## Course Standards

## General Course Information and Notes

### General Notes

**English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:**

Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Mathematics. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL's need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link:

http://www.cpalms.org/uploads/docs/standards/eld/MA.pdf

**Additional Instructional Resources:**

A.V.E. for Success Collection is provided by the Florida Association of School Administrators: http://www.fasa.net/4DCGI/cms/review.html?Action=CMS_Document&DocID=139. Please be aware that these resources have not been reviewed by CPALMS and there may be a charge for the use of some of them in this collection.

### General Information

**Course Number:**1298310

**Course Path:**

**Abbreviated Title:**ADV TOPICS IN MATH

**Number of Credits:**One (1) credit

**Course Length:**Year (Y)

**Course Type:**Core Academic Course

**Course Level:**2

**Course Status:**Course Approved

**Grade Level(s):**9,10,11,12

**Graduation Requirement:**Mathematics

## Educator Certifications

## Student Resources

## Original Student Tutorials

Visualize the effect of using a value of k in both *kf*(*x*) or *f*(*kx*) when k is greater than zero in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how reflections of a function are created and tied to the value of *k* in the mapping of *f*(*x*) to -1*f*(*x*) in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore translations of functions on a graph that are caused by *k* in this interactive tutorial. GeoGebra and interactive practice items are used to investigate linear, quadratic, and exponential functions and their graphs, and the effect of a translation on a table of values.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Practice identifying faulty reasoning in this two-part, interactive, English Language Arts tutorial. You'll learn what some experts say about year-round schools, what research has been conducted about their effectiveness, and how arguments can be made for and against year-round education. Then, you'll read a speech in favor of year-round schools and identify faulty reasoning within the argument, specifically the use of hasty generalizations.

Make sure to complete Part One before Part Two! **Click HERE to launch Part One.**

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to identify faulty reasoning in this two-part interactive English Language Arts tutorial. You'll learn what some experts say about year-round schools, what research has been conducted about their effectiveness, and how arguments can be made for and against year-round education. Then, you'll read a speech in favor of year-round schools and identify faulty reasoning within the argument, specifically the use of hasty generalizations.

Make sure to complete both parts of this series! Click HERE to open Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence.

In Part Four, you'll use what you've learned throughout this series to evaluate Kennedy's overall argument.

Make sure to complete the previous parts of this series before beginning Part 4.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence. By the end of this four-part series, you should be able to evaluate his overall argument.

In Part Three, you will read more of Kennedy's speech and identify a smaller claim in this section of his speech. You will also evaluate this smaller claim's relevancy to the main claim and evaluate Kennedy's reasons and evidence.

Make sure to complete all four parts of this series!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Find the location and coverage area of cell towers by completing the square to determine the center and radius of a circle given its equation in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to write the equation of a circle using Pythagorean Theorem given its center and radius using step-by-step instructions on this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Want to learn about Amelia Earhart, one of the most famous female aviators of all time? If so, then this interactive tutorial is for YOU! This tutorial is Part Two of a two-part series. In this series, you will study a speech by Amelia Earhart. You will practice identifying the purpose of her speech and practice identifying her use of rhetorical appeals (ethos, logos, pathos, Kairos). You will also evaluate the effectiveness of Earhart's rhetorical choices based on the purpose of her speech.

Please complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to view Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Want to learn about Amelia Earhart, one of the most famous female aviators of all time? If so, then this interactive tutorial is for YOU! This tutorial is Part One of a two-part series. In this series, you will study a speech by Amelia Earhart. You will practice identifying the purpose of her speech and practice identifying her use of rhetorical appeals (ethos, logos, pathos, Kairos). You will also evaluate the effectiveness of Earhart's rhetorical choices based on the purpose of her speech.

Please complete Part Two after completing this tutorial. Click HERE to view Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The graph of a quadratic equation is called a parabola [puh-ra-bow-luh]. The key features we will focus on in this tutorial are the vertex (a maximum or minimum extreme) and the direction of its opening. You will learn how to examine a quadratic equation written in vertex form in order to distinguish each of these key features.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Perspectives Video: Experts

Jump to it and learn more about how quadratic equations are used in robot navigation problem solving!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The tide is high! How can we statistically prove there is a relationship between the tides on the Gulf Coast and in a fresh water spring 20 miles from each other?

