## Course Standards

## General Course Information and Notes

### General Notes

**Access Courses:** Access courses are intended only for students with a significant cognitive disability. Access courses are designed to provide students with access to the general curriculum. Access points reflect increasing levels of complexity and depth of knowledge aligned with grade-level expectations. The access points included in access courses are intentionally designed to foster high expectations for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

Access points in the subject areas of science, social studies, art, dance, physical education, theatre, and health provide tiered access to the general curriculum through three levels of access points (Participatory, Supported, and Independent). Access points in English language arts and mathematics do not contain these tiers, but contain Essential Understandings (or EUs). EUs consist of skills at varying levels of complexity and are a resource when planning for instruction.

**English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:**

Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Science. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL’s need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: http://www.cpalms.org/uploads/docs/standards/eld/SC.pdf.

For additional information on the development and implementation of the ELD standards, please contact the Bureau of Student Achievement through Language Acquisition at sala@fldoe.org.

### Version Requirements

Laboratory investigations that include the use of scientific inquiry, research, measurement, problem solving, laboratory apparatus and technologies, experimental procedures, and safety procedures are an integral part of this course. The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) recommends that at the high school level, all students should be in the science lab or field, collecting data every week. School laboratory investigations (labs) are defined by the National Research Council (NRC) as an experience in the laboratory, classroom, or the field that provides students with opportunities to interact directly with natural phenomena or with data collected by others using tools, materials, data collection techniques, and models (NRC, 2006, p. 3). Laboratory investigations in the high school classroom should help all students develop a growing understanding of the complexity and ambiguity of empirical work, as well as the skills to calibrate and troubleshoot equipment used to make observations. Learners should understand measurement error; and have the skills to aggregate, interpret, and present the resulting data (National Research Council, 2006, p.77; NSTA, 2007).

**Additional Instructional Resources:**

A.V.E. for Success Collection: http://www.fasa.net/iTunesU/index.cfm

### General Information

**Course Number:**7920011

**Course Path:**

**Abbreviated Title:**ACCESS CHEMISTRY 1

**Number of Credits:**Course may be taken for up to two credits

**Course Length:**Multiple (M) - Course length can vary

**Course Type:**Core Academic Course

**Course Status:**Course Approved

**Grade Level(s):**9,10,11,12,30,31

**Graduation Requirement:**Equally Rigorous Science

## Educator Certifications

## Student Resources

## Original Student Tutorials

Examine the hallowed words of Abraham Lincoln in this interactive tutorial. You'll examine Lincoln's *Gettysburg Address* and identify his point of view, reasoning, and evidence in order to evaluate his effectiveness as a speaker.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

See how data are interpreted to better understand the reproductive strategies taken by sea anemones.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Examine field sampling strategies used to gather data and avoid bias in ecology research. This interactive tutorial features the CPALMS Perspectives video Sampling Strategies for Ecology Research in the Intertidal Zone*.*

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to define, calculate, and interpret marginal frequencies, joint frequencies, and conditional frequencies in the context of the data with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify and describe the leading scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The graph of a quadratic equation is called a parabola [puh-ra-bow-luh]. The key features we will focus on in this tutorial are the vertex (a maximum or minimum extreme) and the direction of its opening. You will learn how to examine a quadratic equation written in vertex form in order to distinguish each of these key features.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify explicit evidence and understand implicit meaning in a text and demonstrate how and why scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observation and be able to identify examples in biology.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how the chemical properties of water relate to its physical properties and make it essential for life with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to distinguish between questions that can be answered by science and questions that science cannot answer, but can be addressed by other ways of knowing things.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Educational Software / Tool

This Excel spreadsheet allows the educator to input data into a two way frequency table and have the resulting relative frequency charts calculated automatically on the second sheet. This resource will assist the educator in checking student calculations on student-generated data quickly and easily.

Steps to add data: All data is input on the first spreadsheet; all tables are calculated on the second spreadsheet

- Modify column and row headings to match your data.
- Input joint frequency data.
- Click the second tab at the bottom of the window to see the automatic calculations.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

## Lesson Plans

This lesson's primary focus is to introduce high school students to the concept of Elasticity, which is one of the fundamental concepts in the understanding of the physics of deformation in solids. The main learning objectives are: (1) To understand the essential concept of Elasticity and be able to distinguish simple solids objects based on degree and extent of their elastic properties; (2) To appreciate the utility of the elastic force vs. deformation curve through experiments; (3) To be aware of potential sources of error present in such experiments and identify corrective measures; and (4) To appreciate the relevance of Elasticity in practical applications.

