Standard 8: Matter

A. A working definition of matter is that it takes up space, has mass, and has measurable properties. Matter is comprised of atomic, subatomic, and elementary particles.

B. Electrons are key to defining chemical and some physical properties, reactivity, and molecular structures. Repeating (periodic) patterns of physical and chemical properties occur among elements that define groups of elements with similar properties. The periodic table displays the repeating patterns, which are related to the atom's outermost electrons. Atoms bond with each other to form compounds.

C. In a chemical reaction, one or more reactants are transformed into one or more new products. Many factors shape the nature of products and the rates of reaction.

D. Carbon-based compounds are building-blocks of known life forms on earth and numerous useful natural and synthetic products.

General Information
Number: SC.912.P.8
Title: Matter
Type: Standard
Subject: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science

Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

Independent

SC.912.P.8.In.1
Classify states of matter as solid, liquid, and gaseous.
SC.912.P.8.In.2
Compare characteristics of physical and chemical changes of matter.
SC.912.P.8.In.3
Identify the nucleus as the center of an atom.
SC.912.P.8.In.4
Recognize that the periodic table includes all known elements.
SC.912.P.8.In.5
Identify that compounds are made of two or more elements.
SC.912.P.8.In.6
Identify formulas for common compounds, such as H2O and CO2.
SC.912.P.8.In.7
Identify properties of common acids and bases.
SC.912.P.8.In.8
Identify that carbon is found in all living things.

Supported

SC.912.P.8.Su.1
Identify examples of states of matter as solid, liquid, and gaseous.
SC.912.P.8.Su.2
Identify examples of physical and chemical changes.
SC.912.P.8.Su.3
Recognize that atoms are tiny particles in materials, too small to see.
SC.912.P.8.Su.4
Recognize examples of common elements, such as oxygen and hydrogen.
SC.912.P.8.Su.5
Recognize examples of common compounds, such as water and salt.
SC.912.P.8.Su.6
Match common chemical formulas to their common name, such as H2O to water.
SC.912.P.8.Su.7
Categorize common materials or foods as acids or bases.
SC.912.P.8.Su.8
Recognize that carbon is found in all living things.

Participatory

SC.912.P.8.Pa.1
Select an example of a common solid, liquid, and gas.
SC.912.P.8.Pa.2
Recognize a common chemical change, such as cooking, burning, rusting, or decaying.
SC.912.P.8.Pa.3
Recognize that the parts of an object can be put together to make a whole.
SC.912.P.8.Pa.3
Recognize that the parts of an object can be put together to make a whole.
SC.912.P.8.Pa.4
Match common compounds to their names or communication symbols.
SC.912.P.8.Pa.5
Recognize that some acids and bases can be dangerous and identify related hazard symbols.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

Formative Assessment

Balancing Act:

This activity allows students to practice balancing chemical equations. It has three difficulty levels, and the students can practice with 5, 10, or 15 questions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

How Big Is a Mole? Do We Really Comprehend Avogadro’s Number?:

The unit “mole” is used in chemistry as a counting unit for measuring the amount of something. One mole of something has 6.02×1023 units of that thing. The magnitude of the number 6.02×1023 is challenging to imagine. The goal of this lesson is for students to understand just how many particles Avogadro's Number truly represents, or, how big is a mole.  This lesson is meant for students currently enrolled in a first or second year chemistry course. This lesson is designed to be completed within one approximately 1 hour class; however, completion of optional activities 4 and 5 may require a longer class period or part of a second class period.

Type: Lesson Plan

Solutions are Everywhere:

Students will look at similar solutes and create solutions with them. They will compare and contrast them and record their observations.

Type: Lesson Plan

Precipitate Lab:

Students will make chalk by reacting calcium chloride with sodium bicarbonate. They will be able to watch a precipitate being formed. This lab will help them understand the difference between a precipitate and a filtrate and understand what reaction type the reaction is-double displacement. In the next class period, the precipitate will be dry and the students can use the chalk they made and draw with it.

Type: Lesson Plan

Modeling the Kinetic Theory:

Students will engage in a directed inquiry lab to model the kinetic theory of matter. In the end, students should have a firm grasp of how matter's behavior is changed when its structure is changed during phase transitions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Acid or Base???:

Students will complete a lab on acids and bases. Students will test various household substances to see if they are acids or bases. They will create a pH scale and label their substances on it.

Type: Lesson Plan

Voltaic Cells:

In this lesson, students will learn about how batteries produce electrical power. Students will learn how a voltaic cell is designed and be able to identify the important characteristics of a cell as well as calculate cell potential.

Type: Lesson Plan

Redox Reactions:

In this lesson, students will be introduced to the concept of oxidation-reduction reactions. Students will learn how to identify the oxidized/reduced species and determine whether a reaction is redox or not. Students will investigate this concept as it pertains to chemical processes in living things (photosynthesis, respiration, etc). 

Type: Lesson Plan

The Mystery of the Chemistry Lab Explosion:

This lesson requires the students to use their observation skills and their knowledge of single-replacement and double-replacement reactions to solve a mystery. The students will be performing a laboratory experiment to solve the mystery; therefore, groups of two working in stations are ideal for completing this activity.

Type: Lesson Plan

Behind the Scenes with Double-Replacement Reactions:

In this lesson plan the students will engage in a laboratory experiment that requires them to identify the precipitate that forms when two aqueous solutions react together. The students will apply solubility rules to determine the chemical formula and name of the precipitate that forms during the laboratory experiment.

Type: Lesson Plan

Distinguishing between Single-Replacement and Double-Replacement Reactions:

The teacher will perform a demonstration that requires the students to use their knowledge of single-replacement and double-replacement reactions to distinguish between the two types of reactions. The students will also make predictions, observations, and explanations about the products that will form when a chemical reaction takes place.

Type: Lesson Plan

Uniqueness of Carbon:

In this lesson, students will be introduced to bonding and will ultimately learn that carbon is a versatile element in terms of its ability to bond in so many different ways (single, double, and triple bonds).

Type: Lesson Plan

Molecular Compound Lewis Dot Structures:

In this lesson, students will be introduced to bonding and what enables an element to bond in a variety of ways (single, double, and triple bonds).

Type: Lesson Plan

Ionic Bonding Mates:

This activity addresses the part of the standard that focuses on only one type of bonding, ionic bonding. In this engaging activity, students will find several bonding mates. Students will use their knowledge of ions to practice writing formulas for ionic compounds. Students will collaborate with their peers as they look to make bonds. Students will complete the table and discuss how to name the ionic compounds. Students will complete this activity with a greater understanding of the formation of ionic bonds.