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The director of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory describes electromagnetic waves.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

What's the point to learning about matrices? You can hack gaming devices for off-the-shelf real time 3D visualization!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Did you know that computers use matrices to represent color? Learn how computer graphics work in this video.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Get in gear with robotics as this engineer explains how quadratic equations are used in programming robotic navigation.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Presentation/Slideshow

This resource is a PowerPoint presentation and a form for guided note taking to be used while viewing the presentation about Matrix Operations. It begins by defining matrices and identifying types of matrices. It then goes into how to add, subtract, and multiply matrices, including how to use scalar multiplication. The final portion deals with finding the determinants of 2x2 and 3x3 matrices and Inverse Matrices.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

## Problem-Solving Tasks

The purpose of this task is to assess a student's ability to compute and interpret the expected value of a random variable.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to determine if two weather events are independent, and use that conclusion to find the probability of having similar weather events under certain conditions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task is intended to address sample space, independence, probability distributions and permutations/combinations.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task combines the concept of independent events with computational tools for counting combinations, requiring fluent understanding of probability in a series of independent events.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task assesses a student's ability to use the addition rule to compute a probability and to interpret a probability in context.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task lets students explore the concepts of probability as a fraction of outcomes and using two-way tables of data.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to calculate probabilities using information presented in a two-way frequency table.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task provides a context to calculate discrete probabilities and represent them on a bar graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task gives a situation where the numbers are too large to calculate, so abstract reasoning is required in order to compare the different probabilities.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to determine probabilities and draw conclusions about the survival rates on the Titanic by consulting a table of data.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to lead students through an algebraic approach to a well-known result from classical geometry, namely, that a point X is on the circle of diameter AB whenever ?AXB is a right angle

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task presents a context that leads students toward discovery of the formula for calculating the volume of a sphere.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to use trigonometric functions to model the number of rabbits and foxes as a function of time.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to trigonometric functions to model the populations of rabbits and foxes over time, and then graph the functions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students use trigonometric functions to model the movement of a point around a wheel and, through space. Students also interpret features of graphs in terms of the given real-world context.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem-solving task challenges students to find all quadratic functions described by given equation and coordinates, and describe how the graphs of those functions are related to one another.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a simple task touching on two key points of functions. First, there is the idea that not all functions have real numbers as domain and range values. Second, the task addresses the issue of when a function admits an inverse, and the process of "restricting the domain" in order to achieve an invertible function.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task addresses knowledge related to interpreting forms of functions derived by factoring or completing the square. It requires students to pay special attention to the information provided by the way the equation is represented as well as the sign of the leading coefficient, which is not written out explicitly, and then to connect this information to the important features of the graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task could be used for assessment or for practice. It allows students to compare characteristics of two quadratic functions that are each represented differently, one as the graph of a quadratic function and one written out algebraically. Specifically, students are asked to determine which function has the greatest maximum and the greatest non-negative root.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The problem presents a context where a quadratic function arises. Careful analysis, including graphing of the function, is closely related to the context. The student will gain valuable experience applying the quadratic formula and the exercise also gives a possible implementation of completing the square.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to construct and use inverse functions to model a real-life context. Students choose a linear function to model the given data, and then use the inverse function to interpolate a data point.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Temperature conversions provide a rich source of linear functions which are encountered not only in science but also in our every day lives when we travel abroad. The first part of this task provides an opportunity to construct a linear function given two input-output pairs. The second part investigates the inverse of a linear function while the third part requires reasoning about quantities and/or solving a linear equation.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task provides an approximation, and definition, of *e*, in the context of more and more frequent compounding of interest in a bank account. The approach is computational.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task aims for students to understand the quadratic formula in a geometric way in terms of the graph of a quadratic function.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is intended for instruction and to motivate "Building a general quadratic function." This task assumes that the students are familiar with the process of completing the square.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this example, students are given the graph of two functions and are asked to sketch the graph of the function that is their sum. The intent is that students develop a conceptual understanding of function addition.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task addresses an important issue about inverse functions. In this case the function *f* is the inverse of the function *g* but *g* is not the inverse of *f* unless the domain of *f* is restricted.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to help students see the "why" behind properties of logs that are familiar but often just memorized (and quickly forgotten or misremembered). The task focuses on the verbal definition of the log, helping students to concentrate on understanding that a logarithm is an exponent, as opposed to completing a more computational approach.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to write expressions for various problems involving distance per units of volume.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The context of this example is the spread of a flu virus on campus and the related sale of tissue boxes sold. Students interpret the composite function and determine values simply by using the tables of values.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students explore the inverse relationship between an exponential function and a logarithmic function. The task is to determine the relevant composite functions, their graphs, and the domain and range of each.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this resource, a method of deriving the quadratic formula from a theoretical standpoint is demonstrated. This task is for instructional purposes only and builds on "Building an explicit quadratic function."

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task develops reasoning behind the general formula for balances under continuously compounded interest. While this task itself specifically address the standard (F-BF), building functions from a context, an auxiliary purpose is to introduce and motivate the number *e*, which plays a significant role in the (F-LE) domain of tasks.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students compare graphs of different quadratic functions, then produce equations of their own to satisfy given conditions.

