Getting Started 
Misconception/Error The student is unable to apply strategies used in solving equations when rewriting literal equations. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student does not understand how to apply inverse properties in literal equations. The student:
 Manipulates symbols without any mathematical justification.
 Attempts to apply properties of equality but is unable to correctly rewrite expressions.

Questions Eliciting Thinking Suppose you were to solve this equation, a = b + c, for b. What would you do?
What do you know about the properties of equality? For example, what is the Addition Property of Equality? How can it be used to solve equations? 
Instructional Implications Review the four basic operations (i.e., add, subtract, multiply, and divide) and give the student the opportunity to determine the inverse of each. Provide feedback as needed.
Review the reasoning that is used in solving equations and assist the student in applying it to formulas. Begin with simple threevariable formulas that require only one step to solve, and then introduce the student to twostep and multistep problems.
Consider implementing MFAS tasks Literal Equations (ACED.1.4) and Solving Literal Equations (ACED.1.4) if not used previously. 
Moving Forward 
Misconception/Error The student makes errors when solving literal equations that contain grouping symbols. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student:
 Adds 6 to 5(d â€“ 6) getting 5d.
 Rewrites as k + 6.
 Is unable to correctly apply equation solving strategies to solve the third equation for .

Questions Eliciting Thinking Suppose you first distributed the 5 in the expression 5(d â€“ 6)? If you then add 6, will you get 5d?
Is (k + 30)/5 equal to k/5 + 30/5? Is k/5 + 30/5 equal to k + 6?
Can you explain how you solved for Â in the third problem? 
Instructional Implications Assist the student in identifying and correcting his or her error(s). Make explicit the application of properties of equality in solving the equations and relate solving literal equations to solving linear equations in one variable. Give the student other multistep literal equations that include parentheses and fractions bars as grouping symbols and ask the student to solve for variables within the grouping symbols. Provide feedback as needed. 
Almost There 
Misconception/Error The student makes an error in writing mathematics. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level The student correctly solves each literal equation for the specified variable but:
 Does not enclose the expression Â in parentheses and writes a final answer ofÂ Â =Â +Â
 Copies the numerator as Â and then continues solving correctly.
 Writes subscripts as exponents.
 Rewrites Â asÂ .

Questions Eliciting Thinking Do Â and Â mean the same thing? How should you have written this expression?
I see that you changed Â toÂ Â . Did you have a reason for doing that?
What is the difference between a subscript and an exponent? Do they mean the same thing?
IsÂ Â equal toÂ ? 
Instructional Implications Provide feedback to the student concerning the specific error made and allow the student to correct his or her work. Provide additional opportunities to solve multistep equations for specified variables. 
Got It 
Misconception/Error The student provides complete and correct responses to all components of the task. 
Examples of Student Work at this Level For each problem, the student shows mathematically correct work to solve for the specified variable. The studentâ€™s final answers are (or are equivalent to):

Questions Eliciting Thinking Are there other ways you could solve these equations for the specified variables?
Is there more than one right answer for these problems? How is the final answer related to the strategy used to solve for the variable? 
Instructional Implications Challenge the student to write at least two correct forms of the answer for each equation.
Ask the student to justify each step in the process of solving by citing the relevant postulate, property, or theorem to support each step. 