Type: Lesson Plan

Predicting the Products of Double-Replacement Reactions:

This is a General Lesson Plan that introduces double-replacement reactions. The students will learn how to predict the products when two aqueous solutions react together and use solubility rules to predict the states of matter of the products. During the Teaching Phase, the teacher uses direct instruction to introduce double-replacement reactions. During the direct instruction, the students will record their notes on a Notes Template. The Teaching Phase is followed by Guided Practice where the educator models how to predict the products of a double-replacement reaction and the states of matter of the products. The last phase is the Independent Practice where the students use the cooperative learning strategy RallyCoach to practice predicting the products and states of matter for double replacement reactions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Metallic Single-Replacement Reactions:

This lesson requires students to investigate and analyze metallic single-replacement reactions during a laboratory experiment.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reactivity of Metals:

This resource introduces students to single-replacement reactions. The students will learn to use the activity series to predict whether or not a single-replacement reaction will take place. This introduction includes a P.O.E. Reactivity of Metals activity, Cornell Notes reading activity, and a Summative Assessment activity. The order of instruction is as follows:

  1. Complete the P.O.E Reactivity of Metals Activity,
  2. Then have the students read the textbook or the Single-Replacement Reactions handout (see attachments) to obtain a mini lecture of single-replacement reactions. The students should use the Cornell Notes Template to record their notes,
  3. Complete the summative assessment, the Re-P.O.E Reactivity of Metals activity, to check for student understanding of single-replacement reactions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Dollars for Density:

This is a guided inquiry activity in which students use simple lab procedures and discussions to develop and apply the concept of density. Students collect and graph data which they use to explore the relationship between mass and volume. Then students use their graph, rather than a memorized formula, to identify the unknown substance.

Type: Lesson Plan

Physical and Chemical Changes Observed in Pancakes:

Students will observe the physical and chemical changes that occur during pancake preparation while following the scientific method.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Closer Look at pH!:

The purpose of this activity is to classify equimolar (equal concentration) acidic and basic solutions as strong or weak by analyzing pH measurements.

Type: Lesson Plan

Chemical Reactions Word Sort:

This is meant to be a review/extension lesson about chemical reactions. Students will use a card sort to distinguish chemical reactions in various forms of representation.

Type: Lesson Plan

The History of the Atomic Model:

The lesson is about the five scientists and their contributions to the theory of the atomic model. The scientists that we will study are John Dalton, J. J. Thompson, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr. The students will also investigate what the present atomic model looks like and why the scientists have concluded that this is now the electron cloud model.

Type: Lesson Plan

Converting from moles to mass (grams) :

Lesson on finding molar mass and converting from moles to mass (grams) for pure substances (elements, compounds and molecules) using the periodic table and the molar road map.

Type: Lesson Plan

Double Replacement Reaction Lab:

Students will perform a set of double replacement reactions. They will be given the opportunity to record observations, write formulas for compounds, and balance the chemical equations for a set of double replacement reactions. The student lab instruction sheet includes an introduction to chemical equations, student instructions, and post lab questions in a foldable booklet format.

Type: Lesson Plan

What's In My Water???:

Through an engaging introductory lesson, laboratory, and virtual simulation, students will be prepared to perform a guided inquiry laboratory investigating the amount of sodium sulfate present in an unknown solution. Students will learn the importance of separation techniques such as filtration, determine which reactions form precipitates, and grow in their knowledge of stoichiometry through gravimetric analysis.

Type: Lesson Plan

Why so dense?:

  • This lesson is designed as an introduction to standard SC.912.P.8.1 and allows students to compare the properties of the three main phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) before competing cooperatively to build the most dense or solid structure possible in a guided inquiry activity.
  • The lesson plan follows the 5E model and incorporates elements of the guided inquiry and POE (predict, observe, and explain) models. Students will be evaluated summatively with the use of argument building.

Type: Lesson Plan

Atomic Theory Stations - Eckert:

This is a set of 8 stations (each station lasts 15-20 minutes) that students may complete individually or in small groups. The stations focus on the development of the atomic theory and introduce students to the concept of the subatomic particles, how they were discovered, and where they are located within the atom. The stations can be grouped together and used as one lesson for 2-3 consecutive days, or they can be split into smaller increments and used over the course of several lessons.

Type: Lesson Plan

Periodic Organization:

This lesson explores how Mendeleev organized the periodic table by explaining the different trends and properties of elements. Students can determine the different relative properties of an element based on its location on the periodic table.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mass Mole Relationships: A Statistical Approach To Accuracy and Precision:

The lesson is a laboratory-based activity involving measurement, accuracy and precision, stoichiometry and a basic statistical analysis of data using a scatter plot, linear equation, and linear regression (line of best fit). The lesson includes teacher-led discussions with student participation and laboratory-based group activities.

Type: Lesson Plan

Let's Get Physical:

The following lesson provides instruction and activities that introduce the physical properties and physical changes of matter. The guided practice gives students the opportunity to engage in analyzing real world examples and their unique physical properties. Students will experience a interactive virtual density lab. The culminating activity for "Let's Get Physical" will be a creative collaborate activity, in which students will have to work together to create a game, chidren's book, song or skit to introduce the 7 physical properties of matter to elementary aged students.

Type: Lesson Plan

Using Acid/Base Neutralization to Study Endothermic vs Exothermic Reactions and Stoichiometry:

In this lesson, students will experimentally determine whether an acid/base neutralization reaction is endothermic or exothermic. They will also use their results to identify the limiting reactant at various times in the process and calculate the concentration of one of the reactants.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Structure of an Atom and its Particles:

In this lesson, the 5E model is used to teach students about the structure of an atom. Students will study the atom's subatomic particles, including their masses, electrical charges, and locations.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mole Relay:

To be successful in chemistry, students need a solid foundation in solving multi-step (sequential) problems. This activity uses inexpensive materials to strengthening students understanding of stoichiometry problems during an engaging group competition. A student-centered approach develops the reasoning skills needed for scientific thinking. Each student assumes a different role as they complete work in a complex stoichiometry problem. Students may receive immediate feedback from their teammates so that success is felt by all learners.

Type: Lesson Plan

Fish Tank pH:

The lesson incorporates language arts and physical science content through the use of supplemental readings and Model Eliciting Activity. In this lesson student will use their knowledge of the pH scale, hydronium ion concentrations and critical thinking to find the solution to a problem.

Type: Lesson Plan

Rodent Infestation:

The lesson integrates language arts and science through the use of a Model Eliciting Activity. The lesson requires student collaboration to develop a solution to a problem. Chemistry is integrated because they must utilize their knowledge of the periodic table.

Type: Lesson Plan

Gluva-Glop:

This is a rework of the lab creating "Silly Putty" from a traditional cookbook lab to an inquiry based lesson. A situational story is read to the class and students are then challenged to create the "lost" substance. Students are provided the raw materials but not given exact amounts. Through multiple trials, students experiment with ways to come up with a sample that closely resembles the one provided at the beginning of the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Investigating the pH of Soils:

In this activity students will conduct research then test the effects of adding products to soil. Students will learn about soil pH, what factors affect the pH of soil and how important it is to the growth of plants. Students will learn to use reputable resources to support their findings. Students will be expected to write a detailed lab report that thoroughly explores the concept while integrating the data from their investigation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Modeling Compounds with Fruit Loops:

In this activity students will model ionic and covalent bonds. Students will use colored fruit loops to represent electrons of various atoms.

Type: Lesson Plan

BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Atomic Models:

This lesson is designed to be part of a sequence of lessons. It follows CPALMS Resource #52952 "BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Solutions." The lesson employs a predict, observe, explain approach along with inquiry-based activities to enhance student understanding of atomic structure.

