## Course Standards

## General Course Information and Notes

### Version Description

The fundamental purpose of the course in Geometry is to formalize and extend students' geometric experiences from the middle grades. Students explore more complex geometric situations and deepen their explanations of geometric relationships, moving towards formal mathematical arguments. Important differences exist between this Geometry course and the historical approach taken in Geometry classes. For example, transformations are emphasized early in this course. Close attention should be paid to the introductory content for the Geometry conceptual category found in the high school standards. The Standards for Mathematical Practice apply throughout each course and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations. The critical areas, organized into five units are as follows.

**Unit 1-Congruence, Proof, and Constructions:** In previous grades, students were asked to draw triangles based on given measurements. They also have prior experience with rigid motions: translations, reflections, and rotations and have used these to develop notions about what it means for two objects to be congruent. In this unit, students establish triangle congruence criteria, based on analyses of rigid motions and formal constructions. They use triangle congruence as a familiar foundation for the development of formal proof. Students prove theorems using a variety of formats and solve problems about triangles, quadrilaterals, and other polygons. They apply reasoning to complete geometric constructions and explain why they work.

**Unit 2- Similarity, Proof, and Trigonometry:** Students apply their earlier experience with dilation and proportional reasoning to build a formal understanding of similarity. They identify criteria for similarity of triangles, use similarity to solve problems, and apply similarity in right triangles to understand right triangle trigonometry, with particular attention to special right triangles and the Pythagorean theorem. Students develop the Laws of Sines and Cosines in order to find missing measures of general (not necessarily right) triangles, building on students work with quadratic equations done in the first course. They are able to distinguish whether three given measures (angles or sides) define 0, 1, 2, or infinitely many triangles.

**Unit 3- Extending to Three Dimensions:** Students' experience with two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects is extended to include informal explanations of circumference, area and volume formulas. Additionally, students apply their knowledge of two-dimensional shapes to consider the shapes of cross-sections and the result of rotating a two-dimensional object about a line.

**Unit 4- Connecting Algebra and Geometry Through Coordinates:** Building on their work with the Pythagorean theorem in 8th grade to find distances, students use a rectangular coordinate system to verify geometric relationships, including properties of special triangles and quadrilaterals and slopes of parallel and perpendicular lines, which relates back to work done in the first course. Students continue their study of quadratics by connecting the geometric and algebraic definitions of the parabola.

**Unit 5-Circles With and Without Coordinates:** In this unit students prove basic theorems about circles, such as a tangent line is perpendicular to a radius, inscribed angle theorem, and theorems about chords, secants, and tangents dealing with segment lengths and angle measures. They study relationships among segments on chords, secants, and tangents as an application of similarity. In the Cartesian coordinate system, students use the distance formula to write the equation of a circle when given the radius and the coordinates of its center. Given an equation of a circle, they draw the graph in the coordinate plane, and apply techniques for solving quadratic equations, which relates back to work done in the first course, to determine intersections between lines and circles or parabolas and between two circles.

### General Notes

**English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:**

Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Mathematics. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL's need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link:

http://www.cpalms.org/uploads/docs/standards/eld/MA.pdf

**Additional Instructional Resources:**

A.V.E. for Success Collection is provided by the Florida Association of School Administrators: http://www.fasa.net/4DCGI/cms/review.html?Action=CMS_Document&DocID=139. Please be aware that these resources have not been reviewed by CPALMS and there may be a charge for the use of some of them in this collection.

**Florida Standards Implementation Guide Focus Section:**

The Mathematics Florida Standards Implementation Guide was created to support the teaching and learning of the Mathematics Florida Standards. The guide is compartmentalized into three components: focus, coherence, and rigor.Focus means narrowing the scope of content in each grade or course, so students achieve higher levels of understanding and experience math concepts more deeply. The Mathematics standards allow for the teaching and learning of mathematical concepts focused around major clusters at each grade level, enhanced by supporting and additional clusters. The major, supporting and additional clusters are identified, in relation to each grade or course. The cluster designations for this course are below.