Type: Lesson Plan

This BLOSSOMS lesson discusses Carbon Dioxide, and its impact on climate change. The main learning objective is for students to become more familiar with human production of Carbon Dioxide gas, as well as to gain an awareness of the potential for this gas to effect the temperature of Earth’s atmosphere. This lesson should take about an hour to complete. In order to complete the lesson, the teacher will need: printed copies of signs representing the different products and processes that take place in the carbon cycle (included), samples of matter that represent those products, handouts for the students to create a graphic of the carbon cycle (included) and graph paper or graphing software for students to create graphs. In the breaks of this BLOSSOMS lesson, students will be creating models of the carbon cycle as well as observing experiments and analyzing data from them. It is hoped that this lesson will familiarize students with ways in which carbon moves through our environment and provide them with some personal connection to the impact that an increased concentration of CO_{2} can have on air temperature. The goal is to spark their interest and hopefully to encourage them to ask and investigate more questions about the climate.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Perspectives Video: Experts

Jump to it and learn more about how quadratic equations are used in robot navigation problem solving!

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Explore how pendulums show the transformation of gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy and back with Dr. Simon Capstick in this engaging video. Don't miss his broken-nose defying test of the physics with a bowling ball pendulum.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The tide is high! How can we statistically prove there is a relationship between the tides on the Gulf Coast and in a fresh water spring 20 miles from each other?

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Statistical analysis played an essential role in using microgravity sensors to determine location of caves in Wakulla County.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Keep an eye on pH as you learn about what makes acids and bases.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Do you know everything about protons? Are you positive?

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Learn more about the atomic model and antimatter!

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Don't overreact when this chemist describes physical and chemical changes that you can observe in your own kitchen!

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Plants need visible light, just not all of it. Learn how space plants and their lights strive for efficiency.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Humans aren't the only ones who get their fingerprints taken. Learn how this scientist is like a crime scene investigator using oil "fingerprints" to explain the orgins of spilled oil.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Why can't you put Ethanol fuel in a boat motor?

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Get fired up as you learn more about ceramic glaze recipes and mathematical units.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Learn how molecules have the potential to be polar, but not all are.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

If you want to understand the atom, you'll need a lot of energy. Learn how physicists use high energy light and electrons to study atomic structure.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

A welder wields a plasma torch to cut solid metal like a hot knife through butter. It's one-stop shopping to see all four states of matter.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

An archaeologist explains how he is using x-rays to reconstruct a nineteenth-century battle!

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Archaeologists can see underground trends before everyone else with ground penetrating radar (GPR).

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Hydrogen is used to launch spacecraft, but accidental fires are difficult to see. Learn about the physics of these fires and how we detect them.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Problem-Solving Tasks

The purpose of this task is to allow students to demonstrate an ability to construct boxplots and to use boxplots as the basis for comparing distributions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to make deductions about what kind of music students like by examining a table with data.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to answer probability questions about SAT scores, using distribution and mean to solve the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem could be used as an introductory lesson to introduce group comparisons and to engage students in a question they may find amusing and interesting.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to examine the relationship between shops and crimes by using a correlation coefficient.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to have students complete normal distribution calculations and to use properties of normal distributions to draw conclusions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to use the normal distribution as a model for a data distribution. Students must use given means and standard deviations to approximate population percentages.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task provides a context to calculate discrete probabilities and represent them on a bar graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students use trigonometric functions to model the movement of a point around a wheel and, through space. Students also interpret features of graphs in terms of the given real-world context.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem-solving task challenges students to find all quadratic functions described by given equation and coordinates, and describe how the graphs of those functions are related to one another.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is meant to be a straight-forward assessment task of graph reading and interpreting skills. This task helps reinforce the idea that when a variable represents time, t = 0 is chosen as an arbitrary point in time and positive times are interpreted as times that happen after that.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task could be used for assessment or for practice. It allows students to compare characteristics of two quadratic functions that are each represented differently, one as the graph of a quadratic function and one written out algebraically. Specifically, students are asked to determine which function has the greatest maximum and the greatest non-negative root.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to find the average, write an equation, find the domain, and create a graph of the cost of producing DVDs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The principal purpose of the task is to explore a real-world application problem with algebra, working with units and maintaining reasonable levels of accuracy throughout. Students are asked to determine which product will be the most economical to meet the requirements given in the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task students are given graphs of quantities related to weather. The purpose of the task is to show that graphs are more than a collection of coordinate points; they can tell a story about the variables that are involved, and together they can paint a very complete picture of a situation, in this case the weather. Features in one graph, like maximum and minimum points, correspond to features in another graph. For example, on a rainy day, the solar radiation is very low, and the cumulative rainfall graph is increasing with a large slope.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem introduces a logistic growth model in the concrete settings of estimating the population of the U.S. The model gives a surprisingly accurate estimate and this should be contrasted with linear and exponential models.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is for instructional purposes only and students should already be familiar with some specific examples of logistic growth functions. The goal of this task is to have students appreciate how different constants influence the shape of a graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task can be used as a quick assessment to see if students can make sense of a graph in the context of a real world situation. Students also have to pay attention to the scale on the vertical axis to find the correct match. The first and third graphs look very similar at first glance, but the function values are very different since the scales on the vertical axes are very different. The task could also be used to generate a group discussion on interpreting functions given by graphs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to illustrate through an absurd example the fact that in real life quantities are reported to a certain level of accuracy, and it does not make sense to treat them as having greater accuracy.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task operates at two levels. In part it is a simple exploration of the relationship between speed, distance, and time. Part (c) requires understanding of the idea of average speed, and gives an opportunity to address the common confusion between average speed and the average of the speeds for the two segments of the trip.