Type: Lesson Plan

BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Solutions:

This lesson is designed to be part of a sequence of lessons. It follows CPALMS Resource #52705 "BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - States of Matter" and precedes CPALMS Resource #52961 "BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Atomic Models." The lesson employs a predict, observe, explain approach along with inquiry-based activities to enhance student understanding of properties aqueous solutions in terms of the kinetic molecular theory and intermolecular forces.

Type: Lesson Plan

BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - States of Matter:

This lesson is designed to be part of a sequence of lessons. It follows CPALMS Resource #52957 "BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Thermal Energy" and precedes CPALMS Resource #52961 "BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Solutions." The lesson employs a predict, observe, explain approach along with inquiry-based activities to enhance student understanding of states of matter and phase changes in terms of the kinetic molecular theory.

Type: Lesson Plan

Last...but certainly not the least:

Through this activity, students will create a periodic table with Electron Dot Diagrams. This investigation allows students to explore and recognize patterns of the periodic table. This lesson allows students to draw conclusions and clearly demonstrates that atoms of elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons while sharing similar properties and characteristics.

Type: Lesson Plan

Introduction to Acids & Bases: what are they and how do we as scientists measure them?:

A hands-on, lab-based introduction to the pH scale and the characteristics of acids and bases.

Type: Lesson Plan

Dancing Ionic Compounds:

This lesson concentrates on teaching students to name and create formulas for ionic compounds with transition metals and group 1 and 2 metals. It uses a gradual release model by first guiding students through different scenarios, allowing them to work in groups, and finally working on an individual question. The Dancing Ionic Compounds activity is meant to be fun and engaging, helping students master the writing and naming of ionic compounds.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mystery Isotopes:

Through this engaging activity students work as a group to create models of isotopes with stickers and construction paper. Students also use models created by their peers to analyze the number of subatomic particles and determine isotopes' names. All worksheets and data collection sheets are included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Classifying the Universe: What is matter and how do we as scientists categorize it?:

This is a hands-on lesson teaching what matter is and the differences between pure substances (elements and compounds) and mixtures (heterogeneous and homogeneous).

Type: Lesson Plan

To Friend or Not Friend:

The in this activity on chemical bonding, students will mimic Facebook, choosing "friends" based on their oxidation number. When the oxidation numbers of two or more elements equal zero, a stable bond has been formed. The purpose of this activity is for students to understand the rules for which elements bond to make compounds.

Type: Lesson Plan

My 2 Cents:

Students predict how the mass of a penny changes over time, devise a method to test their prediction, collect/analyze data and determine the composition of a penny based on physical properties and calculations. This student-centered activity allows freedom from mistakes as they explore their learning in a supportive environment.

Type: Lesson Plan

Making Menus:

Students can organize information about a chemical substance into a menu that will help them establish their thoughts when converting using the concept of the mole. Ordering off their menu narrows the information to only what is relevant and allows them to easily set up factor label conversions.

Type: Lesson Plan

I-on-it (Ionic) or not?:

In this physically engaging activity students will debate with their peers whether a randomly drawn statement/diagram/compound name or formula applies to ionic bonds, covalent bonds or both types of bonds. Then sort themselves throughout the room accordingly. Peer support and collaboration are encouraged while the teacher facilitates proper placement. Activity concludes with a T chart graphic organizer and a writing assignment where students personify the bond types.

Type: Lesson Plan

Determining the Empirical Formula of Hydrates:

Students will apply the mole concept and the law of conservation of mass to determine the empirical formula of a hydrate. Students will also use data from their experiment to understand the concept of mole ratios, formulas and predicting products from reactions. Students will interpret formula representation of compounds and understand their percent composition.

Type: Lesson Plan

Balancing Chemical Equations Using a Visual Aid:

Students will use this kinesthetic activity to further their knowledge regarding balancing chemical equations.

Type: Lesson Plan

Acids, Bases, and pH:

This is a lesson for introducing the concepts of acids, bases, and pH.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Bright Idea:

Students will look for a correlation between pH and conductivity. They will also compare ionic, molecular, and solids for conductivity. The procedure provided above is a guided, step-by-step presentation. Remove steps to achieve the level of inquiry desired for your class.

Type: Lesson Plan

All in the Family:

This lesson allows the students to become familiar with the elements on the periodic table. The students play a game of go fish using cards they've made from index cards. The students match the cards according to their oxidation number in a similar pattern to how the game go fish is played. The students also use the index cards to make flash cards of their elements and use the cards as a study tool. The students will learn how subatomic particles and chemical characteristics determine the placement of elements on the periodic table.

Type: Lesson Plan

Behavior of Gases: Disaster at Lake Nyos:

Students, through discussion and structured inquiry, will learn about the behavior of gases under various conditions. Students will be able to apply these concepts to everyday objects such as soda bottles, fire extinguishers, hot air balloons, propane tanks, and aerosol products.

Type: Lesson Plan

Shake it up:

Students will model molecular motion with everyday materials (shaker bottles) then associate their model/actions to the phase transitions of water while graphing its heat curve from data collected during a structured inquiry lab.

Type: Lesson Plan

SMALL: Shape Memory Alloy Lab:

Shape Memory Alloys are metals that can return to or 'remember' their original shape. They are a cutting edge application for Chemistry, Physics, and Integrated Science. The activities in this lesson work well for the study of forces, Newton's Laws, and electricity in physics. They also lend themselves well to crystalline structures, heat of reaction, and bonding in chemistry. In addition, students could study applications for the materials in the medical and space industries.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson Study Resource Kit

Atomically Correct:

A Lesson Study Resource Kit that addresses interpreting chemical reactions at three areas of cognition: the macroscopic world of observable properties (sensory); the microscopic world of atoms, molecules, ions, and subatomic particles (diagrams); and the symbolic world of chemical formulas, equations, and symbols.

Type: Lesson Study Resource Kit

Perspectives Video: Experts

Plastic Polymers:

Watch as chemists make environmentally friendly plastics in the lab!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Carbon:

Harry Kroto, from Florida State University, discusses the amazing element carbon, the compounds it forms, and the uses including carbon nanotubes.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Carbon Foam and Geometry:

Carbon can take many forms, including foam! Learn more about how geometry and the Monte Carlo Method is important in understanding it.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Recognizing Redox Reactions:

Chemistry is pretty sweet. Also tasty if you understand oxidation and reduction reactions, but it may take a little MacGyvering.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

pH Scale:

Keep an eye on pH as you learn about what makes acids and bases.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Properties and Structures of Subatomic Particles:

Do you know everything about protons? Are you positive?

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The Discovery and Behavior of Antimatter:

Learn more about the atomic model and antimatter!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Physical and Chemical Changes in Food :

Don't overreact when this chemist describes physical and chemical changes that you can observe in your own kitchen!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Solving Systems of Equations, Oceans & Climate:

Angela Dial discusses how she solves systems of equations to determine how the composition of ocean floor sediment has changed over 65 million years to help reveal more information regarding climate change.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

The Science and Math Behind Sour Fizzy Candy:

Master candymaker Wes Raley describes the process and science behind making sour fizzy candy. 

