## Course Standards

## General Course Information and Notes

### General Notes

While the content focus of this course is consistent with the Physics I course, students will explore these concepts in greater depth. In general, the academic pace and rigor will be greatly increased for honors level course work. Laboratory investigations that include the use of scientific inquiry, research, measurement, problem solving, laboratory apparatus and technologies, experimental procedures, and safety procedures are an integral part of this course. The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) recommends that at the high school level, all students should be in the science lab or field, collecting data every week. School laboratory investigations (labs) are defined by the National Research Council (NRC) as an experience in the laboratory, classroom, or the field that provides students with opportunities to interact directly with natural phenomena or with data collected by others using tools, materials, data collection techniques, and models (NRC, 2006, p. 3). Laboratory investigations in the high school classroom should help all students develop a growing understanding of the complexity and ambiguity of empirical work, as well as the skills to calibrate and troubleshoot equipment used to make observations. Learners should understand measurement error; and have the skills to aggregate, interpret, and present the resulting data (National Research Council, 2006, p.77; NSTA, 2007).**Special Notes**

**Instructional Practices**

Teaching from a range of complex text is optimized when teachers in all subject areas implement the following strategies on a routine basis:

1. Ensuring wide reading from complex text that varies in length.

2. Making close reading and rereading of texts central to lessons.

3. Emphasizing text-specific complex questions, and cognitively complex tasks, reinforce focus on the text and cultivate independence.

4. Emphasizing students supporting answers based upon evidence from the text.

5. Providing extensive research and writing opportunities (claims and evidence).

**Science and Engineering Practices** (NRC *Framework for K-12 Science Education, 2010*)

- Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering).
- Developing and using models.
- Planning and carrying out investigations.
- Analyzing and interpreting data.
- Using mathematics, information and computer technology, and computational thinking.
- Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering).
- Engaging in argument from evidence.
- Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.

### General Information

**Course Number:**2003390

**Course Path:**

**Abbreviated Title:**PHYS 1 HON

**Course Length:**Year (Y)

**Course Attributes:**

- Honors
- Florida Standards Course

**Course Type:**Core Academic Course

**Course Level:**3

**Course Status:**Course Approved

**Grade Level(s):**9,10,11,12

## Educator Certifications

## Student Resources

## Original Student Tutorials

Explore how heat changes the temperature or the state of matter of a material in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore the three types of heat transfer that occur in our world as you complete this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Examine the hallowed words of Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address." In this interactive tutorial you'll identify his point of view, reasoning, and evidence in order to evaluate his effectiveness as a speaker.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

See how data are interpreted to better understand the reproductive strategies taken by sea anemones with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Examine field sampling strategies used to gather data and avoid bias in ecology research. This interactive tutorial features the CPALMS Perspectives video Sampling Strategies for Ecology Research in the Intertidal Zone*.*

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to define, calculate, and interpret marginal frequencies, joint frequencies, and conditional frequencies in the context of the data with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify and describe the leading scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn what scientific laws and scientific theories are and how they are different from what we commonly call laws and theories outside of science with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The graph of a quadratic equation is called a parabola [puh-ra-bow-luh]. The key features we will focus on in this tutorial are the vertex (a maximum or minimum extreme) and the direction of its opening. You will learn how to examine a quadratic equation written in vertex form in order to distinguish each of these key features.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Have you ever ordered a scoop of ice cream in a cone and wondered how much ice cream actually fits inside the cone? By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to answer this question and solve other real-world problems by using the formula for the volume of a cone.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify explicit evidence and understand implicit meaning in a text and demonstrate how and why scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observation and be able to identify examples in biology.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn that a scientific theory is the culmination of many experiments and supplies the most powerful explanation that scientists have to offer with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how the chemical properties of water relate to its physical properties and make it essential for life with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to distinguish between questions that can be answered by science and questions that science cannot answer. This interactive tutorial will help you distinguish between science and other ways of knowing, including art, religion, and philosophy.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Educational Game

This interesting game is to hit the target located opposite a electron gun. The electron gun will fire an electron. This electron must not hit any walls or obstacles during the attempt. The user may direct the electron along a path by placing stationary positive and negative charges at various locations. This game will help support learning about the concept of the electric field, which is created when electrons repel other electrons.

Type: Educational Game

## Educational Software / Tool

This Excel spreadsheet allows the educator to input data into a two way frequency table and have the resulting relative frequency charts calculated automatically on the second sheet. This resource will assist the educator in checking student calculations on student-generated data quickly and easily.

Steps to add data: All data is input on the first spreadsheet; all tables are calculated on the second spreadsheet

- Modify column and row headings to match your data.
- Input joint frequency data.
- Click the second tab at the bottom of the window to see the automatic calculations.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

## Lesson Plans

This lesson's primary focus is to introduce high school students to the concept of Elasticity, which is one of the fundamental concepts in the understanding of the physics of deformation in solids. The main learning objectives are: (1) To understand the essential concept of Elasticity and be able to distinguish simple solids objects based on degree and extent of their elastic properties; (2) To appreciate the utility of the elastic force vs. deformation curve through experiments; (3) To be aware of potential sources of error present in such experiments and identify corrective measures; and (4) To appreciate the relevance of Elasticity in practical applications.

Type: Lesson Plan

This BLOSSOMS lesson discusses Carbon Dioxide, and its impact on climate change. The main learning objective is for students to become more familiar with human production of Carbon Dioxide gas, as well as to gain an awareness of the potential for this gas to effect the temperature of Earth’s atmosphere. This lesson should take about an hour to complete. In order to complete the lesson, the teacher will need: printed copies of signs representing the different products and processes that take place in the carbon cycle (included), samples of matter that represent those products, handouts for the students to create a graphic of the carbon cycle (included) and graph paper or graphing software for students to create graphs. In the breaks of this BLOSSOMS lesson, students will be creating models of the carbon cycle as well as observing experiments and analyzing data from them. It is hoped that this lesson will familiarize students with ways in which carbon moves through our environment and provide them with some personal connection to the impact that an increased concentration of CO_{2} can have on air temperature. The goal is to spark their interest and hopefully to encourage them to ask and investigate more questions about the climate.

Type: Lesson Plan

This lesson focuses on two elements: understanding Newton’s laws of motion, and how to use Newton’s laws to create force diagrams. This lesson also demonstrates how to incorporate requirements of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into a physics lesson. It uses a discrepant event (phenomenon) to model forces at work on an object resulting in motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

The goal of this lesson is to explain how sailboats work by exploring basic physics principles. At the end of this lesson, students will be able to identify the forces acting on a sailboat and explain how the combination of these forces results in the forward motion of a sailboat. Students should be familiar with vectors and be able to use them to represent forces and moments, and also should be familiar with using free body diagrams to represent forces and moments. The classroom activity challenges are centered around small-group discussions based on the questions posed before each break. Free body diagrams, or another conceptual representation of his or her answer, should support each student’s solution to the questions posed in the video.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Perspectives Video: Experts

Jump to it and learn more about how quadratic equations are used in robot navigation problem solving!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Explore how pendulums show the transformation of gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy and back with Dr. Simon Capstick in this engaging video. Don't miss his broken-nose defying test of the physics with a bowling ball pendulum.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The tide is high! How can we statistically prove there is a relationship between the tides on the Gulf Coast and in a fresh water spring 20 miles from each other?

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Statistical analysis played an essential role in using microgravity sensors to determine location of caves in Wakulla County.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Let this video on wing design lift you up!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Dr. Oates uses engineering practices to design artificial muscles that react to electrostatic fields.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Do you know everything about protons? Are you positive?