At a higher level, the task addresses MAFS.912.N-Q.1.3, since realistically neither the car nor the bus is going to travel at exactly the same speed from beginning to end of each segment; there is time traveling through traffic in cities, and even on the autobahn the speed is not constant. Thus students must make judgments about the level of accuracy with which to report the result.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The problem requires students to not only convert miles to kilometers and gallons to liters but they also have to deal with the added complication of finding the reciprocal at some point.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to calculate the cost of materials to make a penny, utilizing rates of grams of copper.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students are asked to use units to determine if the given statement is valid.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a challenging task, suitable for extended work, and reaching into a deep understanding of units. Students are given a scenario and asked to determine the number of people required to complete the amount of work in the time described. The task requires students to exhibit MAFS.K12.MP.1.1, Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. An algebraic solution is possible but complicated; a numerical solution is both simpler and more sophisticated, requiring skilled use of units and quantitative reasoning. Thus the task aligns with either MAFS.912.A-CED.1.1 or MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1, depending on the approach.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students explore and manipulate expressions based on the following statement:

A function f defined for -a < x < a is even if f(-x)=f(x) and is odd if f(-x)=-f(x) when -a < x < a. In this task we assume f is defined on such an interval, which might be the full real line (i.e., a=8).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students compare graphs of different quadratic functions, then produce equations of their own to satisfy given conditions.

This exploration can be done in class near the beginning of a unit on graphing parabolas. Students need to be familiar with intercepts, and need to know what the vertex is. It is effective after students have graphed parabolas in vertex form (y=a(x–h)^{2}+k), but have not yet explored graphing other forms.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This resource poses the question, "how many vehicles might be involved in a traffic jam 12 miles long?"

This task, while involving relatively simple arithmetic, promps students to practice modeling (MP4), work with units and conversion (N-Q.1), and develop a new unit (N-Q.2). Students will also consider the appropriate level of accuracy to use in their conclusions (N-Q.3).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task is a modeling problem which ties in to financial decisions faced routinely by businesses, namely the balance between maintaining inventory and raising short-term capital for investment or re-investment in developing the business.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task provides students the opportunity to make use of units to find the gas needed (MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1). It also requires them to make some sensible approximations (e.g., 2.92 gallons is not a good answer to part (a)) and to recognize that Felicia's situation requires her to round up. Various answers to (a) are possible, depending on how much students think is a safe amount for Felicia to have left in the tank when she arrives at the gas station. The key point is for them to explain their choices. This task provides an opportunity for students to practice MAFS.K12.MP.2.1: Reason abstractly and quantitatively, and MAFS.K12.MP.3.1: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to recognize the graphs of different (positive) powers of x.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The primary purpose of this task is to lead students to a numerical and graphical understanding of the behavior of a rational function near a vertical asymptote, in terms of the expression defining the function.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to give students practice constructing functions that represent a quantity of interest in a context, and then interpreting features of the function in the light of the context. It can be used as either an assessment or a teaching task.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem involves the meaning of numbers found on labels. When the level of accuracy is not given we need to make assumptions based on how the information is reported. An unexpected surprise awaits in this case, however, as no reasonable interpretation of the level of accuracy makes sense of the information reported on the bottles in parts (b) and (c). Either a miscalculation has been made or the numbers have been rounded in a very odd way.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

## Text Resource

This web site features an interactive periodic chart that provides information on the elements, including a description, physical and thermal properties, abundance, isotopes, ionization energy, the element's discoverer, translations of element names into several languages, and bibliographic information on research-and-development publications involving the element. Additional information includes technical information and information on manufactured products for elemental metals, metallic compounds, and ceramic and crystalline products. The American Elements company manufactures engineered and advanced material products.