**Major Clusters**

MAFS.912.G-CO.2 Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions.

MAFS.912.G-CO.3 Prove geometric theorems.

MAFS.912.G-SRT.1 Understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations.

MAFS.912.G-SRT.2 Prove theorems involving similarity.

MAFS.912.G-SRT.3 Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems involving right triangles.

MAFS.912.G-GPE.2 Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically.

MAFS.G-MG.1 Apply geometric concepts in modeling situations.

**Supporting Clusters**

MAFS.912.G-CO.1 Experiment with transformations in the plane.

MAFS.G-CO.4 Make geometric constructions.

**Additional Clusters**

MAFS.912.G-C.1 Understand and apply theorems about circles.

MAFS.912.G-C.2 Find arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles.

MAFS.912.G-GPE.1 Translate between the geometric description and the equation of a conic section.

MAFS.912.G-GMD.1 Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems.

MAFS.912.G-GMD.2 Visualize relationships between two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects.

**Note:** Clusters should not be sorted from major to supporting and then taught in that order. To do so would strip the coherence of the mathematical ideas and miss the opportunity to enhance the major work of the grade with the supporting and additional clusters.

### General Information

**Course Number:**1206310

**Course Path:**

**Abbreviated Title:**GEO

**Number of Credits:**One (1) credit

**Course Length:**Year (Y)

**Course Attributes:**

- Class Size Core Required

**Course Type:**Core Academic Course

**Course Level:**2

**Course Status:**Course Approved

**Grade Level(s):**9,10,11,12

**Graduation Requirement:**Geometry

## Educator Certifications

## Student Resources

## Original Student Tutorials

Explore the construction processes for constructing an angle bisector, copying an angle and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line using a variety of tools in this interactive, retro video game-themed tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Practice identifying faulty reasoning in this two-part, interactive, English Language Arts tutorial. You'll learn what some experts say about year-round schools, what research has been conducted about their effectiveness, and how arguments can be made for and against year-round education. Then, you'll read a speech in favor of year-round schools and identify faulty reasoning within the argument, specifically the use of hasty generalizations.

Make sure to complete Part One before Part Two! **Click HERE to launch Part One.**

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Discover how easy it is for Katie to construct an inscribed circular logo on her company's triangular pennant template. If she completes the task first, she will win a $1000 bonus! Follow along with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to identify faulty reasoning in this two-part interactive English Language Arts tutorial. You'll learn what some experts say about year-round schools, what research has been conducted about their effectiveness, and how arguments can be made for and against year-round education. Then, you'll read a speech in favor of year-round schools and identify faulty reasoning within the argument, specifically the use of hasty generalizations.

Make sure to complete both parts of this series! Click HERE to open Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Plan a paddle board expedition by learning how to do basic geometric constructions including copying a segment, constructing a segment bisector, constructing a segment's perpendicular bisector and constructing perpendicular segments using a variety of tools in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence.

In Part Four, you'll use what you've learned throughout this series to evaluate Kennedy's overall argument.

Make sure to complete the previous parts of this series before beginning Part 4.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to construct an inscribed square in a circle and why certain constructions are used in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence. By the end of this four-part series, you should be able to evaluate his overall argument.

In Part Three, you will read more of Kennedy's speech and identify a smaller claim in this section of his speech. You will also evaluate this smaller claim's relevancy to the main claim and evaluate Kennedy's reasons and evidence.

Make sure to complete all four parts of this series!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Find the location and coverage area of cell towers by completing the square to determine the center and radius of a circle given its equation in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to construct an inscribed regular hexagon and equilateral triangle in a circle in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn the steps to circumscribe a circle around a triangle in this interactive tutorial about constructions. Grab a compass, straightedge, pencil and paper to follow along!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to find the point on a directed line segment that partitions it into a given ratio in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to write the equation of a circle using Pythagorean Theorem given its center and radius using step-by-step instructions on this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Want to learn about Amelia Earhart, one of the most famous female aviators of all time? If so, then this interactive tutorial is for YOU! This tutorial is Part Two of a two-part series. In this series, you will study a speech by Amelia Earhart. You will practice identifying the purpose of her speech and practice identifying her use of rhetorical appeals (ethos, logos, pathos, Kairos). You will also evaluate the effectiveness of Earhart's rhetorical choices based on the purpose of her speech.