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Learn more about the atomic model and antimatter!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Plants need visible light, just not all of it. Learn how space plants and their lights strive for efficiency.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Humans aren't the only ones who get their fingerprints taken. Learn how this scientist is like a crime scene investigator using oil "fingerprints" to explain the orgins of spilled oil.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The director of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory describes electromagnetic waves.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Don't let the motion of the ocean cause a commotion! Learn how vectors describe ocean movement patterns.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

An engineer that has previously worked on the F-22 Raptor explains how resistivity in wires plays a role in the development of a large machine.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

We'll be looking at the role of pitch, number of blades and material for outboard motor props as it relates to the propulsion of a boat

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Get fired up as you learn more about ceramic glaze recipes and mathematical units.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Learn how the shape of a didgeridoo affects its sound in this totally tubular video.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Sharpen your knowledge by understanding the forces used to make stone tools.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

If you want to understand the atom, you'll need a lot of energy. Learn how physicists use high energy light and electrons to study atomic structure.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Physics is cool, especially if you want to make super-cold, super-efficient, superconductive materials.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

One way to figure out what something is made of is to see what kinds of wavelengths of electromagnetic energy it can absorb.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Want to watch a video on audio engineering and frequency? Sounds good to me.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

A welder wields a plasma torch to cut solid metal like a hot knife through butter. It's one-stop shopping to see all four states of matter.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

An archaeologist explains how he is using x-rays to reconstruct a nineteenth-century battle!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Dive deep into science as an oceanographer describes conduction, convection, and radiation and their relationship to oceanic systems.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Forge a new understanding of metallurgy and heat transfer by learning how this blacksmith and collier make nails.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

It's okay if you're not on quite the same wavelength as this ethnomusicologist. In Balinese gamelan tuning, that's a good thing!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Archaeologists can see underground trends before everyone else with ground penetrating radar (GPR).

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

When you watch this video, your knowledge related to flight and physics will really take off!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

If physics has you down, don't fret - this musician covers all the bases.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Physical science and social science connect in this discussion of Balinese gamelan. Full STEAM ahead!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Learn more about how splitting light beams helps researchers detect hydrogen fires for the space program.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

You'll need to bring your computer skills and math knowledge to estimate oil volume and rate as it seeps from the ocean floor. Dive in!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Hydrogen is used to launch spacecraft, but accidental fires are difficult to see. Learn about the physics of these fires and how we detect them.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Factors to consider when making pottery on the wheel are discussed, but not in a way that would make your head spin.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Problem-Solving Tasks

The purpose of this task is to allow students to demonstrate an ability to construct boxplots and to use boxplots as the basis for comparing distributions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to make deductions about what kind of music students like by examining a table with data.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to answer probability questions about SAT scores, using distribution and mean to solve the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem could be used as an introductory lesson to introduce group comparisons and to engage students in a question they may find amusing and interesting.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to examine the relationship between shops and crimes by using a correlation coefficient.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to have students complete normal distribution calculations and to use properties of normal distributions to draw conclusions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to use the normal distribution as a model for a data distribution. Students must use given means and standard deviations to approximate population percentages.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task provides a context to calculate discrete probabilities and represent them on a bar graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to explain which measurements are needed to estimate the thickness of a soda can.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to find the surface area of a soda can, calculate how many cubic centimeters of aluminum it contains, and estimate how thick it is.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a mathematical modeling task aimed at making a reasonable estimate for something which is too large to count accurately, the number of leaves on a tree.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a mathematical modeling task aimed at making a reasonable estimate for something which is too large to count accurately, the number of leaves on a tree.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to apply the concepts of mass, volume, and density in the real-world context to find how many cells are in the human body.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task gives an interesting context for implementing ideas from geometry and trigonometry.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task uses the tale of Archimedes and the King of Syracuse's crown to determine the volume and mass of gold and silver.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of the task is to analyze a plausible real-life scenario using a geometric model. The task requires knowledge of volume formulas for cylinders and cones, some geometric reasoning involving similar triangles, and pays attention to reasonable approximations and maintaining reasonable levels of accuracy throughout.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to use geometric and algebraic reasoning to model a real-life scenario. In particular, students are in several places (implicitly or explicitly) to reason as to when making approximations is reasonable and when to round, when to use equalities vs. inequalities, and the choice of units to work with (e.g., mm vs. cm).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students use trigonometric functions to model the movement of a point around a wheel and, through space. Students also interpret features of graphs in terms of the given real-world context.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem-solving task challenges students to find all quadratic functions described by given equation and coordinates, and describe how the graphs of those functions are related to one another.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is meant to be a straight-forward assessment task of graph reading and interpreting skills. This task helps reinforce the idea that when a variable represents time, t = 0 is chosen as an arbitrary point in time and positive times are interpreted as times that happen after that.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task could be used for assessment or for practice. It allows students to compare characteristics of two quadratic functions that are each represented differently, one as the graph of a quadratic function and one written out algebraically. Specifically, students are asked to determine which function has the greatest maximum and the greatest non-negative root.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to find the average, write an equation, find the domain, and create a graph of the cost of producing DVDs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The principal purpose of the task is to explore a real-world application problem with algebra, working with units and maintaining reasonable levels of accuracy throughout. Students are asked to determine which product will be the most economical to meet the requirements given in the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task students are given graphs of quantities related to weather. The purpose of the task is to show that graphs are more than a collection of coordinate points; they can tell a story about the variables that are involved, and together they can paint a very complete picture of a situation, in this case the weather. Features in one graph, like maximum and minimum points, correspond to features in another graph. For example, on a rainy day, the solar radiation is very low, and the cumulative rainfall graph is increasing with a large slope.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem introduces a logistic growth model in the concrete settings of estimating the population of the U.S. The model gives a surprisingly accurate estimate and this should be contrasted with linear and exponential models.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is for instructional purposes only and students should already be familiar with some specific examples of logistic growth functions. The goal of this task is to have students appreciate how different constants influence the shape of a graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task can be used as a quick assessment to see if students can make sense of a graph in the context of a real world situation. Students also have to pay attention to the scale on the vertical axis to find the correct match. The first and third graphs look very similar at first glance, but the function values are very different since the scales on the vertical axes are very different. The task could also be used to generate a group discussion on interpreting functions given by graphs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students will use inverse operations to solve the equations for the unknown variable or for the designated variable if there is more than one.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to illustrate through an absurd example the fact that in real life quantities are reported to a certain level of accuracy, and it does not make sense to treat them as having greater accuracy.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task operates at two levels. In part it is a simple exploration of the relationship between speed, distance, and time. Part (c) requires understanding of the idea of average speed, and gives an opportunity to address the common confusion between average speed and the average of the speeds for the two segments of the trip.

At a higher level, the task addresses MAFS.912.N-Q.1.3, since realistically neither the car nor the bus is going to travel at exactly the same speed from beginning to end of each segment; there is time traveling through traffic in cities, and even on the autobahn the speed is not constant. Thus students must make judgments about the level of accuracy with which to report the result.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The problem requires students to not only convert miles to kilometers and gallons to liters but they also have to deal with the added complication of finding the reciprocal at some point.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to calculate the cost of materials to make a penny, utilizing rates of grams of copper.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students are asked to use units to determine if the given statement is valid.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a challenging task, suitable for extended work, and reaching into a deep understanding of units. Students are given a scenario and asked to determine the number of people required to complete the amount of work in the time described. The task requires students to exhibit MAFS.K12.MP.1.1, Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. An algebraic solution is possible but complicated; a numerical solution is both simpler and more sophisticated, requiring skilled use of units and quantitative reasoning. Thus the task aligns with either MAFS.912.A-CED.1.1 or MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1, depending on the approach.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students explore and manipulate expressions based on the following statement:

A function f defined for -a < x < a is even if f(-x)=f(x) and is odd if f(-x)=-f(x) when -a < x < a. In this task we assume f is defined on such an interval, which might be the full real line (i.e., a=8).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students compare graphs of different quadratic functions, then produce equations of their own to satisfy given conditions.