Type: Text Resource

## Tutorials

You will learn how the parent function for a quadratic function is affected when f(x) = x^{2}.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the students to identify the vertex of a parabola from the equation, and then graph the parabola.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the learners to graph the equation of the quadratic function using the coordinates of the vertex of a parabola adn its x- intercepts.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to learn about the exponential functions by graphing various equations representing exponential growth and decay.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the learner understand the relationship between atoms, their electrons, and the chemical bonds they can form.

Type: Tutorial

A hydrogen bond is the electromagnetic attractive interaction between polar molecules in which hydrogen is bound to a highly electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine. This tutorial will help the learner understand how hydrogen bonds form between the molecules.

Type: Tutorial

Water is both essential and unique. Many of its particular qualities stem from the fact that it consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen, therefore creating an unequal sharing of electrons. From fish in frozen lakes to ice floating on water, Christina Kleinberg describes the effects of polarity.

Type: Tutorial

Every day, we are bombarded by attention grabbing headlines that promise miracle cures to all of our ailments -- often backed up by a "scientific study." But what are these studies, and how do we know if they are reliable? David H. Schwartz dissects two types of studies that scientists use, illuminating why you should always approach the claims with a critical eye.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the learners to understand the molecular structure of the water molecule, its inter- and intra-molecular bonds, and the formation of hydroxide ions.

Type: Tutorial

This resource explores the electromagnetic spectrum and waves by allowing the learner to observe the refraction of light as it passes from one medium to another, study the relation between refraction of light and the refractive index of the medium, select from a list of materials with different refractive indicecs, and change the light beam from white to monochromatic and observe the difference.

Type: Tutorial

- Observe how the eye's muscles change the shape of the lens in accordance with the distance to the object being viewed
- Indicate the parts of the eye that are responsible for vision
- View how images are formed in the eye

Type: Tutorial

- Learn how a concave spherical mirror generates an image
- Observe how the size and position of the image changes with the object distance from the mirror
- Learn the difference between a real image and a virtual image
- Learn some applications of concave mirrors

Type: Tutorial

- Learn how a convex mirror forms the image of an object
- Understand why convex mirrors form small virtual images
- Observe the change in size and position of the image with the change in object's distance from the mirror
- Learn some practical applications of convex mirrors

Type: Tutorial

- Observe the change of color of a black body radiator upon changes in temperature
- Understand that at 0 Kelvin or Absolute Zero there is no molecular motion

Type: Tutorial

This resource explains how a solar cell converts light energy into electrical energy. The user will also learn about the different components of the solar cell and observe the relationship between photon intensity and the amount of electrical energy produced.

Type: Tutorial

- Observe that light is composed of oscillating electric and magnetic waves
- Explore the propagation of an electromagnetic wave through its electric and magnetic field vectors
- Observe the difference in propagation of light of different wavelengths

Type: Tutorial

- Explore the relationship between wavelength, frequency, amplitude and energy of an electromagnetic wave
- Compare the characteristics of waves of different wavelengths

Type: Tutorial

- Learn to trace the path of propagating light waves using geometrical optics
- Observe the effect of changing parameters such as focal length, object dimensions and position on image properties
- Learn the equations used in determining the size and locations of images formed by thin lenses

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

With an often unexpected outcome from a simple experiment, students can discover the factors that cause and influence thermohaline circulation in our oceans. In two 45-minute class periods, students complete activities where they observe the melting of ice cubes in saltwater and freshwater, using basic materials: clear plastic cups, ice cubes, water, salt, food coloring, and thermometers. There are no prerequisites for this lesson but it is helpful if students are familiar with the concepts of density and buoyancy as well as the salinity of seawater. It is also helpful if students understand that dissolving salt in water will lower the freezing point of water. There are additional follow up investigations that help students appreciate and understand the importance of the ocean's influence on Earth's climate.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Ocean explorer Robert Ballard gives a TED Talk relating to the mysteries of the ocean, and the importance of its continued exploration.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