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Nitrogen Ice Cream:

Dig in as Daniel Golik, Owner at Chill-N, describes how liquid nitrogen is used to create smooth ice cream in Miami. This video was created by students at Alonzo And Tracy Mourning Senior High School in Miami as part of the SECME STEM video competition.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Graphite for High-temperature Glass Art Fabrication:

Glass artist Russel Scaturro explains why graphite tools are required for fabrication with borosilicate glass. 

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

A Moment on Dipole-Dipole Forces:

Learn how molecules have the potential to be polar, but not all are.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Making Charcoal:

Get sooted up and join a collier as he discusses charcoal production at historic Mission San Luis.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

See the Four States of Matter in Welding!:

A welder wields a plasma torch to cut solid metal like a hot knife through butter. It's one-stop shopping to see all four states of matter.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

DIY Cabbage Juice pH Indicator:

Listen to this chemist describe a simple pH indicator experiment using foods and household chemicals.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Halogens, Halides, and Redox Reactions:

A National Board Certified Teacher and Presidential Awardee for outstanding math and science teaching demonstrates a hands-on laboratory activity series to see which halogen/halide combinations will result in redox reactions.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

The Briggs-Rauscher Reaction is a Redox Reaction in Action!:

Orange. Blue. Wait, orange. No, wait, blue. Chemistry!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Teaching Ideas

Recognizing Chemical Reactions:

This resource describes activity that will allow students to observe the effects of a chemical change as opposed to a physical change. It also gives them the opportunity to observe conservation of matter by modeling chemical equations. The main learning objective is the recognition that all chemical reactions create new molecules and that in a chemical reaction the original atoms get rearranged, bonding together in different ways.

Type: Teaching Idea

CERN:

This PBS/NOVA presentation tells the story of the CERN and the Large Hadron Collider project - an amazing ongoing investigation in search of an answer to the mysteries that still exist in particle physics. Recommended discussions and activities before and after the video are provided.

Type: Teaching Idea

Island of Stability:

A video and supporting activities about the Periodic Table. The context is man's quest to create elements. The focus is atomic structure and atomic theory.

Type: Teaching Idea

Zip-lock Bag Reactions:

Students conduct and observe a chemical reaction in a sealable plastic bag. Students then devise and conduct their own experiments to determine the identity of two unknown substances used in the reaction.

Type: Teaching Idea

Text Resources

Avogadro: Voice in the Wilderness:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how Avogadro's hypothesis, proposed prior to the publishing of Dalton's atomic theory, was initially rejected. But his hypothesis turned out to be the key to solving many problems facing chemistry in the 1800s. The article describes how the later acceptance of his original idea changed the subject forever and even allowed for the creation of the periodic table.

Type: Text Resource

Periodic Table of the Elements:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This simple text explains the basics of how the periodic table is organized and summarizes the information that the table includes about each element.

Type: Text Resource

Ammonium Dichromate:

This article explains the uses and properties of ammonium dichromate, an "explosive" compound once common in children's chemistry sets, and the reasons why society has gradually moved away from using this compound.

Type: Text Resource

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions -- Real-Life Implications:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Oxidation-reduction reactions are one of the main types of reactions students are taught in chemistry class, but what are some real-life examples of this often awe-inspiring reaction? This article looks at the science behind some real-life oxidation-reduction reactions, including explosions (in cars and trains), space shuttle fuel, and many uses of metals. The importance of these reactions in limiting systems is also covered.

Type: Text Resource

Regenerating Plastic Grows Back After Damage:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes researchers' development of a material similar to plastic that regenerates or grows back after damage. Researchers have discovered that the material is similar to biologic regenerative functions in living organisms and works by bonding to the damaged area and filling the holes and cracks to repair itself.

Type: Text Resource

History Of Chemistry/Famous Chemists:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes the history of chemistry through the scientific findings and major contributions of several important chemists. These chemists, including Joseph Priestly, Dmitri Mendeleev, and Niels Bohr, discovered properties of gases and other materials, developed the Law of Conservation of Mass and the periodic table, and contributed to the development of atomic theory.

Type: Text Resource

Artistic Chemistry: A Beautiful Collaboration:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Chemistry can be an important part of creating art. This article discusses two examples of this: the presence of redox reactions in making Raku pottery, and the use of cleaning agents when creating stained glass. The process of making both types of art is described, along with the chemical reactions involved.

Type: Text Resource

Chemistry Unearths the Secrets of the Terracotta Army:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In 1974 a group of Chinese farmers digging a well came across a great discovery: the Terracotta Army from the tomb of the first emperor of China. Since the discovery, archaeologists have been researching many aspects of the artifacts. Recently, with the use of chemistry, they have been able to determine many details of the weapons of the Terracotta Army, including their chemical composition and production techniques.

Type: Text Resource

Molten Salts Could Improve Fuel Economy:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This text describes a new technology that might a boost car engine's efficiency by 2% by adding ionic liquids called "molten salts" to lubricating engine oil. The addition of the molten salts has the potential to reduce millions of barrels of oils from being imported into the United States annually.

Type: Text Resource

Demystifying Gross Stuff:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. From pimples to bad breath to passing gas, this article clears up the science behind some of the gross things our bodies do—acne, bad breath, and flatulence—in an attempt to make the gross seem a little less so.

Type: Text Resource

The Quest for a Clean Drink:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In America, clean water flows with the turn of a knob, but many countries do not have this luxury. This article looks at three different ways scientists have created treatment systems for drinking water in poor countries like India and Bangladesh.

Type: Text Resource

Snapshots Differentiate Molecules From Their Mirror Image:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes how scientists were able to reveal the spatial structure of left-handed and right-handed chiral molecules in gaseous solutions by using a combination of mass spectrometry and the Coulomb explosion.

Type: Text Resource

Graphene: The Next Wonder Material?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article places special attention on the properties of graphene and its future potential uses.

Type: Text Resource

Salty Surprise: Ordinary Table Salt Turns into 'Forbidden' Forms:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists use normal table salt and expose it to extreme conditions to create new compounds that defy the classical rules of chemistry. These new compounds may help to produce better products with new applications and understand planetary cores.

Type: Text Resource

Paintball: Chemistry Hits its Mark:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how the concept of paintball originated and how it has changed into the sport of today. It also describes how the different states of matter are all present in the components of paintball.

Type: Text Resource

Do Diamonds Really Come from Coal?:

This resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article debunks a popular Superman myth. Even though diamonds and coal are both different forms of carbon, and pressure is a key part of turning carbon into diamonds, the author explains why Superman cannot crush coal to make diamonds. The article goes on to explain how diamonds are actually formed.

Type: Text Resource

"Cooking with Chemistry":

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area.

This article from the Royal Society of Chemistry's Chemistry World magazine explains molecular gastronomy, a scientific discipline based on the physics and chemistry of cooking.