This exploration can be done in class near the beginning of a unit on graphing parabolas. Students need to be familiar with intercepts, and need to know what the vertex is. It is effective after students have graphed parabolas in vertex form (y=a(x–h)^{2}+k), but have not yet explored graphing other forms.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This resource poses the question, "how many vehicles might be involved in a traffic jam 12 miles long?"

This task, while involving relatively simple arithmetic, promps students to practice modeling (MP4), work with units and conversion (N-Q.1), and develop a new unit (N-Q.2). Students will also consider the appropriate level of accuracy to use in their conclusions (N-Q.3).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task is a modeling problem which ties in to financial decisions faced routinely by businesses, namely the balance between maintaining inventory and raising short-term capital for investment or re-investment in developing the business.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task provides students the opportunity to make use of units to find the gas needed (MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1). It also requires them to make some sensible approximations (e.g., 2.92 gallons is not a good answer to part (a)) and to recognize that Felicia's situation requires her to round up. Various answers to (a) are possible, depending on how much students think is a safe amount for Felicia to have left in the tank when she arrives at the gas station. The key point is for them to explain their choices. This task provides an opportunity for students to practice MAFS.K12.MP.2.1: Reason abstractly and quantitatively, and MAFS.K12.MP.3.1: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to recognize the graphs of different (positive) powers of x.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The primary purpose of this task is to lead students to a numerical and graphical understanding of the behavior of a rational function near a vertical asymptote, in terms of the expression defining the function.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to give students practice constructing functions that represent a quantity of interest in a context, and then interpreting features of the function in the light of the context. It can be used as either an assessment or a teaching task.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem involves the meaning of numbers found on labels. When the level of accuracy is not given we need to make assumptions based on how the information is reported. An unexpected surprise awaits in this case, however, as no reasonable interpretation of the level of accuracy makes sense of the information reported on the bottles in parts (b) and (c). Either a miscalculation has been made or the numbers have been rounded in a very odd way.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

## Text Resources

NASA's "Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics" provides some general information on the basics of aerodynamics. The site allows users to explore at their own pace and level of interest. The topics available include equations of motion, free falling, air resistance, force, gas properties, and atmosphere. Movies, reading materials, and activities are all available to accommodate a variety of different learning styles.

Type: Text Resource

This site presents the basic ideas of magnetism and applies these ideas to the earth's magnetic field. There are several useful diagrams and pictures interspersed throughout this lesson, as well as links to more detailed subjects. This is an introduction to a larger collection on exploring the Earth's magnetosphere. A Spanish translation is available.

Type: Text Resource

## Tutorials

You will learn how the parent function for a quadratic function is affected when f(x) = x^{2}.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the students to identify the vertex of a parabola from the equation, and then graph the parabola.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the learners to graph the equation of the quadratic function using the coordinates of the vertex of a parabola adn its x- intercepts.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to learn about the exponential functions by graphing various equations representing exponential growth and decay.

Type: Tutorial

Would a brick or feather fall faster? What would fall faster on the moon?

**Would a brick or feather fall faster?**: What would fall faster on the moon?

Type: Tutorial

This video discusses how to figure out the horizontal displacement for a projectile launched at an angle.

Type: Tutorial

This video tutorial from the Khan Academy explains how to calculate the acceleration of ice down a plane made of ice.

Type: Tutorial

This video tutorial shows how to figure out the components of force due to gravity that are parallel and perpendicular to the surface of an inclined plane.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial is about projectile motion. This powerpoint lecture discusses the independence of the vertical and horizontal motion of projectiles. Students will be asked to solve problems involving projectile motion of both projectiles fired horizontally and at an angle. This tutorial is geared for advanced students.

Type: Tutorial

Water is both essential and unique. Many of its particular qualities stem from the fact that it consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen, therefore creating an unequal sharing of electrons. From fish in frozen lakes to ice floating on water, Christina Kleinberg describes the effects of polarity.

Type: Tutorial

This lab simulation allows you to use real demographic data, collected by the US Census Bureau, to analyze and make predictions centered around demographic trends. You will explore factors that impact the birth, death and immigration rate of a population and learn how the population transitions having taken place globally.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial provides the learners with detailed information about forces. Topics covered include Newton's Laws, friction, gravity, balanced and unbalanced forces, vectors, weight, motion and momentum.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial contains information about the characteristics of longitudinal, transverse, and surface waves. This tutorial will also provide information about the amplitude, frequency, wavelength, speed, refraction, reflection, diffraction, and constructive and destructive interference of the waves.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial provides information about the sound and how it travels. It also includes information on the anatomy and physiology of the human ear for the learners to understand how sound passes through the ear.

Type: Tutorial

This resource explores the electromagnetic spectrum and waves by allowing the learner to observe the refraction of light as it passes from one medium to another, study the relation between refraction of light and the refractive index of the medium, select from a list of materials with different refractive indicecs, and change the light beam from white to monochromatic and observe the difference.

Type: Tutorial

- Observe how the eye's muscles change the shape of the lens in accordance with the distance to the object being viewed
- Indicate the parts of the eye that are responsible for vision
- View how images are formed in the eye

Type: Tutorial

- Learn how a concave spherical mirror generates an image
- Observe how the size and position of the image changes with the object distance from the mirror
- Learn the difference between a real image and a virtual image
- Learn some applications of concave mirrors

Type: Tutorial

- Learn how a convex mirror forms the image of an object
- Understand why convex mirrors form small virtual images
- Observe the change in size and position of the image with the change in object's distance from the mirror
- Learn some practical applications of convex mirrors

Type: Tutorial

- Observe the change of color of a black body radiator upon changes in temperature
- Understand that at 0 Kelvin or Absolute Zero there is no molecular motion

Type: Tutorial

This resource explains how a solar cell converts light energy into electrical energy. The user will also learn about the different components of the solar cell and observe the relationship between photon intensity and the amount of electrical energy produced.

Type: Tutorial

- Observe that light is composed of oscillating electric and magnetic waves
- Explore the propagation of an electromagnetic wave through its electric and magnetic field vectors
- Observe the difference in propagation of light of different wavelengths

Type: Tutorial

- Explore the relationship between wavelength, frequency, amplitude and energy of an electromagnetic wave
- Compare the characteristics of waves of different wavelengths

Type: Tutorial

- Learn to trace the path of propagating light waves using geometrical optics
- Observe the effect of changing parameters such as focal length, object dimensions and position on image properties
- Learn the equations used in determining the size and locations of images formed by thin lenses

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

With an often unexpected outcome from a simple experiment, students can discover the factors that cause and influence thermohaline circulation in our oceans. In two 45-minute class periods, students complete activities where they observe the melting of ice cubes in saltwater and freshwater, using basic materials: clear plastic cups, ice cubes, water, salt, food coloring, and thermometers. There are no prerequisites for this lesson but it is helpful if students are familiar with the concepts of density and buoyancy as well as the salinity of seawater. It is also helpful if students understand that dissolving salt in water will lower the freezing point of water. There are additional follow up investigations that help students appreciate and understand the importance of the ocean's influence on Earth's climate.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Literal equations are formulas for calculating the value of one unknown quantity from one or more known quantities. Variables in the formula are replaced by the actual or 'literal' values corresponding to a specific instance of the relationship.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Ocean explorer Robert Ballard gives a TED Talk relating to the mysteries of the ocean, and the importance of its continued exploration.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