- Observe the photosynthesis mechanism in the plant
- Learn about the main chemical reactions that takes place during photosynthesis
- Learn how solar energy is converted into chemical energy

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Students determine the number of protons, electrons, neutrons, and nucleons for different atoms

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

A collection of crossword puzzles that test the knowledge of students about some of the terms, processes, and classifications covered in science topics

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video contains a demo that can be performed to show that light consists of particles

It also uses Lasers with different wavelengths

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

- Differentiate between electron pair and molecular geometry
- Learn how to name electron pair and molecular geometries for molecules with up to six electron groups around the central atom
- Illustrate how electron pair repulsion affects bond angles

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

- Explain the concept of concentration
- Explain the effect of concentration changes on colors of solutions
- Demonstrate the effect of changing the amount of solute, or solvent, or both on the concentration of the solution
- Identify a saturated solution

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy video tutorial on graphing linear equations: "Algebra: Graphing Lines 1"

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy tutorial video that demonstrates with real-world data the use of Excel spreadsheet to fit a line to data and make predictions using that line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

In this National Science Foundation video and reading selection, researchers describe the relationship between diverging color patterns in Heliconius butterflies and the long-term divergence of populations into new and distinct species.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

In this National Science Foundation video and reading selection lab ecologist Janis Dickinson explains how she depends on citizen scientists to help her track the effects of disease, land-use change and environmental contaminants on the nesting success of birds.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This resource is an interactive video that compares and contrasts acids and bases while showing properties and interactions.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

In this simulation, learn about the black body spectrum of the sun, a light bulb, an oven and the earth. Adjust the temperature to see how the wavelength and intensity of the spectrum are affected.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Build an atom out of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and see how the element, charge, and mass change. Then play a game to test your ideas!

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This unique periodic table presents the elements in an interesting visual display. Select an element to find an image of the element, a description, history, and even an animation. Other chemical data is linked as a PDF file (requires Acrobat Reader).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation allows the student to create a box plot and a histogram for the same set of data and toggle between the two displays. Maximum, minimum, median and mean are shown for the data set. The student can change the cell width to explore how the histogram is affected.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Precipitation reactions occur when cations and anions of aqueous solutions combine to form an insoluble ionic solid, called a precipitate. This simulation explores systems for which precipitation reactions are possible.A precipitation reaction is controlled by the magnitude of the solubility product, solubility product constant and the concentrations of the ions in solution.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Chemical equilibrium is the condition which occurs when the concentration of reactants and products participating in a chemical reaction exhibit no net change over time. This simulation shows a model of an equilibrium system for a uni-molecular reaction. The value for the equilibrium constant, K, can be set in the simulation, to observe the reaction reaching the constant.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This manipulative will help students in understanding scatter plots which are particularly useful when investigating whether there is a relationship between two variables. Students could develop a systematic plan for collecting and entering data into the scatter plot manipulative and set appropriate ranges for the *x* and *y* scales.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The electron configuration of an atom is the representation of the arrangement of electrons that are distributed among the orbital shells and subshells. The simulated activity will help the learners practice the arrangement of the electrons. The learners will be required to follow rules in order to correctly divide the electrons in the orbitals based on the valency of the atom.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation will provide the learners with a chance to increase their understanding of a molecular shape. The learners will be required to follow a "Lewis dot structure" which involves two basic principles:

- The shapes of the molecule is determined by the repulsion between electron pairs in the outer shell of the central atom. Both bond pairs and lone pairs must be considered.
- Lone pairs repel more than bond pairs.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help you understand the process of titration, which is a neutralization reaction that is performed in order to determine an unknown concentration of acid and base. With this simulation, you will be able to calculate the moles of the acid with the understanding that the moles of acid will be equal to the moles of base at the equivalence point.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation activity will help you understand the concept of vapor pressure which is defined as the pressure of the vapor resulting from evaporation of a liquid (or solid) above a sample of the liquid (or solid) in a closed container. You will also recognize that the vapor pressure of a liquid varies with its temperature, which can be seen with the help of a graph in the simulation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