This exploration can be done in class near the beginning of a unit on graphing parabolas. Students need to be familiar with intercepts, and need to know what the vertex is. It is effective after students have graphed parabolas in vertex form (y=a(x–h)^{2}+k), but have not yet explored graphing other forms.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to recognize the graphs of different (positive) powers of x.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task examines, in a graphical setting, the impact of adding a scalar, multiplying by a scalar, and making a linear substitution of variables on the graph of the function *f*. This resource also includes standards alignment commentary and annotated solutions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Unit conversion problems provide a rich source of examples both for composition of functions (when several successive conversions are required) and inverses (units can always be converted in either of two directions).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to determine a recursive process from a context. Students who study computer programming will make regular use of recursive processes.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to use proportions of mass and volume to create ideal brine for saltwater fish tanks. It also asks students to compare graphs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem is a quadratic function example. The other tasks in this set illustrate MAFS.912.F.BF.1.1.a in the context of linear, exponential, and rational functions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students are asked to analyze a function and its inverse when the function is given as a table of values. In addition to finding values of the inverse function from the table, they also have to explain why the given function is invertible.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task addresses the first part of standard MAFS.912.F-BF.2.3: "Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, kf(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative)."

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to introduce students to exponential growth. While the context presents a classic example of exponential growth, it approaches it from a non-standard point of view.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In the middle grades, students have lots of experience analyzing and comparing linear functions using graphs, table, symbolic expressions, and verbal descriptions. In this task, students may choose a representation that suits them and then reason from within that representation.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task illustrates several components of standard MAFS.912.F-BF.2.4.c: Find Inverse Functions. Here, instead of presenting two functions and asking the students to decide which on is invertible, students are asked to complete a table of input-output pairs for the functions in such a way that one of the functions is invertible and the other one is not.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The primary purpose of this task is to lead students to a numerical and graphical understanding of the behavior of a rational function near a vertical asymptote, in terms of the expression defining the function.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to give students practice constructing functions that represent a quantity of interest in a context, and then interpreting features of the function in the light of the context. It can be used as either an assessment or a teaching task.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to determine whether a the set of given functions is odd, even, or neither.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem is intended to reinforce the geometric interpretation of distance between complex numbers and midpoints as modulus of the difference and average respectively.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

## Tutorials

You will learn how the parent function for a quadratic function is affected when f(x) = x^{2}.

Type: Tutorial

Finding the 5th term in recursively defined sequence

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the students to identify the vertex of a parabola from the equation, and then graph the parabola.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the learners to graph the equation of the quadratic function using the coordinates of the vertex of a parabola adn its x- intercepts.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to learn about the exponential functions by graphing various equations representing exponential growth and decay.

Type: Tutorial

This video describes using multiplication to find the compound probability of dependent events.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial demonstrates how to use the power of a power property with both numerals and variables.

Type: Tutorial

This 4 minute video gives step by step instruction of solving logarithmic equations.

Type: Tutorial

This resource explores the electromagnetic spectrum and waves by allowing the learner to observe the refraction of light as it passes from one medium to another, study the relation between refraction of light and the refractive index of the medium, select from a list of materials with different refractive indicecs, and change the light beam from white to monochromatic and observe the difference.

Type: Tutorial

- Observe how the eye's muscles change the shape of the lens in accordance with the distance to the object being viewed
- Indicate the parts of the eye that are responsible for vision
- View how images are formed in the eye

Type: Tutorial

- Learn how a concave spherical mirror generates an image
- Observe how the size and position of the image changes with the object distance from the mirror
- Learn the difference between a real image and a virtual image
- Learn some applications of concave mirrors

Type: Tutorial

- Learn how a convex mirror forms the image of an object
- Understand why convex mirrors form small virtual images
- Observe the change in size and position of the image with the change in object's distance from the mirror
- Learn some practical applications of convex mirrors

Type: Tutorial

- Observe the change of color of a black body radiator upon changes in temperature
- Understand that at 0 Kelvin or Absolute Zero there is no molecular motion

Type: Tutorial

This resource explains how a solar cell converts light energy into electrical energy. The user will also learn about the different components of the solar cell and observe the relationship between photon intensity and the amount of electrical energy produced.

Type: Tutorial

- Observe that light is composed of oscillating electric and magnetic waves
- Explore the propagation of an electromagnetic wave through its electric and magnetic field vectors
- Observe the difference in propagation of light of different wavelengths

Type: Tutorial

- Explore the relationship between wavelength, frequency, amplitude and energy of an electromagnetic wave
- Compare the characteristics of waves of different wavelengths

Type: Tutorial

- Learn to trace the path of propagating light waves using geometrical optics
- Observe the effect of changing parameters such as focal length, object dimensions and position on image properties
- Learn the equations used in determining the size and locations of images formed by thin lenses