Please complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to view Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Want to learn about Amelia Earhart, one of the most famous female aviators of all time? If so, then this interactive tutorial is for YOU! This tutorial is Part One of a two-part series. In this series, you will study a speech by Amelia Earhart. You will practice identifying the purpose of her speech and practice identifying her use of rhetorical appeals (ethos, logos, pathos, Kairos). You will also evaluate the effectiveness of Earhart's rhetorical choices based on the purpose of her speech.

Please complete Part Two after completing this tutorial. Click HERE to view Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how living organisms can be organized into food webs and how energy is transferred through a food web from producers to consumers to decomposers. This interactive tutorial also includes interactive knowledge checks.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to construct the perpendicular bisector of a line segment using a straightedge and compass with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis in this interactive tutorial. You'll also relate them to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to determine the shape of a cross section created by the intersection of a slicing plane with a pyramid or prism. This task is vital to those that work to create three dimensional objects. Whether it is the inventor of a new toy or the architect of your next house, they must be able to convey their design on paper. The drawings they make represent various cross sections of the finished product. Can you visualize the relationships between two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects? Imagine that Ninja Nancy will slice through this pyramid with her sword. What two-dimensional figures will she reveal?

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to use trigonometric ratios to solve a real-world application. There are many famous monuments across the world. The measurements of these monuments were often found using trigonometric ratios. Today, there are devices that use laser beams to measure distances and heights, but trigonometric ratios are still widely used.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Use properties, postulates, and theorems to prove a theorem about a triangle. In this interactive tutorial, you'll also learn how to prove that a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Have you ever ordered a scoop of ice cream in a cone and wondered how much ice cream actually fits inside the cone? By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to answer this question and solve other real-world problems by using the formula for the volume of a cone.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore the relationship between mutations, the cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth which may result in cancer with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to identify basic trends in the evolutionary history of humans, including walking upright, brain size, jaw size, and tool use in "Climbing Around the Hominin Family Tree" online tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Educational Game

This interactive game helps you learn about angles and segments, lines and arcs in a circle and how they are related. You will compete against yourself and earn points as you answer questions about radius, diameter, chord, tangent line, central angles and inscribed angles and intercepted arcs.

Type: Educational Game

## Educational Software / Tool

This virtual manipulative can be used to demonstrate and explore the effect of translation, rotation, and/or reflection on a variety of plane figures. A series of transformations can be explored to result in a specified final image.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

## Perspectives Video: Experts

The tide is high! How can we statistically prove there is a relationship between the tides on the Gulf Coast and in a fresh water spring 20 miles from each other?

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Statistical analysis played an essential role in using microgravity sensors to determine location of caves in Wakulla County.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Don't be a shrinking violet. Learn how uniform scaling is important for candy production.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

See and see far into the future of arts and manufacturing as a technician explains computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining bit by bit.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

You'll need to bring your computer skills and math knowledge to estimate oil volume and rate as it seeps from the ocean floor. Dive in!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Presentation/Slideshow

This lesson teaches students about the history of the Pythagorean theorem, along with proofs and applications. It is geared toward high school Geometry students that have completed a year of Algebra and addresses the following national standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning: 1) Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships; 2) Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems; 3) Understand and apply basic and advanced properties of the concepts of geometry; and 4) Use the Pythagorean theorem and its converse and properties of special right triangles to solve mathematical and real-world problems. The video portion is about thirty minutes, and with breaks could be completed in 50 minutes. (You may consider completing over two classes, particularly if you want to allow more time for activities or do some of the enrichment material). These activities could be done individually, in pairs, or groups. I think 2 or 3 students is optimal. The materials required for the activities include scissors, tape, string and markers.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