- Observe the photosynthesis mechanism in the plant
- Learn about the main chemical reactions that takes place during photosynthesis
- Learn how solar energy is converted into chemical energy

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video takes a look at rearranging a formula to highlight a quantity of interest.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video provides a historical background about the definition of a planet and how different objects discovered in space were classified as planets or fir into a different category

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Students determine the number of protons, electrons, neutrons, and nucleons for different atoms

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

A collection of crossword puzzles that test the knowledge of students about some of the terms, processes, and classifications covered in science topics

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Learn how to build a circuit

Show the difference between AC and DC

Describe the effect of an inductor on a circuit

Describe the effect of a capacitor on a circuit

Learn how to use an ammeter and a voltmeter in a circuit

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video contains a demo that can be performed to show that light consists of particles

It also uses Lasers with different wavelengths

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

- Identify the driving force in a circuit using a battery model
- Explain the difference between conductive (metals and photoconductors) and non-conductive (plastics) materials

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy video tutorial on graphing linear equations: "Algebra: Graphing Lines 1"

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy tutorial video that demonstrates with real-world data the use of Excel spreadsheet to fit a line to data and make predictions using that line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

A 4-minute video in which an Olympic freestyle skier and a physicist discuss the physics behind freestyle skiing.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

The Sun produces a solar wind — a continuous flow of charged particles — that can affect us on Earth. It can, for example, disrupt communications, navigation systems, and satellites. Solar activity can also cause power outages, such as the extensive Canadian blackout in 1989. In this video segment adapted from NASA, learn about solar storms and their effects on Earth.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video examines the vocabulary essential for understanding the nature of science and evolution and illustrates how evolution is a powerful, well-supported scientific explanation for the relatedness of all life. A clear definition and description of scientific theory is given.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

In this National Science Foundation video and reading selection lab ecologist Janis Dickinson explains how she depends on citizen scientists to help her track the effects of disease, land-use change and environmental contaminants on the nesting success of birds.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

This interactive manipulative will let you compare and calculate volumes of different solids.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This website has a short biography about Sir Isaac Newton. It also reviews his three laws of motion with examples, and ends with a short quiz.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this simulation, learn about the black body spectrum of the sun, a light bulb, an oven and the earth. Adjust the temperature to see how the wavelength and intensity of the spectrum are affected.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Learn more about collisions with the use of a virtual air hockey table. Investigate simple and complex collisions in one and two dimensions.Experiment with the number of discs, masses and initial conditions. Vary the elasticity and see how the total momentum and kinetic energy changes during collisions.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Draw "Before and After" pictures of collisions.
- Construct momentum vector representations of "Before and After" collisions.
- Apply law of conservation of momentum to solve problems with collisions.
- Explain why energy is not conserved and varies in some collisions.
- Determine the change in mechanical energy in collisions of varying "elasticity".
- What does "elasticity" mean?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Build an atom out of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and see how the element, charge, and mass change. Then play a game to test your ideas!

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation allows the student to create a box plot and a histogram for the same set of data and toggle between the two displays. Maximum, minimum, median and mean are shown for the data set. The student can change the cell width to explore how the histogram is affected.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This manipulative will help students in understanding scatter plots which are particularly useful when investigating whether there is a relationship between two variables. Students could develop a systematic plan for collecting and entering data into the scatter plot manipulative and set appropriate ranges for the *x* and *y* scales.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

How did scientists figure out the structure of atoms without looking at them? Try out different models by shooting light at the atom. Check how the prediction of the model matches the experimental results.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students adjust slider bars which adjust the coefficients and constants of a linear function and examine how their changes affect the graph. The equation of the line can be in slope-intercept form or standard form. This activity allows students to explore linear equations, slopes, and y-intercepts and their visual representation on a graph. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This resource provides linear functions in standard form and asks the user to graph it using intercepts on an interactive graph below the problem. Immediate feedback is provided, and for incorrect responses, each step of the solution is thoroughly modeled.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The split brain experiments revealed that the right and the left hemisphere in the brain are good at different things. For instance, the right hemisphere is good at space perception tasks and music while the left is good at verbal and analytic tasks. This game guides students through some examples of the split-brain phenomenon and how the differences are understood.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow the user to see how a magnetic field will effect the motion of a charged particle. The charge of the particle and the size of the magnetic field can be changed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students to understand how the light shines on a metal surface. Students will recognize a process called as photoelectric effect wherein light can be used to push electrons from the surface of a solid.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Visualize and describe the photoelectric effect experiment.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the intensity of light is changed and its effects on the current and energy of the electrons.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the wavelength of the light is changed and its effects on the current and the energy of the electrons.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the voltage of the light is changed and its effects on the current and energy of electrons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Learn how to build a circuit

Learn how to measure voltage in a circuit using a voltmeter

Determine the resistance of certain objects that can be used as part of an electric circuit

Explain the difference between parallel and series circuits

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow the students to understand how does a lens form an image. Students can see how light rays are refracted by a lens. Students can recognize that the image changes when they adjust the focal length of the lens, move the object, move the lens, or move the screen.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Explain how an image is formed by a converging lens using ray diagrams.
- How changing the lens (radius, index, and diameter) effects where the image appears and ho it looks it terms of magnification, brightness and inversion.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow the students to understand that the electric field is the region where the force on one charge is caused by the presence of another charge. The students will recognize the equipotential lines that exist between the charged regions.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Determine the variables that affect how charged bodies interact.
- Predict how charged bodies will interact.
- Describe the strength and direction of the electric field around a charged body.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow the user to see how the equation form of ohm's law relates to a simple circuit. Learners can adjust the voltage and resistance, and see the current change according to Ohm's law. The size of the symbols in the equation change to match the circuit diagram.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will the students learn about position, velocity and acceleration. Acceleration is the derivative of velocity with respect to time and the velocity is the derivative of position with respect to time. With the elimination of time, the relationship between the acceleration, velocity and position can be represented as x = v2 / 2a. In the stimulation, students will be able to move the man back and forth with the mouse and plot his motion.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Interpret, predict and draw charts (position, velocity, and acceleration) for common situations.
- Provide reasoning used to make sense of the charts.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students generate electricity with a bar magnet. Students can discover the physics behind the phenomena by exploring magnets and how they can be used to make a bulb light. They will recognize that any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage to be induced in the coil.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Identify equipment and conditions that produce induction.
- Compare and contrast how both a light bulb and voltmeter can be used to show characteristics of the induced current.
- Predict how the current will change when the conditions are varied.
- Explain practical applications of Faraday's Law.
- Explain what is the cause of the induction.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Explore how a capacitor works in this simulation. Change the plates and add a dielectric to see how it affects capacitance. Change the voltage and see charges built up on the plates. You can observe the electric field in the capacitor, measure voltage and the electric field.

Other investigations can include:

- Determine the relationship between charge and voltage for a capacitor.
- Determine the energy stored in a capacitor or a set of capacitors in a circuit.
- Explore the effect of space and dielectric materials inserted between the conductors of the capacitor in a circuit.
- Determine the equivalent capacitance of a set of capacitors in series and in parallel in a circuit.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help you investigate how Rutherford figured out the structure of the atom without being able to see it. This simulation will allow the you to explore the famous experiment in which Rutherford disproved the Plum Pudding model of the atom by observing alpha particles bouncing off atoms and determining that they must have a small core.