How did scientists figure out the structure of atoms without looking at them? Try out different models by shooting light at the atom. Check how the prediction of the model matches the experimental results.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students adjust slider bars which adjust the coefficients and constants of a linear function and examine how their changes affect the graph. The equation of the line can be in slope-intercept form or standard form. This activity allows students to explore linear equations, slopes, and y-intercepts and their visual representation on a graph. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This resource provides linear functions in standard form and asks the user to graph it using intercepts on an interactive graph below the problem. Immediate feedback is provided, and for incorrect responses, each step of the solution is thoroughly modeled.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The split brain experiments revealed that the right and the left hemisphere in the brain are good at different things. For instance, the right hemisphere is good at space perception tasks and music while the left is good at verbal and analytic tasks. This game guides students through some examples of the split-brain phenomenon and how the differences are understood.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This game is based on the 1929 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, awarded for pointing out a substance in rice skin, which was later discovered to be vitamin B1, is missing from the diet of patients with the disease beriberi. To get the most out of the game, make sure to read all about the discovery by clicking the back button on the top right of the screen.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This game explores the 1905 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded for investigations and discoveries concerning the disease tuberculosis or "TB." The game is a sort of old fashioned laboratory simulation and allows students to discover and experience some of the classic methods used to detect whether a specific bacterium causes a disease.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Laser challenge is an interesting game which is based on the invention of the laser. The player is on the mission of collecting points, CDs, and snacks. At the end of each level, the player will have to perform a laser task, such as recognizing appliances that contain lasers and repairing faulty eyesight.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students in understanding the concept of chemical equilibrium which is a state wherein both reactants and products are present at concentrations with no further tendency to change with time. Students will also observe that chemical equilibrium does not mean the chemical reaction has necessarily stopped occurring but that the consumption and formation of substances has reached a balanced condition.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This interactive animation presented here helps in understanding the concept of catalysis, which is defined as the process of accelerating the process of chemical reaction with the use of a catalyst. This visual conceptualization will provide the students with the opportunity to test their knowledge and understanding about the concepts.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students to understand how the light shines on a metal surface. Students will recognize a process called as photoelectric effect wherein light can be used to push electrons from the surface of a solid.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Visualize and describe the photoelectric effect experiment.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the intensity of light is changed and its effects on the current and energy of the electrons.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the wavelength of the light is changed and its effects on the current and the energy of the electrons.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the voltage of the light is changed and its effects on the current and energy of electrons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow you to produce light by bombarding atoms with electrons. You can also visualize how the characteristic spectra of different elements are produced, and configure your own element's energy states to produce light of different colors.

Other areas to investigate:

- Provide a basic design for a discharge lamp and explain the function of the different components.
- Explain the basic structure of an atom and relate it to the color of light produced by discharge lamps.
- Explain why discharge lamps emit only certain colors.
- Design a discharge lamp to emit any desired spectrum of colors.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow you to watch a reaction proceed over time. You can vary temperature, barrier height, and potential energies to note how total energy affects reaction rate. You will be able to record concentrations and time in order to extract rate coefficients.

Additionally you can:

- Describe on a microscopic level, with illustrations, how reactions occur.
- Describe how the motion of reactant molecules (speed and direction) contributes to a reaction happening.
- Predict how changes in temperature, or use of a catalyst will affect the rate of a reaction.
- On the potential energy curve, identify the activation energy for forward and reverse reactions and the energy change between reactants and products.
- Form a graph of concentrations as a function of time, students should be able to identify when a system has reached equilibrium.
- Calculate a rate coefficient from concentration and time data.
- Determine how a rate coefficient changes with temperature.
- Compare graphs of concentration versus time to determine which represents the fastest or slowest rate.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow you to explore what makes a reaction happen by colliding atoms and molecules. Design your own experiments with different reactions, concentrations, and temperatures. Recognize what affects the rate of a reaction.

Areas to Explore:

- Explain why and how a pinball shooter can be used to help understand ideas about reactions.
- Describe on a microscopic level what contributes to a successful reaction.
- Describe how the reaction coordinate can be used to predict whether a reaction will proceed or slow.
- Use the potential energy diagram to determine : The activation energy for the forward and reverse reactions; The difference in energy between reactants and products; The relative potential energies of the molecules at different positions on a reaction coordinate.
- Draw a potential energy diagram from the energies of reactants and products and activation energy.
- Predict how raising or lowering the temperature will affect a system in the equilibrium.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation will provide an insight into the properties of gases. You can explore the more advanced features which enables you to explore three physical situations: Hot Air Balloon (rigid open container with its own heat source), Rigid Sphere (rigid closed container), and Helium Balloon (elastic closed container).

