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Formative Assessment Task
Instructions for Implementing the Task
This task can be implemented individually, with small groups, or with the whole class.
 The teacher asks the student to complete the problem on the Justify the Process  2 worksheet.
 The teacher asks followup questions, as needed.
TASK RUBRIC
Getting Started 
Misconception/Error The student is unable to provide justifications for the steps of the solution process. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student:
 Evaluates rather than justifies the steps.
 Attempts to give a description of how to solve the equation.

Questions Eliciting Thinking What does it mean to justify?
What is the Distributive Property? Was it used in any of these steps?
What are the properties of equality? How can they be used to solve equations?
What value of x makes the first equation true? The second equation? What does that tell you? 
Instructional Implications Review the properties of equality and the properties of operations. Explain the reasoning process used in solving linear equations and that each step follows from the equality asserted in the previous step. Emphasize that appropriate application of the properties of equality enables one to rewrite an equation in an equivalent form. Provide the student with the steps of the solution of an equation and ask the student to justify each step using properties of equality and operations.
If needed, review the application of the properties of equality and the properties of operations to the process of solving an equation. Provide a variety of equations for the student to solve. Begin with simple onestep equations, then twostep equations, and finally, equations with rational expressions. Ask the student to justify each step of the process of solving and provide feedback as needed. 
Making Progress 
Misconception/Error The student is unable to use properties of equality as justifications. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student justifies the first step with the Distributive Property and the second step with â€ścombining like terms.â€ť Rather than justifying the last step with the Subtraction Property of Equality, the student:
 Describes the subtraction of three from seven.
 Says, â€śThey isolate(d) the variable.â€ť

Questions Eliciting Thinking How do you know that three can be subtracted from seven? What happened to the three on the right side of the equation?
Can you explain what it means to â€śisolate the variableâ€ť? What property justifies this? 
Instructional Implications Review the properties of equality. Explain the reasoning process used in solving linear equations and that each step follows from the equality asserted in the previous step. Emphasize that appropriate application of the properties of equality enables one to rewrite an equation in an equivalent form. Provide the student with the steps of the solution of several twostep equations such as 3x + 7 = 12 and Â + 9 = 2 and ask the student to justify each step using properties of equality. 
Got It 
Misconception/Error The student provides complete and correct responses to all components of the task. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student provides justification as follows from the equality of numbers.

Questions Eliciting Thinking Do you have to use the Distributive Property and combine like terms before using an equality property?
What does it mean to combine like terms? How can you justify combining like terms? 
Instructional Implications Ask the student to justify the process of combining like terms. For example, provide the student with the following example and ask the student to justify each step: 5x + 2x = (5 + 2)x = 7x. Then challenge the student with a more complex example such as: (9x + 5) + 4x = (5 + 9x) + 4x = 5 + (9x + 4x) = 5 + (9 + 4)x = 5 + 13x = 13x + 5. Again, ask the student to justify each step. For an even greater challenge, ask the student to justify that 3t â€“ 3 â€“ 2t + 6 = t + 3 by providing and justifying the steps that lead from 3t â€“ 3 â€“ 2t + 6 to t + 3. 
Accommodations & Recommendations
Special Materials Needed:
 Justify the Process  2 worksheetÂ
Source and Access Information
Contributed by:
Name of Author/Source: MFAS FCRSTEM
Is this Resource freely Available? Yes
Access Privileges: Public
* Please note that examples of resources are not intended as complete curriculum.