Further explorations of the tutorial could include:

- Describe the qualitative difference between scattering off positively charged nuclei and electrically neutral plum pudding atoms.
- For a charged nucleus, describe qualitatively how angle of deflection depends on: energy of incoming particle, impact parameters, and charge of target.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This manipulative will help the students to learn about the physics of resistance in a wire. The electrical resistance of a wire would be expected to be greater for a longer wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be expected to depend upon the material out of which the wire is made, to understand this, students can change the resistivity, length, and area to see how they affect the wire's resistance. The sizes of the symbols in the equation change along with the diagram of a wire.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- What characteristics of a resistor are variable in this model?
- How does each affect the resistance (will increasing or decreasing each make the resistance correspondingly increase or decrease?)
- Explain your ideas about why they change the resistance.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow you to visualize the gravitational force that two objects exert on each other. By changing the properties of the objects, you can see how the gravitational force changes.

Some areas to explore:

- Relate gravitational force to masses of objects and distance between objects.
- Explain Newton's third law for gravitational forces.
- Design experiments that allow you to derive an equation that related mass, distance, and gravitational force.
- Use measurements to determine the universal gravitational constant.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Whether it is a tumor or not, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can tell. Your head is full of tiny radio transmitters (the nuclear spins of the hydrogen nuclei of your water molecules). In an MRI unit, these little radios can be made to broadcast their positions, giving a detailed picture of the inside of your head.

In this simulation you can:

- Recognize that light can flip spins if the energy of the photons matches the difference between the energies of spin up and spin down.
- Recognize that the difference between the energies of spin up and spin down is proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field.
- Describe how to put these two ideas together to detect where there is a higher density of spins.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity will help to investigate how a greenhouse gas affects the climate, or why the ozone layer is important. Using this simulation, explore how light interacts with molecules in our atmosphere.

Areas to explore:

- How light interacts with molecules in our atmosphere.
- Identify that absorption of light depends on the molecule and the type of light.
- Relate the energy of the light to the resulting motion.
- Identify that energy increases from microwave to ultraviolet.
- Predict the motion of a molecule based on the type of light it absorbs.
- Identify how the structure of a molecule affects how it interacts with light.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Play with one or two pendulums and discover how the period of a simple pendulum depends on the length of the string, the mass of the pendulum bob, and the amplitude of the swing. It's easy to measure the period using the photogate timer. Students can vary friction and the strength of gravity.

- Design experiments to describe how variables affect the motion of a pendulum
- Use a photogate timer to determine quantitatively how the period of a pendulum depends on the variables you described
- Determine the gravitational acceleration of planet X
- Explain the conservation of Mechanical energy concept using kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy
- Describe energy chart from position or selected speeds

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Students will pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as they change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

- Students can predict how changing a variable among pressure, volume, temperature and number influences other gas properties.
- Students can predict how changing temperature will affect the speed of molecules.
- Students can rank the speed of molecules in thermal equilibrium based on the relative masses of molecules.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

- Explain what happens when the magnet moves through the coil at different speeds and how this affects the brightness of the bulb and the magnitude and sign of the voltage.
- Explain the difference between moving the magnet through the coil from the right side versus the left side.
- Explain the difference between moving magnet through the big coil versus the smaller coil.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

An electronic kit in your computer! Build circuits with resistors, light bulbs, batteries, and switches. Take measurements with the realistic ammeter and voltmeter. View the circuit as a schematic diagram, or switch to a life-like view.

Other options for exploration:

- Discuss basic electricity relationships
- Build circuits from schematic drawings.
- Use an ammeter and voltmeter to take readings in circuits.
- Provide reasoning to explain the measurements and relationship in circuits.
- Discuss basic electricity relationships in series and parallel circuits.
- Provide reasoning to explain the measurements in circuits.
- Determine the resistance of common objects in the "Grab Bag".

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Explore pressure under and above water. See how pressure changes as one change fluids, gravity, container shapes, and volume.

With this simulation you can:

- Investigate how pressure changes in air and water.
- Discover how to change pressure.
- Predict pressure in a variety of situations.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation allows you to explore forces and motion as you push household objects up and down a ramp. Observe how the angle of inclination affects the parallel forces. Graphical representation of forces, energy and work makes it easier to understand the concept.

Some of the learning goals can be:

- Predict, qualitatively, how an external force will affect the speed and direction of an object's motion.
- Explain the effects with the help of a free body diagram
- Use free body diagrams to draw position, velocity, acceleration and force graphs and vice versa.
- Explain how the graphs relate to one another.
- Given a scenario or a graph, sketch all four graphs.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students use preset data or enter in their own data to be represented in a box plot. This activity allows students to explore single as well as side-by-side box plots of different data. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the Java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Using this virtual manipulative, students are able to graph a function and a set of ordered pairs on the same coordinate plane. The constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted using slider bars, so the student can explore the affect on the graph as the function parameters are changed. Students can also examine the deviation of the data from the function. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

With this online tool, students adjust the standard deviation and sample size of a normal distribution to see how it will affect a histogram of that distribution. This activity allows students to explore the effect of changing the sample size in an experiment and the effect of changing the standard deviation of a normal distribution. Tabs at the top of the page provide access to supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this online tool, students input a function to create a graph where the constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted by slider bars. This tool allows students to explore graphs of functions and how adjusting the numbers in the function affect the graph. Using tabs at the top of the page you can also access supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This is an online graphing utility that can be used to create box plots, bubble graphs, scatterplots, histograms, and stem-and-leaf plots.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The students will see and hear the effects of changing the frequency and/or amplitude of a sound wave. This animation may also be used to demonstrate the Doppler effect, reflection and interference of sound waves.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The students will drag a red point across the screen in any direction they please and, in the process, will be able to see the forces that are being put on that point at any given moment.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The students will try to move a red ball into a blue goal without touching the walls. They will have fun competing amongst themselves to get the best time but at the same time they will also be learning about vectors, velocity, and acceleration.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This is a virtual manipulative that students may use to construct various atoms up to carbon by creating protons and neutrons from up and down quarks and adding electrons. Students are challenged to keep the electrical charge of the atom neutral and to ensure the imbalance between protons and neutrons doesn't become great enough to result in radioactive decay!

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation demonstrates the physics of projectile motion. The user can fire different objects through a cannon, set its speed, angle and mass and observe the resultant motion.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

With a mouse, students will drag data points (with their error bars) and watch the best-fit polynomial curve form instantly. Students can choose the type of fit: linear, quadratic, cubic, or quartic. Best fit or adjustable fit can be displayed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This interactive simulation investigates graphing linear and quadratic equations. Users are given the ability to define and change the coefficients and constants in order to observe resulting changes in the graph(s).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The students will rub a balloon on a sweater and see how charges are exchanged between the two objects. With these changes they will see their interactions.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The students will have the opportunity to build their own circuit loop with the materials presented to them.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Watch different types of molecules form a solid, liquid, or gas. Add or remove heat and watch the phase change. Change the temperature or volume of a container and see a pressure-temperature diagram respond in real time.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Learn about conservation of energy with a skater! Build tracks, ramps and jumps for the skater and view the kinetic energy, potential energy, thermal energy as he moves. You can adjust the amount of friction and mass. Measurement and graphing tools are built in.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative histogram tool can aid in analyzing the distribution of a dataset. It has 6 preset datasets and a function to add your own data for analysis.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity allows the user to graph data sets in multiple bar graphs. The color, thickness, and scale of the graph are adjustable which may produce graphs that are misleading. Users may input their own data, or use or alter pre-made data sets. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students can create and view a histogram using existing data sets or original data entered. Students can adjust the interval size using a slider bar, and they can also adjust the other scales on the graph. This activity allows students to explore histograms as a way to represent data as well as the concepts of mean, standard deviation, and scale. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Parent Resources

## Educational Game

This interesting game is to hit the target located opposite a electron gun. The electron gun will fire an electron. This electron must not hit any walls or obstacles during the attempt. The user may direct the electron along a path by placing stationary positive and negative charges at various locations. This game will help support learning about the concept of the electric field, which is created when electrons repel other electrons.

