Getting Started 
Misconception/Error The student is unable to draw a dot plot. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student produces a graph that contains points but is not a dot plot.

Questions Eliciting Thinking What does a dot plot look like? How is it constructed?
What kind of data is graphed on a dot plot?
How did you construct your graph? What kind of data did you actually graph? 
Instructional Implications Explain the distinction between onevariable and twovariable data and be sure the student understands that dot plots are used to display onevariable data. Provide clear instruction on the structure of a dot plot: all possible values of the data are represented on an appropriately scaled horizontal axis, the number of dots above a value indicates the frequency of that value in the data set, dots are placed in an evenly spaced vertical formation directly above their corresponding values, the horizontal axis is labeled, and the graph is titled. Guide the student to construct a frequency table of the data in this task. Assist the student in identifying an appropriate range and scale for the horizontal axis. Ask the student to draw the axis and graph the data. Then ask the student to label the axis and title the graph. Provide feedback as needed.
Show the student a variety of examples of dot plots including some generated by technology. Pose questions that address various aspects of the dot plot [e.g., overall shape, the value(s) that occur most frequently] and an interpretation of the data in context.
Provide the student with a new set of data and ask the student to construct a dot plot that includes all of the necessary components. Give the student a checklist of all important components to include in a dot plot (title, a labeled and scaled horizontal axis, and the correct numbers of dots placed in evenly spaced vertical formations). 
Moving Forward 
Misconception/Error The student does not accurately or appropriately represent the data. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student:
 Misrepresents the frequencies of some data values (e.g., the student places just one dot above each value in the data set).
 Places dots in a nonvertical formation or places the dots vertically but does not use even spacing.
 Does not scale the axis appropriately.
 Only includes the data values on the axis and/or uses a nonlinear scale.

Questions Eliciting Thinking Did you first create a frequency table for the data? How many plants had six tomatoes? Does your dot plot show this?
How should the dots be placed in the graph?
What was your reason for scaling the axis as you did? Does your axis look like a number line? Is anything missing? Are the coordinates equally spaced? 
Instructional Implications Guide the student to construct a frequency table of data before constructing a dot plot. Doing so will minimize data representation errors and provide an opportunity to consider the range of the data before preparing the axis of the dot plot. Show the student how to consider the range of values in the data set when scaling the axis. Remind the student that the axis is just a number line (or a portion of it) and should be constructed with a linear scale. Explain that dots are placed in an evenly spaced vertical formation directly above their corresponding values to give an indication of the shape of the data set. Ask the student to revise his or her graph and provide feedback as needed.
Give the student a checklist of all important components to include in a dot plot (title, a labeled and scaled horizontal axis, and the correct numbers of dots placed in evenly spaced vertical formations). Provide the student with additional opportunities to construct dot plots. 
Almost There 
Misconception/Error The student omits a minor component of the graph or makes a small error. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student represents the data accurately with a dot plot but:
 Does not title the graph or label horizontal axis.
 Does not title the graph and leaves tic marks off of the horizontal axis.
 Places the wrong number of dots above one of the values.

Questions Eliciting Thinking What is the meaning of the variable on the horizontal axis? How can you make the meaning of the variable clear to those reading your dot plot?
What is missing from your horizontal axis?
Did you title your graph? 
Instructional Implications Give the student a checklist of all important components to include in a dot plot (title, a labeled and scaled horizontal axis, and the correct numbers of dots placed in evenly spaced vertical formations).
Provide the student with additional opportunities to construct dot plots. 
Got It 
Misconception/Error The student provides complete and correct responses to all components of the task. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student creates a dot plot with an appropriately labeled and scaled horizontal axis, the correct numbers of dots placed in evenly spaced vertical formations, and a title. 
Questions Eliciting Thinking Could one reconstruct the data from the dot plot?
What shape would the dot plot take if all plants produced the same number of tomatoes?
Would a dot plot be a useful representation if the data originated at a farm that contained 2000 plants? 
Instructional Implications Challenge the student to construct three distinctly different dot plots in which there are only two plants that produce a total of only five tomatoes. 