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

With an often unexpected outcome from a simple experiment, students can discover the factors that cause and influence thermohaline circulation in our oceans. In two 45-minute class periods, students complete activities where they observe the melting of ice cubes in saltwater and freshwater, using basic materials: clear plastic cups, ice cubes, water, salt, food coloring, and thermometers. There are no prerequisites for this lesson but it is helpful if students are familiar with the concepts of density and buoyancy as well as the salinity of seawater. It is also helpful if students understand that dissolving salt in water will lower the freezing point of water. There are additional follow up investigations that help students appreciate and understand the importance of the ocean's influence on Earth's climate.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video will demonstrate how to solve a quadratic equation using square roots.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video demonstrates writing a function that represents a real-life scenario.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video gives a more in-depth look at graphing quadratic functions than previously offered in Quadratic Functions 1.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This learning video introduces students to the world of Fractal Geometry through the use of difference equations. As a prerequisite to this lesson, students would need two years of high school algebra (comfort with single variable equations) and motivation to learn basic complex arithmetic. Ms. Zager has included a complete introductory tutorial on complex arithmetic with homework assignments downloadable here. Also downloadable are some supplemental challenge problems. Time required to complete the core lesson is approximately one hour, and materials needed include a blackboard/whiteboard as well as space for students to work in small groups. During the in-class portions of this interactive lesson, students will brainstorm on the outcome of the chaos game and practice calculating trajectories of difference equations.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy video tutorial on graphing linear equations: "Algebra: Graphing Lines 1"

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

Use this interactive GeoGebraTube tool to see how the foci and other graph characteristics are related to the equation of the ellipse. Make sure you use the sliders to change the characteristics of your ellipse and pay attention to how the graph relates to its equation each time.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students adjust slider bars which adjust the coefficients and constants of a linear function and examine how their changes affect the graph. The equation of the line can be in slope-intercept form or standard form. This activity allows students to explore linear equations, slopes, and y-intercepts and their visual representation on a graph. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this online activity, students burn a simulated forest and adjust the probability that the fire spreads from one tree to the other. This simulation also records data for each trial including the burn probability, where the fire started, the percent of trees burned, and how long the fire lasted. This activity allows students to explore the idea of chaos in a simulation of a realistic scenario. Supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet are linked to the applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students select one of three doors in an attempt to find a prize that is hidden behind one of them. After their first selection, one of the doors that doesn't have the prize behind it is revealed and the student has to decide whether to switch to the one remaining door or stay on the door of their first choice. This situation, referred to as the Monty Hall problem, was made famous on the show "Let's Make A Deal" with host Monty Hall. This activity allows students to explore the idea of conditional probability as well as unexpected probability. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This resource provides linear functions in standard form and asks the user to graph it using intercepts on an interactive graph below the problem. Immediate feedback is provided, and for incorrect responses, each step of the solution is thoroughly modeled.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Using this virtual manipulative, students are able to graph a function and a set of ordered pairs on the same coordinate plane. The constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted using slider bars, so the student can explore the affect on the graph as the function parameters are changed. Students can also examine the deviation of the data from the function. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This is a graphing tool/activity for students to deepen their understanding of polynomial functions and their corresponding graphs. This tool is to be used in conjunction with a full lesson on graphing polynomial functions; it can be used either before an in depth lesson to prompt students to make inferences and connections between the coefficients in polynomial functions and their corresponding graphs, or as a practice tool after a lesson in graphing the polynomial functions.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this online tool, students input a function to create a graph where the constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted by slider bars. This tool allows students to explore graphs of functions and how adjusting the numbers in the function affect the graph. Using tabs at the top of the page you can also access supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This online manipulative allows the student to simulate placing marbles into a bag and finding the probability of pulling out certain combinations of marbles. This allows exploration of probabilities of multiple events as well as probability with and without replacement. The tabs above the applet provide access to supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the Java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students enter inputs into a function machine. Then, by examining the outputs, they must determine what function the machine is performing. This activity allows students to explore functions and what inputs are most useful for determining the function rule. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The students will play a classic game from a popular show. Through this they can explore the probability that the ball will land on each of the numbers and discover that more accurate results coming from repeated testing. The simulation can be adjusted to influence fairness and randomness of the results.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

With a mouse, students will drag data points (with their error bars) and watch the best-fit polynomial curve form instantly. Students can choose the type of fit: linear, quadratic, cubic, or quartic. Best fit or adjustable fit can be displayed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This interactive simulation investigates graphing linear and quadratic equations. Users are given the ability to define and change the coefficients and constants in order to observe resulting changes in the graph(s).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Students investigate shapes that grow and change using an iterative process. Fractals are characterized by self-similarity, smaller sections that resemble the larger figure. From NCTM's Illuminations.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This applet allows users to set up various geometric series with a visual representation of the successive terms, and the corresponding sum of those terms.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Section:Grades PreK to 12 Education Courses >Grade Group:Grades 9 to 12 and Adult Education Courses >Subject:Mathematics >SubSubject:Liberal Arts Mathematics >