Type: Text Resource

American Elements:

This web site features an interactive periodic chart that provides information on the elements, including a description, physical and thermal properties, abundance, isotopes, ionization energy, the element's discoverer, translations of element names into several languages, and bibliographic information on research-and-development publications involving the element. Additional information includes technical information and information on manufactured products for elemental metals, metallic compounds, and ceramic and crystalline products. The American Elements company manufactures engineered and advanced material products.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Central Idea: Quenching Your Thirst for Literacy Skills:

Click "View Site" to open a full-screen version. This tutorial is designed to help secondary science teachers learn how to integrate literacy skills within their science curriculum. The focus on literacy across content areas is designed to help students independently build knowledge in different disciplines through reading and writing. This tutorial will demonstrate a series of steps that teachers can teach students to help them determine the central ideas of a science text. This tutorial will also explain what an effective summary contains and provide steps teachers can use to help students with paraphrasing.

Type: Tutorial

Oxidation and Reduction Review From Biological Point-of-View:

This Khan Academy video explains oxidation and reduction reactions from a biological point of view.

Type: Tutorial

Atoms and Bonding:

This tutorial will help the learner understand the relationship between atoms, their electrons, and the chemical bonds they can form.

Type: Tutorial

Hydrogen Bonding Force:

A hydrogen bond is the electromagnetic attractive interaction between polar molecules in which hydrogen is bound to a highly electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine. This tutorial will help the learner understand how hydrogen bonds form between the molecules.

Type: Tutorial

Water:

This tutorial will help the learners to understand the molecular structure of the water molecule, its inter- and intra-molecular bonds, and the formation of hydroxide ions.

Type: Tutorial

Oxidation and Reduction in Cellular Respiration:

This video explains oxidation and reduction in cellular respiration.

Type: Tutorial

Unit/Lesson Sequence

Middle School Chemistry Unit | Chapter 4 | The Periodic Table & Bonding:

Students look more deeply into the structure of the atom and play a game to better understand the relationship between protons, neutrons, electrons, and energy levels in atoms and their location in the periodic table. Students will also explore covalent and ionic bonding.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Video/Audio/Animations

Alkali Metals in Water:

This short YouTube video offers an amusing means for students to learn about the way alkali metals react in water. When teaching trends of the Periodic Table this video works well emphasizing similar properties of groups.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Element Math Game:

Students determine the number of protons, electrons, neutrons, and nucleons for different atoms

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Science Crossword Puzzles:

A collection of crossword puzzles that test the knowledge of students about some of the terms, processes, and classifications covered in science topics

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Shapes of Molecules:

  • Differentiate between electron pair and molecular geometry
  • Learn how to name electron pair and molecular geometries for molecules with up to six electron groups around the central atom
  • Illustrate how electron pair repulsion affects bond angles

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Concentration:

  • Explain the concept of concentration
  • Explain the effect of concentration changes on colors of solutions
  • Demonstrate the effect of changing the amount of solute, or solvent, or both on the concentration of the solution
  • Identify a saturated solution

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Climate Connections Global Warming: All about Carbon:

This is a video series that explains (introduces) properties of the carbon atom and parts of the carbon cycle. The video is entertaining and highly relevant for content.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Build an Atom:

Build an atom out of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and see how the element, charge, and mass change. Then play a game to test your ideas!

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Periodic Table:

This unique periodic table presents the elements in an interesting visual display. Select an element to find an image of the element, a description, history, and even an animation. Other chemical data is linked as a PDF file (requires Acrobat Reader).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Precipitation Reaction Systems:


Precipitation reactions occur when cations and anions of aqueous solutions combine to form an insoluble ionic solid, called a precipitate. This simulation explores systems for which precipitation reactions are possible.A precipitation reaction is controlled by the magnitude of the solubility product, solubility product constant and the concentrations of the ions in solution.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Electron Configurations:


The electron configuration of an atom is the representation of the arrangement of electrons that are distributed among the orbital shells and subshells. The simulated activity will help the learners practice the arrangement of the electrons. The learners will be required to follow rules in order to correctly divide the electrons in the orbitals based on the valency of the atom.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Create Molecular Shape:


This simulation will provide the learners with a chance to increase their understanding of a molecular shape. The learners will be required to follow a "Lewis dot structure" which involves two basic principles:

  1. The shapes of the molecule is determined by the repulsion between electron pairs in the outer shell of the central atom. Both bond pairs and lone pairs must be considered.
  2. Lone pairs repel more than bond pairs.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Titrations:

This virtual manipulative will help you understand the process of titration, which is a neutralization reaction that is performed in order to determine an unknown concentration of acid and base. With this simulation, you will be able to calculate the moles of the acid with the understanding that the moles of acid will be equal to the moles of base at the equivalence point.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Limiting Reactants:


This virtual manipulative will help the learners to recognize the limiting reactant effect in a reaction. Limiting reactants can be explained from the extent to which reactions that involve more than one reactant can produce products depends on the quantities of those reactants combined. In most cases, one reactant will be totally consumed while the other reactants remain in excess.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Compounds, Molecules and the Mole:


The relationship of numbers of particles on the atomic scale to measurements made on the bulk scale uses the concept of the mole. Using this simulation, the learner will be able to explore the relationship between mass, moles, molecules and atoms.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Models of the Hydrogen Atom Simulation:

How did scientists figure out the structure of atoms without looking at them? Try out different models by shooting light at the atom. Check how the prediction of the model matches the experimental results.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Introduction to Compounds - How Atoms Bond:

I use this simulation as an introduction to molecules and compounds to help students understand that atoms are not randomly joined to form a compound/molecule, but join in very specific patterns. In order to successfully complete the simulation activity, students must re-arrange molecules various ways. (In CH3COOH, both oxygens are bonded to the carbon atom, for example)

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Atomic Interactions:

In this simulation, explore the interactions between various combinations of two atoms. Specific features of the simulation allows you to see either the total force acting on the atoms or the individual attractive and repulsive forces.

Options for learning:

  • Explain how attractive and repulsive forces govern the interaction between atoms.
  • Describe the effect of potential well depth on atomic interactions.
  • Describe the process of bonding between atoms in terms of energy.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Rutherford Scattering:

This virtual manipulative will help you investigate how Rutherford figured out the structure of the atom without being able to see it. This simulation will allow the you to explore the famous experiment in which Rutherford disproved the Plum Pudding model of the atom by observing alpha particles bouncing off atoms and determining that they must have a small core.
Further explorations of the tutorial could include:

  • Describe the qualitative difference between scattering off positively charged nuclei and electrically neutral plum pudding atoms.
  • For a charged nucleus, describe qualitatively how angle of deflection depends on: energy of incoming particle, impact parameters, and charge of target.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Balancing Chemical Equations:

This activity will allow you to practice balancing a chemical equation. You will have to make sure you are following the law of conservation of mass and recognize what can change to balance an equation.
You can:

  • Balance a chemical equation.
  • Recognize that the number of atoms of each element is conserved in a chemical reaction.
  • Describe the difference between coefficients and subscripts in a chemical equation.
  • Translate from symbolic to molecular representation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Acid-Base Solutions:

How do strong and weak acids differ? Use lab tools on your computer to find out! Dip the paper or the probe into solution to measure the pH, or put in the electrodes to measure the conductivity. Then see how concentration and strength affect pH. Can a weak acid solution have the same pH as a strong acid solution.
Some of the topics to investigate:

  • Given acids or bases at the same concentration, demonstrate understanding of acid and base strength by 1. Relating the strength of an acid or base to the extent to which it dissociates in water. 2. Identifying all the molecules and ions that are present in a given acid or base solution. 3. Comparing the relative concentrations of molecules and ions in weak versus strong acid (or base) solutions. 4. Describing the similarities and differences between strong acids and weak acids or strong bases and weak bases.
  • Demonstrate understanding of solution concentrated by: 1. Describing the similarities and differences between concentrated and dilute solutions. 2. Comparing the concentrations of all molecules and ions in concentrated versus dilute solutions of a particular acid or base.
  • Describe how common tools (pH meter, conductivity, pH paper) help identify whether a solution is an acid or base and strong or weak and concentrated or dilute.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Beer's Law Lab:

This activity will allow you to make colorful concentrated and dilute solutions and explore how much light they absorb and transmit using a virtual spectrophotometer.
You can explore concepts in many ways including:

  • Describe the relationships between volume and amount of solute to solution concentration.
  • Explain qualitatively the relationship between solution color and concentration.
  • Predict and explain how solution concentration will change for adding or removing: water, solute, and/or solution.
  • Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity (mol/L).
  • Design a procedure for creating a solution of a given concentration.
  • Identify when a solution is saturated and predict how concentration will change for adding or removing: water, solute, and/or solution.
  • Describe the relationship between the solution concentration and the intensity of light that is absorbed/transmitted.
  • Describe the relationship between absorbance, molar absorptivity, path length, and concentration in Beer's Law.
  • Predict how the intensity of light absorbed/transmitted will change with changes in solution type, solution concentration, container width, or light source and explain why?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Understanding Polarity:

Understanding molecular polarity by changing the electron-negativity of atoms in a molecule to see how it affects polarity. See how the molecule behaves in an electric field. Change the bond angle to see how shape affects polarity. See how it works for real molecules in 3D.

Some learning goals:
•predict bond polarity using electron-negativity values
•indicate polarity with a polar arrow or partial charges
•rank bonds in order of polarity
•predict molecular polarity using bond polarity and molecular shape

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Gas Properties:


Students will pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as they change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

  • Students can predict how changing a variable among pressure, volume, temperature and number influences other gas properties.
  • Students can predict how changing temperature will affect the speed of molecules.
  • Students can rank the speed of molecules in thermal equilibrium based on the relative masses of molecules.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Under Pressure:

Explore pressure under and above water. See how pressure changes as one change fluids, gravity, container shapes, and volume.
With this simulation you can:

  • Investigate how pressure changes in air and water.
  • Discover how to change pressure.
  • Predict pressure in a variety of situations.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

pH Scale:

Students can test the pH of several substances and visualize hydronium, hydroxide, and water molecules in solution by concentration or the number of molecules. Students can add water to a given substance to see the effects it will have on the pH of that substance; or they can create their own custom substance.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

States of Matter:

Watch different types of molecules form a solid, liquid, or gas. Add or remove heat and watch the phase change. Change the temperature or volume of a container and see a pressure-temperature diagram respond in real time.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

WebQuest

Intermolecular Forces: A Jigsaw Activity:

This jigsaw activity is designed as a cooperative learning activity used to introduce the idea of intermolecular forces. Intermolecular forces are the types of attractive forces that occur between molecules in a solid, liquid, or gas. Each force causes different physical properties of matter. Each member of the group will become an expert on one type of force and then teach the rest of the group.

Type: WebQuest

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

Perspectives Video: Experts

Recognizing Redox Reactions:

Chemistry is pretty sweet. Also tasty if you understand oxidation and reduction reactions, but it may take a little MacGyvering.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

pH Scale:

Keep an eye on pH as you learn about what makes acids and bases.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Properties and Structures of Subatomic Particles:

Do you know everything about protons? Are you positive?

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The Discovery and Behavior of Antimatter:

Learn more about the atomic model and antimatter!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Physical and Chemical Changes in Food :

Don't overreact when this chemist describes physical and chemical changes that you can observe in your own kitchen!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

A Moment on Dipole-Dipole Forces:

Learn how molecules have the potential to be polar, but not all are.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Making Charcoal:

Get sooted up and join a collier as he discusses charcoal production at historic Mission San Luis.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

See the Four States of Matter in Welding!:

A welder wields a plasma torch to cut solid metal like a hot knife through butter. It's one-stop shopping to see all four states of matter.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Text Resource

American Elements:

This web site features an interactive periodic chart that provides information on the elements, including a description, physical and thermal properties, abundance, isotopes, ionization energy, the element's discoverer, translations of element names into several languages, and bibliographic information on research-and-development publications involving the element. Additional information includes technical information and information on manufactured products for elemental metals, metallic compounds, and ceramic and crystalline products. The American Elements company manufactures engineered and advanced material products.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Oxidation and Reduction Review From Biological Point-of-View:

This Khan Academy video explains oxidation and reduction reactions from a biological point of view.

Type: Tutorial

Atoms and Bonding:

This tutorial will help the learner understand the relationship between atoms, their electrons, and the chemical bonds they can form.

Type: Tutorial

Hydrogen Bonding Force:

A hydrogen bond is the electromagnetic attractive interaction between polar molecules in which hydrogen is bound to a highly electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine. This tutorial will help the learner understand how hydrogen bonds form between the molecules.

Type: Tutorial

Water:

This tutorial will help the learners to understand the molecular structure of the water molecule, its inter- and intra-molecular bonds, and the formation of hydroxide ions.

Type: Tutorial

Oxidation and Reduction in Cellular Respiration:

This video explains oxidation and reduction in cellular respiration.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

Element Math Game:

Students determine the number of protons, electrons, neutrons, and nucleons for different atoms

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Science Crossword Puzzles:

A collection of crossword puzzles that test the knowledge of students about some of the terms, processes, and classifications covered in science topics

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Shapes of Molecules:

  • Differentiate between electron pair and molecular geometry
  • Learn how to name electron pair and molecular geometries for molecules with up to six electron groups around the central atom
  • Illustrate how electron pair repulsion affects bond angles

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Concentration:

  • Explain the concept of concentration
  • Explain the effect of concentration changes on colors of solutions
  • Demonstrate the effect of changing the amount of solute, or solvent, or both on the concentration of the solution
  • Identify a saturated solution

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Climate Connections Global Warming: All about Carbon:

This is a video series that explains (introduces) properties of the carbon atom and parts of the carbon cycle. The video is entertaining and highly relevant for content.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Build an Atom:

Build an atom out of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and see how the element, charge, and mass change. Then play a game to test your ideas!