Type: Educational Game

## Perspectives Video: Experts

Let this video on wing design lift you up!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Do you know everything about protons? Are you positive?

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Learn more about the atomic model and antimatter!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Plants need visible light, just not all of it. Learn how space plants and their lights strive for efficiency.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Humans aren't the only ones who get their fingerprints taken. Learn how this scientist is like a crime scene investigator using oil "fingerprints" to explain the orgins of spilled oil.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The director of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory describes electromagnetic waves.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Don't let the motion of the ocean cause a commotion! Learn how vectors describe ocean movement patterns.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Get fired up as you learn more about ceramic glaze recipes and mathematical units.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Learn how the shape of a didgeridoo affects its sound in this totally tubular video.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Sharpen your knowledge by understanding the forces used to make stone tools.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

If you want to understand the atom, you'll need a lot of energy. Learn how physicists use high energy light and electrons to study atomic structure.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Physics is cool, especially if you want to make super-cold, super-efficient, superconductive materials.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

One way to figure out what something is made of is to see what kinds of wavelengths of electromagnetic energy it can absorb.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Want to watch a video on audio engineering and frequency? Sounds good to me.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

A welder wields a plasma torch to cut solid metal like a hot knife through butter. It's one-stop shopping to see all four states of matter.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

An archaeologist explains how he is using x-rays to reconstruct a nineteenth-century battle!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Dive deep into science as an oceanographer describes conduction, convection, and radiation and their relationship to oceanic systems.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Forge a new understanding of metallurgy and heat transfer by learning how this blacksmith and collier make nails.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

It's okay if you're not on quite the same wavelength as this ethnomusicologist. In Balinese gamelan tuning, that's a good thing!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Archaeologists can see underground trends before everyone else with ground penetrating radar (GPR).

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

When you watch this video, your knowledge related to flight and physics will really take off!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

If physics has you down, don't fret - this musician covers all the bases.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Physical science and social science connect in this discussion of Balinese gamelan. Full STEAM ahead!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Learn more about how splitting light beams helps researchers detect hydrogen fires for the space program.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

You'll need to bring your computer skills and math knowledge to estimate oil volume and rate as it seeps from the ocean floor. Dive in!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Hydrogen is used to launch spacecraft, but accidental fires are difficult to see. Learn about the physics of these fires and how we detect them.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Factors to consider when making pottery on the wheel are discussed, but not in a way that would make your head spin.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

This simple inquiry helps students learn about the scientific method while trying to unlock the mystery of goldenrod paper.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

A physics teacher presents some quick teaching ideas for demonstrating energy transfer through convection, conduction, and radiation.

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Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

This colorful light and energy lesson idea will make you glow!

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Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

## Problem-Solving Tasks

The purpose of this task is to allow students to demonstrate an ability to construct boxplots and to use boxplots as the basis for comparing distributions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to make deductions about what kind of music students like by examining a table with data.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to answer probability questions about SAT scores, using distribution and mean to solve the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem could be used as an introductory lesson to introduce group comparisons and to engage students in a question they may find amusing and interesting.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to examine the relationship between shops and crimes by using a correlation coefficient.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to have students complete normal distribution calculations and to use properties of normal distributions to draw conclusions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to use the normal distribution as a model for a data distribution. Students must use given means and standard deviations to approximate population percentages.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task provides a context to calculate discrete probabilities and represent them on a bar graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to explain which measurements are needed to estimate the thickness of a soda can.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to find the surface area of a soda can, calculate how many cubic centimeters of aluminum it contains, and estimate how thick it is.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a mathematical modeling task aimed at making a reasonable estimate for something which is too large to count accurately, the number of leaves on a tree.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to apply the concepts of mass, volume, and density in the real-world context to find how many cells are in the human body.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task gives an interesting context for implementing ideas from geometry and trigonometry.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task uses the tale of Archimedes and the King of Syracuse's crown to determine the volume and mass of gold and silver.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of the task is to analyze a plausible real-life scenario using a geometric model. The task requires knowledge of volume formulas for cylinders and cones, some geometric reasoning involving similar triangles, and pays attention to reasonable approximations and maintaining reasonable levels of accuracy throughout.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to use geometric and algebraic reasoning to model a real-life scenario. In particular, students are in several places (implicitly or explicitly) to reason as to when making approximations is reasonable and when to round, when to use equalities vs. inequalities, and the choice of units to work with (e.g., mm vs. cm).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students use trigonometric functions to model the movement of a point around a wheel and, through space. Students also interpret features of graphs in terms of the given real-world context.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem-solving task challenges students to find all quadratic functions described by given equation and coordinates, and describe how the graphs of those functions are related to one another.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is meant to be a straight-forward assessment task of graph reading and interpreting skills. This task helps reinforce the idea that when a variable represents time, t = 0 is chosen as an arbitrary point in time and positive times are interpreted as times that happen after that.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task could be used for assessment or for practice. It allows students to compare characteristics of two quadratic functions that are each represented differently, one as the graph of a quadratic function and one written out algebraically. Specifically, students are asked to determine which function has the greatest maximum and the greatest non-negative root.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to find the average, write an equation, find the domain, and create a graph of the cost of producing DVDs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The principal purpose of the task is to explore a real-world application problem with algebra, working with units and maintaining reasonable levels of accuracy throughout. Students are asked to determine which product will be the most economical to meet the requirements given in the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task students are given graphs of quantities related to weather. The purpose of the task is to show that graphs are more than a collection of coordinate points; they can tell a story about the variables that are involved, and together they can paint a very complete picture of a situation, in this case the weather. Features in one graph, like maximum and minimum points, correspond to features in another graph. For example, on a rainy day, the solar radiation is very low, and the cumulative rainfall graph is increasing with a large slope.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem introduces a logistic growth model in the concrete settings of estimating the population of the U.S. The model gives a surprisingly accurate estimate and this should be contrasted with linear and exponential models.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is for instructional purposes only and students should already be familiar with some specific examples of logistic growth functions. The goal of this task is to have students appreciate how different constants influence the shape of a graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task can be used as a quick assessment to see if students can make sense of a graph in the context of a real world situation. Students also have to pay attention to the scale on the vertical axis to find the correct match. The first and third graphs look very similar at first glance, but the function values are very different since the scales on the vertical axes are very different. The task could also be used to generate a group discussion on interpreting functions given by graphs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students will use inverse operations to solve the equations for the unknown variable or for the designated variable if there is more than one.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to illustrate through an absurd example the fact that in real life quantities are reported to a certain level of accuracy, and it does not make sense to treat them as having greater accuracy.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task operates at two levels. In part it is a simple exploration of the relationship between speed, distance, and time. Part (c) requires understanding of the idea of average speed, and gives an opportunity to address the common confusion between average speed and the average of the speeds for the two segments of the trip.

