Getting Started 
Misconception/Error The student does not use an effective strategy to convert units and solve the word problems. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level
 The student does not know the conversion factors for converting ounces to cups or centimeters to meters. Consequently, the student is unable to develop an effective strategy to solve the problem.
 The student knows the conversion factors but converts incorrectly (e.g., the student multiplies 32 ounces by 8 ounces to determine the number of cups).

Questions Eliciting Thinking
 If you knew how many fluid ounces are in one cup, could you solve this problem?
 There are 100 centimeters in 1 meter. Can you use this information to determine how many centimeters are in 30 meters?

Instructional Implications
 Review the conversion factors for volume in the customary system and length in the metric system. Guide the student in using the conversion factors to develop procedures for converting from smaller to larger units and from larger to smaller units. Assist the student in understanding when to multiply and when to divide. Provide the student with onestep word problems that require converting units of measure. Before making a conversion, have the student consider if the conversion should result in numerically more units (as when converting from a larger unit to a smaller unit) or numerically fewer units (as when converting from a smaller unit to a larger unit). Allow the student to use a conversion reference sheet until the conversion factors are learned. Focus on the strategies used to make the conversions.
 Provide assistance in making sense of word problems and developing strategies to solve them.
 Consider using the MFAS task, 'Converting Measurement Units',Â which assesses the studentâ€™s understanding of converting units of measure without the context of a word problem.

Making Progress 
Misconception/Error The student misunderstands the context of the problem or makes an error when finding the number of cups or number of centimeters. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level In the first problem, the student understands there are eight ounces in a cup. However, the student rounds down to 21 or up to 22 and does not take into account the other cup of juice. Also, the student finds the number of centimeters of string needed but is unable to determine the number of rolls Zevah needs to purchase.
The student understands that there will be 21 cups of punch. However, the student is unable to determine the correct number of rolls of string Zevah would need for the balloons.
In the first problem, the student understands there are eight ounces in a cup. However, the student misinterprets the remainder. Additionally, the student is unable to determine the correct number of rolls of string Zevah would need for the balloons.

Questions Eliciting Thinking
 I see that you added and then divided and found a remainder of four in this first problem. Do you need to do anything about this remainder? What does the remainder mean?
 If there are eight ounces in a cup and you have a remainder of four, what do you think the four represents?
 How many centimeters of string does Zevah need? Can you convert this to meters?

Instructional Implications Provide specific feedback to the student regarding errors made. For example:
 Ensure that the student can interpret remainders in division problems. Consider using the MFAS task, 'What Does The 21 Mean'. Guide the student to understand that remainders must be taken into account in the final answer.
 If the student does not know the conversion factor for converting from centimeters to meters, provide the student with additional practice in converting metric units both in and out of context.
 If the student does not know the conversion factor for converting from ounces to cups, provide the student with additional practice in converting customary units both in and out of context.Â

Got It 
Misconception/Error The student provides complete and correct responses to all components of the task. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student solves the first problem by one of the methods below:
 The student adds 32 + 64 + 76 and then divides the sum of 172 by 8. The student then takes the quotient of 21 with four leftover and says that since there are 8 ounces in a cup and there are 4 ounces left over, they will be able to serve 21 cups of punch.Â
 The student divides each number of fluid ounces by eight and says that there are 4 cups of pineapple juice, 8 cups of fruit punch, and 9 Â˝ cups of ginger ale. The student then adds 4 + 8 + 9 and determines that they will be able to serve 21 cups of punch.
The student solves the second problem by one of the methods below:
 The student multiplies 250 x 36 and says they will need 9,000 centimeters of string. The student then says that since there are 100 centimeters in 1 meter and each roll of ribbon contains 30 meters, you multiply 100 times 30. Each roll of ribbon contains 3,000 centimeters of ribbon. So they will need three rolls of ribbon for all 36 balloons.
 The student converts the 30 meters to 3,000 centimeters. Next, the student divides 3,000 by 250 and determines the quotient of 12. The student then knows that each roll will provide enough string for 12 balloons. Finally the student determines that three rolls would be needed for 36 balloons.Â

Questions Eliciting Thinking
 Another student said that Zevah will need 30 rolls of ribbon. What do you think she did incorrectly?
 If Zevah buys 30 rolls of ribbon and wants to put 250 centimeters on each balloon, how many balloons will she need to use all of the ribbon?

Instructional Implications
 Encourage the student to determine scenarios in which it is necessary to convert units of measure.
 Ask the student to create word problems that include opportunities to convert units.
 Have the student exchange problems with a classmate and solve.
 Have the students compare answers and reconcile any differences.