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Periodic Table:

This unique periodic table presents the elements in an interesting visual display. Select an element to find an image of the element, a description, history, and even an animation. Other chemical data is linked as a PDF file (requires Acrobat Reader).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Precipitation Reaction Systems:


Precipitation reactions occur when cations and anions of aqueous solutions combine to form an insoluble ionic solid, called a precipitate. This simulation explores systems for which precipitation reactions are possible.A precipitation reaction is controlled by the magnitude of the solubility product, solubility product constant and the concentrations of the ions in solution.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Electron Configurations:


The electron configuration of an atom is the representation of the arrangement of electrons that are distributed among the orbital shells and subshells. The simulated activity will help the learners practice the arrangement of the electrons. The learners will be required to follow rules in order to correctly divide the electrons in the orbitals based on the valency of the atom.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Create Molecular Shape:


This simulation will provide the learners with a chance to increase their understanding of a molecular shape. The learners will be required to follow a "Lewis dot structure" which involves two basic principles:

  1. The shapes of the molecule is determined by the repulsion between electron pairs in the outer shell of the central atom. Both bond pairs and lone pairs must be considered.
  2. Lone pairs repel more than bond pairs.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Titrations:

This virtual manipulative will help you understand the process of titration, which is a neutralization reaction that is performed in order to determine an unknown concentration of acid and base. With this simulation, you will be able to calculate the moles of the acid with the understanding that the moles of acid will be equal to the moles of base at the equivalence point.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Models of the Hydrogen Atom Simulation:

How did scientists figure out the structure of atoms without looking at them? Try out different models by shooting light at the atom. Check how the prediction of the model matches the experimental results.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Atomic Interactions:

In this simulation, explore the interactions between various combinations of two atoms. Specific features of the simulation allows you to see either the total force acting on the atoms or the individual attractive and repulsive forces.

Options for learning:

  • Explain how attractive and repulsive forces govern the interaction between atoms.
  • Describe the effect of potential well depth on atomic interactions.
  • Describe the process of bonding between atoms in terms of energy.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Rutherford Scattering:

This virtual manipulative will help you investigate how Rutherford figured out the structure of the atom without being able to see it. This simulation will allow the you to explore the famous experiment in which Rutherford disproved the Plum Pudding model of the atom by observing alpha particles bouncing off atoms and determining that they must have a small core.
Further explorations of the tutorial could include:

  • Describe the qualitative difference between scattering off positively charged nuclei and electrically neutral plum pudding atoms.
  • For a charged nucleus, describe qualitatively how angle of deflection depends on: energy of incoming particle, impact parameters, and charge of target.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Balancing Chemical Equations:

This activity will allow you to practice balancing a chemical equation. You will have to make sure you are following the law of conservation of mass and recognize what can change to balance an equation.
You can:

  • Balance a chemical equation.
  • Recognize that the number of atoms of each element is conserved in a chemical reaction.
  • Describe the difference between coefficients and subscripts in a chemical equation.
  • Translate from symbolic to molecular representation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Acid-Base Solutions:

How do strong and weak acids differ? Use lab tools on your computer to find out! Dip the paper or the probe into solution to measure the pH, or put in the electrodes to measure the conductivity. Then see how concentration and strength affect pH. Can a weak acid solution have the same pH as a strong acid solution.
Some of the topics to investigate:

  • Given acids or bases at the same concentration, demonstrate understanding of acid and base strength by 1. Relating the strength of an acid or base to the extent to which it dissociates in water. 2. Identifying all the molecules and ions that are present in a given acid or base solution. 3. Comparing the relative concentrations of molecules and ions in weak versus strong acid (or base) solutions. 4. Describing the similarities and differences between strong acids and weak acids or strong bases and weak bases.
  • Demonstrate understanding of solution concentrated by: 1. Describing the similarities and differences between concentrated and dilute solutions. 2. Comparing the concentrations of all molecules and ions in concentrated versus dilute solutions of a particular acid or base.
  • Describe how common tools (pH meter, conductivity, pH paper) help identify whether a solution is an acid or base and strong or weak and concentrated or dilute.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Beer's Law Lab:

This activity will allow you to make colorful concentrated and dilute solutions and explore how much light they absorb and transmit using a virtual spectrophotometer.
You can explore concepts in many ways including:

  • Describe the relationships between volume and amount of solute to solution concentration.
  • Explain qualitatively the relationship between solution color and concentration.
  • Predict and explain how solution concentration will change for adding or removing: water, solute, and/or solution.
  • Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity (mol/L).
  • Design a procedure for creating a solution of a given concentration.
  • Identify when a solution is saturated and predict how concentration will change for adding or removing: water, solute, and/or solution.
  • Describe the relationship between the solution concentration and the intensity of light that is absorbed/transmitted.
  • Describe the relationship between absorbance, molar absorptivity, path length, and concentration in Beer's Law.
  • Predict how the intensity of light absorbed/transmitted will change with changes in solution type, solution concentration, container width, or light source and explain why?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Understanding Polarity:

Understanding molecular polarity by changing the electron-negativity of atoms in a molecule to see how it affects polarity. See how the molecule behaves in an electric field. Change the bond angle to see how shape affects polarity. See how it works for real molecules in 3D.

Some learning goals:
•predict bond polarity using electron-negativity values
•indicate polarity with a polar arrow or partial charges
•rank bonds in order of polarity
•predict molecular polarity using bond polarity and molecular shape

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Gas Properties:


Students will pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as they change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

  • Students can predict how changing a variable among pressure, volume, temperature and number influences other gas properties.
  • Students can predict how changing temperature will affect the speed of molecules.
  • Students can rank the speed of molecules in thermal equilibrium based on the relative masses of molecules.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Under Pressure:

Explore pressure under and above water. See how pressure changes as one change fluids, gravity, container shapes, and volume.
With this simulation you can:

  • Investigate how pressure changes in air and water.
  • Discover how to change pressure.
  • Predict pressure in a variety of situations.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

pH Scale:

Students can test the pH of several substances and visualize hydronium, hydroxide, and water molecules in solution by concentration or the number of molecules. Students can add water to a given substance to see the effects it will have on the pH of that substance; or they can create their own custom substance.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

States of Matter:

Watch different types of molecules form a solid, liquid, or gas. Add or remove heat and watch the phase change. Change the temperature or volume of a container and see a pressure-temperature diagram respond in real time.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

Formative Assessment

Balancing Act:

This activity allows students to practice balancing chemical equations. It has three difficulty levels, and the students can practice with 5, 10, or 15 questions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Perspectives Video: Experts

Recognizing Redox Reactions:

Chemistry is pretty sweet. Also tasty if you understand oxidation and reduction reactions, but it may take a little MacGyvering.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

pH Scale:

Keep an eye on pH as you learn about what makes acids and bases.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Properties and Structures of Subatomic Particles:

Do you know everything about protons? Are you positive?