At a higher level, the task addresses MAFS.912.N-Q.1.3, since realistically neither the car nor the bus is going to travel at exactly the same speed from beginning to end of each segment; there is time traveling through traffic in cities, and even on the autobahn the speed is not constant. Thus students must make judgments about the level of accuracy with which to report the result.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The problem requires students to not only convert miles to kilometers and gallons to liters but they also have to deal with the added complication of finding the reciprocal at some point.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to calculate the cost of materials to make a penny, utilizing rates of grams of copper.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students are asked to use units to determine if the given statement is valid.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a challenging task, suitable for extended work, and reaching into a deep understanding of units. Students are given a scenario and asked to determine the number of people required to complete the amount of work in the time described. The task requires students to exhibit MAFS.K12.MP.1.1, Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. An algebraic solution is possible but complicated; a numerical solution is both simpler and more sophisticated, requiring skilled use of units and quantitative reasoning. Thus the task aligns with either MAFS.912.A-CED.1.1 or MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1, depending on the approach.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students explore and manipulate expressions based on the following statement:

A function f defined for -a < x < a is even if f(-x)=f(x) and is odd if f(-x)=-f(x) when -a < x < a. In this task we assume f is defined on such an interval, which might be the full real line (i.e., a=8).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students compare graphs of different quadratic functions, then produce equations of their own to satisfy given conditions.

This exploration can be done in class near the beginning of a unit on graphing parabolas. Students need to be familiar with intercepts, and need to know what the vertex is. It is effective after students have graphed parabolas in vertex form (y=a(x–h)^{2}+k), but have not yet explored graphing other forms.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This resource poses the question, "how many vehicles might be involved in a traffic jam 12 miles long?"

This task, while involving relatively simple arithmetic, promps students to practice modeling (MP4), work with units and conversion (N-Q.1), and develop a new unit (N-Q.2). Students will also consider the appropriate level of accuracy to use in their conclusions (N-Q.3).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task is a modeling problem which ties in to financial decisions faced routinely by businesses, namely the balance between maintaining inventory and raising short-term capital for investment or re-investment in developing the business.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task provides students the opportunity to make use of units to find the gas needed (MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1). It also requires them to make some sensible approximations (e.g., 2.92 gallons is not a good answer to part (a)) and to recognize that Felicia's situation requires her to round up. Various answers to (a) are possible, depending on how much students think is a safe amount for Felicia to have left in the tank when she arrives at the gas station. The key point is for them to explain their choices. This task provides an opportunity for students to practice MAFS.K12.MP.2.1: Reason abstractly and quantitatively, and MAFS.K12.MP.3.1: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to recognize the graphs of different (positive) powers of x.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The primary purpose of this task is to lead students to a numerical and graphical understanding of the behavior of a rational function near a vertical asymptote, in terms of the expression defining the function.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to give students practice constructing functions that represent a quantity of interest in a context, and then interpreting features of the function in the light of the context. It can be used as either an assessment or a teaching task.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem involves the meaning of numbers found on labels. When the level of accuracy is not given we need to make assumptions based on how the information is reported. An unexpected surprise awaits in this case, however, as no reasonable interpretation of the level of accuracy makes sense of the information reported on the bottles in parts (b) and (c). Either a miscalculation has been made or the numbers have been rounded in a very odd way.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

## Tutorials

This tutorial provides the learners with detailed information about forces. Topics covered include Newton's Laws, friction, gravity, balanced and unbalanced forces, vectors, weight, motion and momentum.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial contains information about the characteristics of longitudinal, transverse, and surface waves. This tutorial will also provide information about the amplitude, frequency, wavelength, speed, refraction, reflection, diffraction, and constructive and destructive interference of the waves.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial provides information about the sound and how it travels. It also includes information on the anatomy and physiology of the human ear for the learners to understand how sound passes through the ear.

Type: Tutorial

Site takes the student through a tutorial, then a virtual experiment designed to test the affect of various environmental variables on the rate of chirping in crickets. The steps in the tutorial and the experiment are - Define the Problem, Collect Information, Formulate a Hypothesis, Test the Hypothesis, and Draw a Conclusion.

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

Khan Academy video tutorial on graphing linear equations: "Algebra: Graphing Lines 1"

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy tutorial video that demonstrates with real-world data the use of Excel spreadsheet to fit a line to data and make predictions using that line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

A 4-minute video in which an Olympic freestyle skier and a physicist discuss the physics behind freestyle skiing.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

In this simulation, learn about the black body spectrum of the sun, a light bulb, an oven and the earth. Adjust the temperature to see how the wavelength and intensity of the spectrum are affected.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Learn more about collisions with the use of a virtual air hockey table. Investigate simple and complex collisions in one and two dimensions.Experiment with the number of discs, masses and initial conditions. Vary the elasticity and see how the total momentum and kinetic energy changes during collisions.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Draw "Before and After" pictures of collisions.
- Construct momentum vector representations of "Before and After" collisions.
- Apply law of conservation of momentum to solve problems with collisions.
- Explain why energy is not conserved and varies in some collisions.
- Determine the change in mechanical energy in collisions of varying "elasticity".
- What does "elasticity" mean?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation allows the student to create a box plot and a histogram for the same set of data and toggle between the two displays. Maximum, minimum, median and mean are shown for the data set. The student can change the cell width to explore how the histogram is affected.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This manipulative will help students in understanding scatter plots which are particularly useful when investigating whether there is a relationship between two variables. Students could develop a systematic plan for collecting and entering data into the scatter plot manipulative and set appropriate ranges for the *x* and *y* scales.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the learners understand Coulomb's law which is the fundamental principle of electrostatics. It is the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged particles which is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the distance between them.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students to understand that in order for a chemical reaction to take place the reactants must collide. The collision between the molecules must provide the amount of kinetic energy needed to break the molecular bonds and form new ones. Students can control the speed of the simulation to observe the collision and can also reset the initial energy settings to high or low to show that some chemical reactions will not occur in low energy (or low temperature) settings.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The split brain experiments revealed that the right and the left hemisphere in the brain are good at different things. For instance, the right hemisphere is good at space perception tasks and music while the left is good at verbal and analytic tasks. This game guides students through some examples of the split-brain phenomenon and how the differences are understood.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow the user to see how a magnetic field will effect the motion of a charged particle. The charge of the particle and the size of the magnetic field can be changed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulated activity will help understand and apply Pascal's principle which states that pressure is transmitted undiminished in an enclosed static fluid. This is the theoretical foundation of hydraulic levers.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Play with a 1D or 2D system of coupled mass-spring oscillators. Vary the number of masses, set the initial conditions, and watch the system evolve. See the spectrum of normal modes for arbitrary motion. Compare longitudinal and transverse modes.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative demonstrates the electrostatic interaction between a charged balloon and a wall. Students may play with the slider of "Charges on the balloon" to change the type and amount of the charges on the balloon. The simulation also has the option of seeing a microscopic model which helps in understanding the phenomenon. After adjusting the charge press PLAY to observe the interaction.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This visual interactive simulation will help the student watch how a charged particle moves in a magnetic field. This force is defined as the Lorentz force which is the force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. There is a relationship between the movement of the particle through the magnetic field, the strength of that magnetic field and the force on the particle. The following equation described the force: F=qvB

Where:

- F is the force in Newtons
- q is the electric charge in coulombs
- v is the velocity of the charge in meters/sound
- B is the strength of the magnetic field.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students to understand how the light shines on a metal surface. Students will recognize a process called as photoelectric effect wherein light can be used to push electrons from the surface of a solid.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Visualize and describe the photoelectric effect experiment.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the intensity of light is changed and its effects on the current and energy of the electrons.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the wavelength of the light is changed and its effects on the current and the energy of the electrons.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the voltage of the light is changed and its effects on the current and energy of electrons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow the students to understand how does a lens form an image. Students can see how light rays are refracted by a lens. Students can recognize that the image changes when they adjust the focal length of the lens, move the object, move the lens, or move the screen.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Explain how an image is formed by a converging lens using ray diagrams.
- How changing the lens (radius, index, and diameter) effects where the image appears and ho it looks it terms of magnification, brightness and inversion.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow the students to understand that the electric field is the region where the force on one charge is caused by the presence of another charge. The students will recognize the equipotential lines that exist between the charged regions.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Determine the variables that affect how charged bodies interact.
- Predict how charged bodies will interact.
- Describe the strength and direction of the electric field around a charged body.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow the students to explore the interactions between a compass and bar magnet. Students can discover that magnetic fields are produced when all the electrons in a metal object are spinning in the same direction, either as a natural phenomenon, in an artificially created magnet, or when they are induced to do so by an electromagnetic field.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Predict the direction of the magnet field for different locations around a bar magnet and electromagnet.
- Compare and contrast bar magnets and electromagnets.
- Identify the characteristics of electromagnets that are variable and what effects each variable has on the magnetic field's strength and direction.
- Relate magnetic field strength to distance quantitatively and qualitatively.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow the user to see how the equation form of ohm's law relates to a simple circuit. Learners can adjust the voltage and resistance, and see the current change according to Ohm's law. The size of the symbols in the equation change to match the circuit diagram.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will the students learn about position, velocity and acceleration. Acceleration is the derivative of velocity with respect to time and the velocity is the derivative of position with respect to time. With the elimination of time, the relationship between the acceleration, velocity and position can be represented as x = v2 / 2a. In the stimulation, students will be able to move the man back and forth with the mouse and plot his motion.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Interpret, predict and draw charts (position, velocity, and acceleration) for common situations.
- Provide reasoning used to make sense of the charts.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students generate electricity with a bar magnet. Students can discover the physics behind the phenomena by exploring magnets and how they can be used to make a bulb light. They will recognize that any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage to be induced in the coil.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Identify equipment and conditions that produce induction.
- Compare and contrast how both a light bulb and voltmeter can be used to show characteristics of the induced current.
- Predict how the current will change when the conditions are varied.
- Explain practical applications of Faraday's Law.
- Explain what is the cause of the induction.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Explore how a capacitor works in this simulation. Change the plates and add a dielectric to see how it affects capacitance. Change the voltage and see charges built up on the plates. You can observe the electric field in the capacitor, measure voltage and the electric field.

Other investigations can include:

- Determine the relationship between charge and voltage for a capacitor.
- Determine the energy stored in a capacitor or a set of capacitors in a circuit.
- Explore the effect of space and dielectric materials inserted between the conductors of the capacitor in a circuit.
- Determine the equivalent capacitance of a set of capacitors in series and in parallel in a circuit.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help you investigate how Rutherford figured out the structure of the atom without being able to see it. This simulation will allow the you to explore the famous experiment in which Rutherford disproved the Plum Pudding model of the atom by observing alpha particles bouncing off atoms and determining that they must have a small core.

Further explorations of the tutorial could include:

- Describe the qualitative difference between scattering off positively charged nuclei and electrically neutral plum pudding atoms.
- For a charged nucleus, describe qualitatively how angle of deflection depends on: energy of incoming particle, impact parameters, and charge of target.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This manipulative will help the students to learn about the physics of resistance in a wire. The electrical resistance of a wire would be expected to be greater for a longer wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be expected to depend upon the material out of which the wire is made, to understand this, students can change the resistivity, length, and area to see how they affect the wire's resistance. The sizes of the symbols in the equation change along with the diagram of a wire.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- What characteristics of a resistor are variable in this model?
- How does each affect the resistance (will increasing or decreasing each make the resistance correspondingly increase or decrease?)
- Explain your ideas about why they change the resistance.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow you to visualize the gravitational force that two objects exert on each other. By changing the properties of the objects, you can see how the gravitational force changes.

Some areas to explore:

- Relate gravitational force to masses of objects and distance between objects.
- Explain Newton's third law for gravitational forces.
- Design experiments that allow you to derive an equation that related mass, distance, and gravitational force.
- Use measurements to determine the universal gravitational constant.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Whether it is a tumor or not, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can tell. Your head is full of tiny radio transmitters (the nuclear spins of the hydrogen nuclei of your water molecules). In an MRI unit, these little radios can be made to broadcast their positions, giving a detailed picture of the inside of your head.

In this simulation you can:

- Recognize that light can flip spins if the energy of the photons matches the difference between the energies of spin up and spin down.
- Recognize that the difference between the energies of spin up and spin down is proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field.
- Describe how to put these two ideas together to detect where there is a higher density of spins.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity will help to investigate how a greenhouse gas affects the climate, or why the ozone layer is important. Using this simulation, explore how light interacts with molecules in our atmosphere.

Areas to explore:

- How light interacts with molecules in our atmosphere.
- Identify that absorption of light depends on the molecule and the type of light.
- Relate the energy of the light to the resulting motion.
- Identify that energy increases from microwave to ultraviolet.
- Predict the motion of a molecule based on the type of light it absorbs.
- Identify how the structure of a molecule affects how it interacts with light.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Play with one or two pendulums and discover how the period of a simple pendulum depends on the length of the string, the mass of the pendulum bob, and the amplitude of the swing. It's easy to measure the period using the photogate timer. Students can vary friction and the strength of gravity.

- Design experiments to describe how variables affect the motion of a pendulum
- Use a photogate timer to determine quantitatively how the period of a pendulum depends on the variables you described
- Determine the gravitational acceleration of planet X
- Explain the conservation of Mechanical energy concept using kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy
- Describe energy chart from position or selected speeds

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Students will pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as they change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

- Students can predict how changing a variable among pressure, volume, temperature and number influences other gas properties.
- Students can predict how changing temperature will affect the speed of molecules.
- Students can rank the speed of molecules in thermal equilibrium based on the relative masses of molecules.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

- Explain what happens when the magnet moves through the coil at different speeds and how this affects the brightness of the bulb and the magnitude and sign of the voltage.
- Explain the difference between moving the magnet through the coil from the right side versus the left side.
- Explain the difference between moving magnet through the big coil versus the smaller coil.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

An electronic kit in your computer! Build circuits with resistors, light bulbs, batteries, and switches. Take measurements with the realistic ammeter and voltmeter. View the circuit as a schematic diagram, or switch to a life-like view.

Other options for exploration:

- Discuss basic electricity relationships
- Build circuits from schematic drawings.
- Use an ammeter and voltmeter to take readings in circuits.
- Provide reasoning to explain the measurements and relationship in circuits.
- Discuss basic electricity relationships in series and parallel circuits.
- Provide reasoning to explain the measurements in circuits.
- Determine the resistance of common objects in the "Grab Bag".

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Explore pressure under and above water. See how pressure changes as one change fluids, gravity, container shapes, and volume.

With this simulation you can:

- Investigate how pressure changes in air and water.
- Discover how to change pressure.
- Predict pressure in a variety of situations.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation allows you to explore forces and motion as you push household objects up and down a ramp. Observe how the angle of inclination affects the parallel forces. Graphical representation of forces, energy and work makes it easier to understand the concept.

Some of the learning goals can be:

- Predict, qualitatively, how an external force will affect the speed and direction of an object's motion.
- Explain the effects with the help of a free body diagram
- Use free body diagrams to draw position, velocity, acceleration and force graphs and vice versa.
- Explain how the graphs relate to one another.
- Given a scenario or a graph, sketch all four graphs.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Section:Grades PreK to 12 Education Courses >Grade Group:Grades 9 to 12 and Adult Education Courses >Subject:Science >SubSubject:Physical Sciences >