## Problem-Solving Tasks

This task asks students to use similarity to solve a problem in a context that will be familiar to many, though most students are accustomed to using intuition rather than geometric reasoning to set up the shot.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this problem, students are given a picture of two triangles that appear to be similar, but whose similarity cannot be proven without further information. Asking students to provide a sequence of similarity transformations that maps one triangle to the other, using the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task involves a reasonably direct application of similar triangles, coupled with a moderately challenging procedure of constructing a diagram from a verbal description.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to engage students in geometric modeling, and in particular to deduce algebraic relationships between variables stemming from geometric constraints.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Using a chart of diameters of different denominations of coins, students are asked to figure out how many coins fit around a central coin.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to find the area of an equilateral triangle.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem asks students to model phenomena on the surface of the earth by examining the visibility of the lamp in a lighthouse from a boat.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task encourages students to explore why solar eclipses are rare by examining the radius of the sun and the furthest distance between the moon and the earth.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task gives students the opportunity to prove a fact about quadrilaterals: that if we join the midpoints of an arbitrary quadrilateral to form a new quadrilateral, then the new quadrilateral is a parallelogram, even if the original quadrilateral was not.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task engages students in an open-ended modeling task that uses similarity of right triangles.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a foundational geometry task designed to provide a route for students to develop some fundamental geometric properties that may seem rather obvious at first glance. In this case, the fundamental property in question is that the shortest path from a point to a line meets the line at a right angle which is crucial for many further developments in the subject.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Using a triangle with line through it, students are tasked to show the congruent angles, and conclude if one triangle is similar to the other.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This provides an opportunity to model a concrete situation with mathematics. Once a representative picture of the situation described in the problem is drawn (the teacher may provide guidance here as necessary), the solution of the task requires an understanding of the definition of the sine function.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to make deductions about a line after it has been dilated by a factor of 2.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The goal of this task is to model a familiar object, an Olympic track, using geometric shapes. Calculations of perimeters of these shapes explain the staggered start of runners in a 400 meter race.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this problem, geometry is applied to a 400 meter track to find the perimeter of the track.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, a typographic grid system serves as the background for a standard paper clip. A metric measurement scale is drawn across the bottom of the grid and the paper clip extends in both directions slightly beyond the grid. Students are given the approximate length of the paper clip and determine the number of like paper clips made from a given length of wire.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students will provide a sketch of a paper ice cream cone wrapper, use the sketch to develop a formula for the surface area of the wrapper, and estimate the maximum number of wrappers that could be cut from a rectangular piece of paper.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to explain which measurements are needed to estimate the thickness of a soda can.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to find the surface area of a soda can, calculate how many cubic centimeters of aluminum it contains, and estimate how thick it is.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a mathematical modeling task aimed at making a reasonable estimate for something which is too large to count accurately, the number of leaves on a tree.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a mathematical modeling task aimed at making a reasonable estimate for something which is too large to count accurately, the number of leaves on a tree.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to apply the concepts of mass, volume, and density in the real-world context to find how many cells are in the human body.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The goal of this task is to use geometry to study the structure of beehives.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Reflective of the modernness of the technology involved, this is a challenging geometric modeling task in which students discover from scratch the geometric principles underlying the software used by GPS systems.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task gives an interesting context for implementing ideas from geometry and trigonometry.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task uses the tale of Archimedes and the King of Syracuse's crown to determine the volume and mass of gold and silver.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to lead students through an algebraic approach to a well-known result from classical geometry, namely, that a point X is on the circle of diameter AB whenever ?AXB is a right angle