Through this activity you can:

- Determine what causes the balloon, rigid sphere, and helium balloon to rise up or fall down in the box.
- Predict how changing a variable among Pressure, Volume, Temperature and number influences the motion of the balloons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this simulation, explore the interactions between various combinations of two atoms. Specific features of the simulation allows you to see either the total force acting on the atoms or the individual attractive and repulsive forces.

Options for learning:

- Explain how attractive and repulsive forces govern the interaction between atoms.
- Describe the effect of potential well depth on atomic interactions.
- Describe the process of bonding between atoms in terms of energy.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help you investigate how Rutherford figured out the structure of the atom without being able to see it. This simulation will allow the you to explore the famous experiment in which Rutherford disproved the Plum Pudding model of the atom by observing alpha particles bouncing off atoms and determining that they must have a small core.

Further explorations of the tutorial could include:

- Describe the qualitative difference between scattering off positively charged nuclei and electrically neutral plum pudding atoms.
- For a charged nucleus, describe qualitatively how angle of deflection depends on: energy of incoming particle, impact parameters, and charge of target.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity will allow you to practice balancing a chemical equation. You will have to make sure you are following the law of conservation of mass and recognize what can change to balance an equation.

You can:

- Balance a chemical equation.
- Recognize that the number of atoms of each element is conserved in a chemical reaction.
- Describe the difference between coefficients and subscripts in a chemical equation.
- Translate from symbolic to molecular representation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

How do strong and weak acids differ? Use lab tools on your computer to find out! Dip the paper or the probe into solution to measure the pH, or put in the electrodes to measure the conductivity. Then see how concentration and strength affect pH. Can a weak acid solution have the same pH as a strong acid solution.

Some of the topics to investigate:

- Given acids or bases at the same concentration, demonstrate understanding of acid and base strength by 1. Relating the strength of an acid or base to the extent to which it dissociates in water. 2. Identifying all the molecules and ions that are present in a given acid or base solution. 3. Comparing the relative concentrations of molecules and ions in weak versus strong acid (or base) solutions. 4. Describing the similarities and differences between strong acids and weak acids or strong bases and weak bases.
- Demonstrate understanding of solution concentrated by: 1. Describing the similarities and differences between concentrated and dilute solutions. 2. Comparing the concentrations of all molecules and ions in concentrated versus dilute solutions of a particular acid or base.
- Describe how common tools (pH meter, conductivity, pH paper) help identify whether a solution is an acid or base and strong or weak and concentrated or dilute.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity will help to investigate how a greenhouse gas affects the climate, or why the ozone layer is important. Using this simulation, explore how light interacts with molecules in our atmosphere.

Areas to explore:

- How light interacts with molecules in our atmosphere.
- Identify that absorption of light depends on the molecule and the type of light.
- Relate the energy of the light to the resulting motion.
- Identify that energy increases from microwave to ultraviolet.
- Predict the motion of a molecule based on the type of light it absorbs.
- Identify how the structure of a molecule affects how it interacts with light.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity will allow you to make colorful concentrated and dilute solutions and explore how much light they absorb and transmit using a virtual spectrophotometer.

You can explore concepts in many ways including:

- Describe the relationships between volume and amount of solute to solution concentration.
- Explain qualitatively the relationship between solution color and concentration.
- Predict and explain how solution concentration will change for adding or removing: water, solute, and/or solution.
- Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity (mol/L).
- Design a procedure for creating a solution of a given concentration.
- Identify when a solution is saturated and predict how concentration will change for adding or removing: water, solute, and/or solution.
- Describe the relationship between the solution concentration and the intensity of light that is absorbed/transmitted.
- Describe the relationship between absorbance, molar absorptivity, path length, and concentration in Beer's Law.
- Predict how the intensity of light absorbed/transmitted will change with changes in solution type, solution concentration, container width, or light source and explain why?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Understanding molecular polarity by changing the electron-negativity of atoms in a molecule to see how it affects polarity. See how the molecule behaves in an electric field. Change the bond angle to see how shape affects polarity. See how it works for real molecules in 3D.

Some learning goals:

•predict bond polarity using electron-negativity values

•indicate polarity with a polar arrow or partial charges

•rank bonds in order of polarity

•predict molecular polarity using bond polarity and molecular shape

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Play with one or two pendulums and discover how the period of a simple pendulum depends on the length of the string, the mass of the pendulum bob, and the amplitude of the swing. It's easy to measure the period using the photogate timer. Students can vary friction and the strength of gravity.