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The Discovery and Behavior of Antimatter:

Learn more about the atomic model and antimatter!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Physical and Chemical Changes in Food :

Don't overreact when this chemist describes physical and chemical changes that you can observe in your own kitchen!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

A Moment on Dipole-Dipole Forces:

Learn how molecules have the potential to be polar, but not all are.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Making Charcoal:

Get sooted up and join a collier as he discusses charcoal production at historic Mission San Luis.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

See the Four States of Matter in Welding!:

A welder wields a plasma torch to cut solid metal like a hot knife through butter. It's one-stop shopping to see all four states of matter.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

DIY Cabbage Juice pH Indicator:

Listen to this chemist describe a simple pH indicator experiment using foods and household chemicals.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Halogens, Halides, and Redox Reactions:

A National Board Certified Teacher and Presidential Awardee for outstanding math and science teaching demonstrates a hands-on laboratory activity series to see which halogen/halide combinations will result in redox reactions.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

The Briggs-Rauscher Reaction is a Redox Reaction in Action!:

Orange. Blue. Wait, orange. No, wait, blue. Chemistry!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Tutorial

Water:

This tutorial will help the learners to understand the molecular structure of the water molecule, its inter- and intra-molecular bonds, and the formation of hydroxide ions.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

Shapes of Molecules:

  • Differentiate between electron pair and molecular geometry
  • Learn how to name electron pair and molecular geometries for molecules with up to six electron groups around the central atom
  • Illustrate how electron pair repulsion affects bond angles

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Concentration:

  • Explain the concept of concentration
  • Explain the effect of concentration changes on colors of solutions
  • Demonstrate the effect of changing the amount of solute, or solvent, or both on the concentration of the solution
  • Identify a saturated solution

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Climate Connections Global Warming: All about Carbon:

This is a video series that explains (introduces) properties of the carbon atom and parts of the carbon cycle. The video is entertaining and highly relevant for content.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Precipitation Reaction Systems:


Precipitation reactions occur when cations and anions of aqueous solutions combine to form an insoluble ionic solid, called a precipitate. This simulation explores systems for which precipitation reactions are possible.A precipitation reaction is controlled by the magnitude of the solubility product, solubility product constant and the concentrations of the ions in solution.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Electron Configurations:


The electron configuration of an atom is the representation of the arrangement of electrons that are distributed among the orbital shells and subshells. The simulated activity will help the learners practice the arrangement of the electrons. The learners will be required to follow rules in order to correctly divide the electrons in the orbitals based on the valency of the atom.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Create Molecular Shape:


This simulation will provide the learners with a chance to increase their understanding of a molecular shape. The learners will be required to follow a "Lewis dot structure" which involves two basic principles:

  1. The shapes of the molecule is determined by the repulsion between electron pairs in the outer shell of the central atom. Both bond pairs and lone pairs must be considered.
  2. Lone pairs repel more than bond pairs.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Titrations:

This virtual manipulative will help you understand the process of titration, which is a neutralization reaction that is performed in order to determine an unknown concentration of acid and base. With this simulation, you will be able to calculate the moles of the acid with the understanding that the moles of acid will be equal to the moles of base at the equivalence point.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Limiting Reactants:


This virtual manipulative will help the learners to recognize the limiting reactant effect in a reaction. Limiting reactants can be explained from the extent to which reactions that involve more than one reactant can produce products depends on the quantities of those reactants combined. In most cases, one reactant will be totally consumed while the other reactants remain in excess.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Compounds, Molecules and the Mole:


The relationship of numbers of particles on the atomic scale to measurements made on the bulk scale uses the concept of the mole. Using this simulation, the learner will be able to explore the relationship between mass, moles, molecules and atoms.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Atomic Interactions:

In this simulation, explore the interactions between various combinations of two atoms. Specific features of the simulation allows you to see either the total force acting on the atoms or the individual attractive and repulsive forces.

Options for learning:

  • Explain how attractive and repulsive forces govern the interaction between atoms.
  • Describe the effect of potential well depth on atomic interactions.
  • Describe the process of bonding between atoms in terms of energy.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Rutherford Scattering:

This virtual manipulative will help you investigate how Rutherford figured out the structure of the atom without being able to see it. This simulation will allow the you to explore the famous experiment in which Rutherford disproved the Plum Pudding model of the atom by observing alpha particles bouncing off atoms and determining that they must have a small core.
Further explorations of the tutorial could include:

  • Describe the qualitative difference between scattering off positively charged nuclei and electrically neutral plum pudding atoms.
  • For a charged nucleus, describe qualitatively how angle of deflection depends on: energy of incoming particle, impact parameters, and charge of target.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Balancing Chemical Equations:

This activity will allow you to practice balancing a chemical equation. You will have to make sure you are following the law of conservation of mass and recognize what can change to balance an equation.
You can:

  • Balance a chemical equation.
  • Recognize that the number of atoms of each element is conserved in a chemical reaction.
  • Describe the difference between coefficients and subscripts in a chemical equation.
  • Translate from symbolic to molecular representation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Acid-Base Solutions:

How do strong and weak acids differ? Use lab tools on your computer to find out! Dip the paper or the probe into solution to measure the pH, or put in the electrodes to measure the conductivity. Then see how concentration and strength affect pH. Can a weak acid solution have the same pH as a strong acid solution.
Some of the topics to investigate:

  • Given acids or bases at the same concentration, demonstrate understanding of acid and base strength by 1. Relating the strength of an acid or base to the extent to which it dissociates in water. 2. Identifying all the molecules and ions that are present in a given acid or base solution. 3. Comparing the relative concentrations of molecules and ions in weak versus strong acid (or base) solutions. 4. Describing the similarities and differences between strong acids and weak acids or strong bases and weak bases.
  • Demonstrate understanding of solution concentrated by: 1. Describing the similarities and differences between concentrated and dilute solutions. 2. Comparing the concentrations of all molecules and ions in concentrated versus dilute solutions of a particular acid or base.
  • Describe how common tools (pH meter, conductivity, pH paper) help identify whether a solution is an acid or base and strong or weak and concentrated or dilute.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Beer's Law Lab:

This activity will allow you to make colorful concentrated and dilute solutions and explore how much light they absorb and transmit using a virtual spectrophotometer.
You can explore concepts in many ways including:

  • Describe the relationships between volume and amount of solute to solution concentration.
  • Explain qualitatively the relationship between solution color and concentration.
  • Predict and explain how solution concentration will change for adding or removing: water, solute, and/or solution.
  • Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity (mol/L).
  • Design a procedure for creating a solution of a given concentration.
  • Identify when a solution is saturated and predict how concentration will change for adding or removing: water, solute, and/or solution.
  • Describe the relationship between the solution concentration and the intensity of light that is absorbed/transmitted.
  • Describe the relationship between absorbance, molar absorptivity, path length, and concentration in Beer's Law.
  • Predict how the intensity of light absorbed/transmitted will change with changes in solution type, solution concentration, container width, or light source and explain why?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Understanding Polarity:

Understanding molecular polarity by changing the electron-negativity of atoms in a molecule to see how it affects polarity. See how the molecule behaves in an electric field. Change the bond angle to see how shape affects polarity. See how it works for real molecules in 3D.

Some learning goals:
•predict bond polarity using electron-negativity values
•indicate polarity with a polar arrow or partial charges
•rank bonds in order of polarity
•predict molecular polarity using bond polarity and molecular shape

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Gas Properties:


Students will pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as they change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

  • Students can predict how changing a variable among pressure, volume, temperature and number influences other gas properties.
  • Students can predict how changing temperature will affect the speed of molecules.
  • Students can rank the speed of molecules in thermal equilibrium based on the relative masses of molecules.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Under Pressure:

Explore pressure under and above water. See how pressure changes as one change fluids, gravity, container shapes, and volume.
With this simulation you can:

  • Investigate how pressure changes in air and water.
  • Discover how to change pressure.
  • Predict pressure in a variety of situations.

Type: Virtual Manipulative