Getting Started 
Misconception/Error The student is not able to correctly use algebraic properties to solve the equation. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student is not able to solve for y. The student:
 Substitutes a value for b.
 Divides only the left side of the equation by b and then stops.

Questions Eliciting Thinking What are you being asked to solve for? Where is that variable in the equation?
How could you isolate the term â€“by?
Suppose we replaceÂ b with a number. Could you then solve for y? 
Instructional Implications Be sure the student understands what it means to solve an equation for a variable. Review the order of operations conventions and the Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division Properties of Equality. Model for the student the order the properties should be used to solve equations.
Discuss with the student why b and y must be nonzero real numbers. Ask the student what would happen if either variable were equal to zero.
Review the reasoning that is used in solving equations and assist the student in applying it to literal equations. Show the student a similar equation such as 6 â€“ 2y = 19 and ask the student to solve for y. Relate the process of solving this equation for y to the process of solving 6 â€“ by = 19 for y.
Provide additional opportunities to solve literal equations for specified variables. Begin with equations requiring only one step to solve, and gradually transition the student to solving twostep and multistep equations.
Consider implementing MFAS tasks Literal Equations (ACED.1.4), Solving Formulas for a Variable (ACED.1.4) or Solving Literal Equations (ACED.1.4). 
Moving Forward 
Misconception/Error The student attempts to solve for the indicated variable but is unable to correctly use inverse operations. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student begins by adding six to both sides of the equation.
The student attempts to subtract b from both sides of the equation.

Questions Eliciting Thinking I see that you added six to each side of the equation. What is 6 + 6? Does adding six eliminate the six on the left side of the equation?
What operation is suggested in the term â€“by?
What is the coefficient of y? Is b positive or negative?
What is 13 â€“ b? Does that equal 13? 
Instructional Implications Review the four basic operations (i.e., add, subtract, multiply, and divide) and give the student the opportunity to determine the inverse of each. Provide feedback as needed.
Review the reasoning that is used in solving equations and assist the student in applying it to literal equations. Provide additional opportunities to solve literal equations for specified variables. Begin with equations requiring only one step to solve, and gradually transition the student to solving twostep and multistep equations.
Consider implementing MFAS tasks Literal Equations (ACED.1.4), Solving Formulas for a Variable (ACED.1.4) and Solving Literal Equations (ACED.1.4). 
Almost There 
Misconception/Error The student is correctly able to apply inverse operations but makes calculation/careless errors. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student adds 6 to 19 when he or she indicated subtracting six from each side of the equation.
The student drops the negative sign from the term â€“by and divides each side of the equation by a positive b.

Questions Eliciting Thinking There is a minor error in your work. Can you find it? 
Instructional Implications Provide feedback on any error and ask the student to revise his or her work. Provide additional literal equations to solve for specified variables and pair the student with another Almost There student to compare solution methods and reconcile any differences.
Provide the student with a completed problem that contains errors. Have the student identify and correct the errors.
Consider implementing MFAS tasks Literal Equations (ACED.1.4), Solving Formulas for a Variable (ACED.1.4) and Solving Literal Equations (ACED.1.4). 
Got It 
Misconception/Error The student provides complete and correct responses to all components of the task. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student correctly solves the equation for y getting .

Questions Eliciting Thinking Why is it necessary that b and y be nonzero real numbers?
What if you were asked to solve this equation for b? How would the process of solving for b be similar to or different from the process of solving for y? 
Instructional Implications Provide the student with opportunities to solve more complex literal equations for specified variables that require three or more steps. Pair the student with another Got It student to compare work and reconcile any differences. 