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to find the area of a triangle by using unit squares and line segments.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to use ideas about linear functions in order to determine when certain angles are right angles.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of the task is to analyze a plausible real-life scenario using a geometric model. The task requires knowledge of volume formulas for cylinders and cones, some geometric reasoning involving similar triangles, and pays attention to reasonable approximations and maintaining reasonable levels of accuracy throughout.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task ask students to show the reflection of one triangle maps to another triangle.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this problem, we considered SSA. The triangle congruence criteria, SSS, SAS, ASA, all require three pieces of information. It is interesting, however, that not all three pieces of information about sides and angles are sufficient to determine a triangle up to congruence.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task provides a concrete geometric setting in which to study rigid transformations of the plane.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to show how certain points on a plane are equidistant to points on a segment when placed on a perpendicular bisector.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a reasonably direct task aimed at having students use previously-derived results to learn new facts about parallelograms, as opposed to deriving them from first principles.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task provides an opportunity for students to apply triangle congruence theorems in an explicit, interesting context.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to inscribe equilateral triangles and regular hexagons on a circle with a compass and straightedge.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to construct a perpendicular bisector of a given segment.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to explain the reason why the given triangles are congruent, and to construct reflections of the points.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This activity uses rigid transformations of the plane to explore symmetries of classes of triangles.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task gives students a chance to see the impact of reflections on an explicit object and to see that the reflections do not always commute.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This activity is one in a series of tasks using rigid transformations of the plane to explore symmetries of classes of triangles, with this task in particular focusing on the class of equilaterial triangles

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to use a straightedge and compass to construct the line across which a triangle is reflected.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to use geometric and algebraic reasoning to model a real-life scenario. In particular, students are in several places (implicitly or explicitly) to reason as to when making approximations is reasonable and when to round, when to use equalities vs. inequalities, and the choice of units to work with (e.g., mm vs. cm).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task presents a context that leads students toward discovery of the formula for calculating the volume of a sphere.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is inspired by the derivation of the volume formula for the sphere. If a sphere of radius 1 is enclosed in a cylinder of radius 1 and height 2, then the volume not occupied by the sphere is equal to the volume of a "double-naped cone" with vertex at the center of the sphere and bases equal to the bases of the cylinder

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task combines two skills: making use of the relationship between a tangent segment to a circle and the radius touching that tangent segment, and computing lengths of circular arcs given the radii and central angles.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to explain certain characteristics about a triangle.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task provides a good opportunity to use isosceles triangles and their properties to show an interesting and important result about triangles inscribed in a circle: the fact that these triangles are always right triangles is often referred to as Thales' theorem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to place a fire hydrant so that it is equal distance from three given points.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This particular problem solving task exhibits congruency between two triangles, demonstrating translation, reflection and rotation.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task applies reflections to a regular octagon to construct a pattern of four octagons enclosing a quadrilateral: the focus of the task is on using the properties of reflections to deduce that the quadrilateral is actually a square.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task applies reflections to a regular hexagon to construct a pattern of six hexagons enclosing a seventh: the focus of the task is on using the properties of reflections to deduce this seven hexagon pattern.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to bisect a given angle.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is primarily assessment-oriented, asking students to demonstrate knowledge of how to determine the congruency of triangles.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to place a warehouse (point) an equal distance from three roads (lines).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem introduces the circumcenter of a triangle and shows how it can be used to inscribe the triangle in a circle.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task shows that the three perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle all meet in a point, using the characterization of the perpendicular bisector of a line segment as the set of points equidistant from the two ends of the segment.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to find the perpendicular meeting point of a segment from the center of a circle and a tangent.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is intended to help model a concrete situation with geometry. Placing the seven pennies in a circular pattern is a concrete and fun experiment which leads to a genuine mathematical question: does the physical model with pennies give insight into what happens with seven circles in the plane?

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This modeling task involves several different types of geometric knowledge and problem-solving: finding areas of sectors of circles, using trigonometric ratios to solve right triangles, and decomposing a complicated figure involving multiple circular arcs into parts whose areas can be found.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task applies geometric concepts, namely properties of tangents to circles and of right triangles, in a modeling situation. The key geometric point in this task is to recognize that the line of sight from the mountain top towards the horizon is tangent to the earth. We can then use a right triangle where one leg is tangent to a circle and the other leg is the radius of the circle to investigate this situation.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task provides a construction of the angle bisector of an angle by reducing it to the bisection of an angle to finding the midpoint of a line segment. It is worth observing the symmetry -- for both finding midpoints and bisecting angles, the goal is to cut an object into two equal parts.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task focuses on a remarkable fact which comes out of the construction of the inscribed circle in a triangle: the angle bisectors of the three angles of triangle ABC all meet in a point.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines the ways in which the plane can be covered by regular polygons in a very strict arrangement called a regular tessellation. These tessellations are studied here using algebra, which enters the picture via the formula for the measure of the interior angles of a regular polygon (which should therefore be introduced or reviewed before beginning the task). The goal of the task is to use algebra in order to understand which tessellations of the plane with regular polygons are possible.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

