to present, 10 minutes to independently work
- They will then use the base-pairing rule for the remainder of the the sections. They will independently answer the questions at the bottom of each section using the notes from the Power Point (PP Lesson 1). 10-15 minutes- present, 10-15 minutes- guided instruction on creating the graphics, 10-15 minutes to complete the questions independently
pp lesson 2: Lac operon
- After the demonstration by the teacher (tab 1), the student will maneuver through the second tab in the interactive simulation on PhET. Remind them to press the red button to add lactose to the simulation or have them reflect on what won’t happened due to the lack of lactose: on a molecular, cellular and system-wide basis. 50 minutes
pp lesson 3: Protein and Cancer
- The student will reflect on the importance of the synthesis of proteins in maintaining homeostasis in living things. They will also independently consider how the expression of genes, given specific types of mutations, result in beneficial and nonbeneficial phenotypes. 50 minutes
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
The teacher will pose open-ended questions (for examples see below) that tie together the parts and products of protein synthesis and monitor for understanding using the rubric, scale and sequenced graphic organizer.
1. Using what you know about transcription and translation, how would a change in the sequencing of DNA nucleotides modify the expression of gene?
2. Are some mutations good?
3. How could scientists use the notion of modifying genes or proteins to potentially treat disease or injury?
The students will review the basic process of DNA replication and how it relates to the transmission and conservation of the genetic information (Lesson 0 PP, Prior knowledge Replication CPALMS, and template column 1).
The students will use the template to connect the concept of DNA replication to transcription and translation through the use of nucleotide base-pairing (Lesson 1 PP, Transcription Translation CPALMS, and template column 1, 2, 3).
The student will then use their knowledge of protein synthesis (transcription/translation) to navigate their way through a PhET interactive protein synthesis simulation of a bacterial lac operon (Lesson 2 PP, Gene Regulation CPALMS, and PhET interactive animation).
The students will explain how mutations in the DNA sequence may or may not result in phenotypic variations due to changes during transcription and translation. They will relate these changes in the genome to real-life conditions and predict the outcome of the phenotype (Lesson 3b Enrichment protein synthesis CPALMS).
The students will use a sequenced graphic organizer and interactive animation to develop an understanding of how DNA influences the formation/function of macromolecules, specifically proteins (protein synthesis: transcription/translation/confirmation), and later predict how they are important to life.
Feedback to Students
The student will refer to the rubric and scale to self-monitor for mastery throughout the activities.
The students will evaluate each others work using peer-review and provide feedback in the form of a reflection exchange during a paired exercise (This could occur during any point in the lesson that warrants).
The teacher will provide feedback using the rubric and scale, verbally and non-verbally, throughout each segment of the lesson (Review, I do, we do, you all do, you do independently).