## Tutorials

In this tutorial, students will use the SSS, ASA, SAS, and AAS postulates to find congruent triangles

Type: Tutorial

In this tutorial, students will use a scale factor to dilate one line onto another.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial discusses the difference between a theorem and axiom. It also shows how to use SSS in a proof.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial discusses SSS, SAS, ASA and AAS postulates for congruent triangles. It also shows AAA is only good for similarity and SSA is good for neither.

Type: Tutorial

In this video, students will learn about congruent triangles and the "Side-Side-Side" postulate.

Type: Tutorial

Students will investigate symmetry by rotating polygons 180 degrees about their center.

Type: Tutorial

Students are shown, with an interactive tool, how to reflect a line segment. Students should have an understanding of slope and midpoint before viewing this video.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial uses the midpoint of two lines to find the line of reflection.

Type: Tutorial

Students will see what happens when a figure is rotated about the origin -270 degrees. Having a foundation about right triangles is recommended before viewing this video.

Type: Tutorial

In this tutorial, students will find the measures of angles formed when a transversal cuts two parallel lines.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial shows students the eight angles formed when two parallel lines are cut by a transversal line. There is also a review of triangles in this video.

Type: Tutorial

Students will see in this tutorial the eight angles formed when two parallel lines are cut by a transversal line.

Type: Tutorial

In this tutorial, students will learn the angle measures when two parallel lines are cut by a transversal line.

Type: Tutorial

In this video, students will learn how to use what they know about the sum of angles in a triangle to determine the sum of the exterior angles of an irregular pentagon.

Type: Tutorial

In this tutorial, students are introduced to the concept that three non-collinear points are necessary to define a unique plane.

Type: Tutorial

Before learning any new concept it's important students learn and use common language and label concepts consistently. This tutorial introduces students to th point, line and plane.

Type: Tutorial

In this tutorial, students prove that vertical angles are equal. Students should have an understanding of supplementary angles before viewing this video.

Type: Tutorial

Students will use algebra to find the measure of vertical angles, or angles opposite each other when two lines cross. Students should have an understanding of complementary and supplementary angles before viewing this video.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial is great practice for help in identifying parallel and perpendicular lines.

Type: Tutorial

In this tutorial, students will use their knowledge of supplementary, adjacent, and vertical angles to solve problems involving the intersection of two lines.

Type: Tutorial

This video demonstrates Bhaskara's proof of the Pythagorean Theorem.

Type: Tutorial

This video visually proves the Pythagorean Theorem using triangles and parallelograms.

Type: Tutorial

This video shows a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem using similar triangles.

Type: Tutorial

Lets prove that the sum of interior angles of a triangle are equal to 180 degrees.

Type: Tutorial

Let's find the measure of an angle, using interior and exterior angle measurements.

Type: Tutorial

We will use algebra in order to find the measure of angles formed by a transversal.

Type: Tutorial

We will be able to identify corresponding angles of parallel lines.

Type: Tutorial

We will gain an understanding of how angles formed by transversals compare to each other.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will show students how to use trigonometry to solve for missing information in right triangles. This video shows worked examples using trigonometric ratios to solve for missing information and evaluate other trigonometric ratios.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial gives an introduction to trigonometry. This resource discusses the three basic trigonometry functions, sine, cosine, and tangent.

Type: Tutorial

<p>In this tutorial we will learn the basics of geometry, such as identifying a line, ray, point, and segment.</p>

Type: Tutorial

This 5 minute video gives the proof that vertical angles are equal.

Type: Tutorial

Parallel lines have the same slope and no points in common. However, it is not always obvious whether two equations describe parallel lines or the same line.

Type: Tutorial

Perpendicular lines have slopes which are negative reciprocals of each other, but why?

Type: Tutorial

This video discusses how to figure out the horizontal displacement for a projectile launched at an angle.

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

This video shows how to determine which lines are parallel from a set of three different equations.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video illustrates how to determine if the graphs of a given set of equations are parallel.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video describes how to determine the equation of a line that is perpendicular to another line. All that is given initially the equation of a line and an ordered pair from the other line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This resource gives an animated and then annotated proof of the Pythagorean Theorem.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

In this GeoGebraTube interactive worksheet, you can watch the step by step process of circumscribing a circle about a triangle. Using paper and pencil along with this resource will reinforce the concept.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This interactive manipulative will let you compare and calculate volumes of different solids.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This geogebratube interactive worksheet shows the step by step process for inscribing a regular hexagon in a circle. There are other geogebratube interactive worksheets for the square and the equilateral triangle.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Using this resource, students can manipulate the measurements of a 3-D hourglass figure (double-napped cone) and its intersecting plane to see how the graph of a conic section changes. Students will see the impact of changing the *height* and *slant* of the cone and the *m* and *b* values of the plane on the shape of the graph. Students can also rotate and re-size the cone and graph to view from different angles.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this manipulative activity, you can first get an idea of what each of the rigid transformations look like, and then get to experiment with combinations of transformations in order to map a pre-image to its image.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students in understanding that the relationships found in right triangles can be used to solve many applied problems in science and engineering. The right triangle solver manipulative displays a triangle with some its sides and angles given. The student is then asked to determine values of the remaining sides and angles by choosing a workable strategy.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative allows students to manipulate blocks, add or remove blocks, and connect them together to form solids. They can also experiment with counting the number of exposed faces, seeing what happens to the surface area when blocks are added or removed, and "unfolding" a block to create a net .

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The triangle solver manipulative displays a triangle with some of its sides and angles given. The students are then asked to determine values of the remaining sides and angles. Students are motivated to choose a workable strategy such as using the Pythagorean theorem, the sine, cosine, tangent relationships, the law of sines, or the law of cosines. They are directed through the key steps of the chosen strategy to find the unknown sides and the angles.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

With this online Java applet, students use slider bars to move a cross section of a cone, cylinder, prism, or pyramid. This activity allows students to explore conic sections and the 3-dimensional shapes from which they are derived. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This manipulative is a virtual realization of the kind of physical experience that might be available to students given three pieces of straws and told to make them into a triangle. when working with pieces that determine unique triangles (SSS, SAS, ASA). Students construct triangles with the parts provided. After building a red and a blue triangle, students can experience congruence by actually moving one on the top of the other.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This web address, from the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives, will help teachers and students validate the Pythagorean Theorem both geometrically and algebraically. It can be used interactively with the Smartboard and the Promethean Board to create a better understanding of the topic.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The user can demonstrate or explore translation of shapes created with pattern blocks, using or not using a coordinate axes and lattice points background, by changing the translation vector.

(source: NLVM grade 6-8 "Transformations - Translation")

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The user clicks and drags a shape they have constructed to view its reflection across a line. A background grid and axes may or may not be used. The reflection may by examined analytically using coordinates. Symmetry may be displayed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Students use a slider to explore dilation and scale factor. Students can create and dilate their own figures. (source: NLVM grade 6-8 "Transformations - Dilation")

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Rotate shapes and their images with or without a background grid and axes.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This program allows users to explore spatial geometry in a dynamic and interactive way. The tool allows users to rotate, zoom out, zoom in, and translate a plethora of polyhedra. The program is able to compute topological and geometrical duals of each polyhedron. Geometrical operations include unfolding, plane sections, truncation, and stellation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Worksheet

This problem solving task shows how to inscribe a circle in a triangle using angle bisectors.

Type: Worksheet

Section:Grades PreK to 12 Education Courses >Grade Group:Grades 9 to 12 and Adult Education Courses >Subject:Mathematics >SubSubject:Geometry >