- Design experiments to describe how variables affect the motion of a pendulum
- Use a photogate timer to determine quantitatively how the period of a pendulum depends on the variables you described
- Determine the gravitational acceleration of planet X
- Explain the conservation of Mechanical energy concept using kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy
- Describe energy chart from position or selected speeds

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Students will pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as they change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

- Students can predict how changing a variable among pressure, volume, temperature and number influences other gas properties.
- Students can predict how changing temperature will affect the speed of molecules.
- Students can rank the speed of molecules in thermal equilibrium based on the relative masses of molecules.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Explore pressure under and above water. See how pressure changes as one change fluids, gravity, container shapes, and volume.

With this simulation you can:

- Investigate how pressure changes in air and water.
- Discover how to change pressure.
- Predict pressure in a variety of situations.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students use preset data or enter in their own data to be represented in a box plot. This activity allows students to explore single as well as side-by-side box plots of different data. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the Java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Using this virtual manipulative, students are able to graph a function and a set of ordered pairs on the same coordinate plane. The constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted using slider bars, so the student can explore the affect on the graph as the function parameters are changed. Students can also examine the deviation of the data from the function. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

With this online tool, students adjust the standard deviation and sample size of a normal distribution to see how it will affect a histogram of that distribution. This activity allows students to explore the effect of changing the sample size in an experiment and the effect of changing the standard deviation of a normal distribution. Tabs at the top of the page provide access to supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this online tool, students input a function to create a graph where the constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted by slider bars. This tool allows students to explore graphs of functions and how adjusting the numbers in the function affect the graph. Using tabs at the top of the page you can also access supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This is an online graphing utility that can be used to create box plots, bubble graphs, scatterplots, histograms, and stem-and-leaf plots.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Students can test the pH of several substances and visualize hydronium, hydroxide, and water molecules in solution by concentration or the number of molecules. Students can add water to a given substance to see the effects it will have on the pH of that substance; or they can create their own custom substance.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This is a virtual manipulative that students may use to construct various atoms up to carbon by creating protons and neutrons from up and down quarks and adding electrons. Students are challenged to keep the electrical charge of the atom neutral and to ensure the imbalance between protons and neutrons doesn't become great enough to result in radioactive decay!

Type: Virtual Manipulative

With a mouse, students will drag data points (with their error bars) and watch the best-fit polynomial curve form instantly. Students can choose the type of fit: linear, quadratic, cubic, or quartic. Best fit or adjustable fit can be displayed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This interactive simulation investigates graphing linear and quadratic equations. Users are given the ability to define and change the coefficients and constants in order to observe resulting changes in the graph(s).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Watch different types of molecules form a solid, liquid, or gas. Add or remove heat and watch the phase change. Change the temperature or volume of a container and see a pressure-temperature diagram respond in real time.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Learn about conservation of energy with a skater! Build tracks, ramps and jumps for the skater and view the kinetic energy, potential energy, thermal energy as he moves. You can adjust the amount of friction and mass. Measurement and graphing tools are built in.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative histogram tool can aid in analyzing the distribution of a dataset. It has 6 preset datasets and a function to add your own data for analysis.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative allows you to investigate various aspects of gases through virtual experimentation. From the site: Pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as you change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more (open the box, change the molecular weight of the molecule). Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This is an interactive applet in which students or teachers can visualize how changes in the parameters of the exponential function, *y* = *a*(*b*) *x* + *c*, affect the shape of the graph.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity allows the user to graph data sets in multiple bar graphs. The color, thickness, and scale of the graph are adjustable which may produce graphs that are misleading. Users may input their own data, or use or alter pre-made data sets. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students can create and view a histogram using existing data sets or original data entered. Students can adjust the interval size using a slider bar, and they can also adjust the other scales on the graph. This activity allows students to explore histograms as a way to represent data as well as the concepts of mean, standard deviation, and scale. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Parent Resources

## Formative Assessment

This activity allows students to practice balancing chemical equations. It has three difficulty levels, and the students can practice with 5, 10, or 15 questions.

Type: Formative Assessment

## Perspectives Video: Experts

Keep an eye on pH as you learn about what makes acids and bases.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Do you know everything about protons? Are you positive?

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Learn more about the atomic model and antimatter!

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Don't overreact when this chemist describes physical and chemical changes that you can observe in your own kitchen!

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Plants need visible light, just not all of it. Learn how space plants and their lights strive for efficiency.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Humans aren't the only ones who get their fingerprints taken. Learn how this scientist is like a crime scene investigator using oil "fingerprints" to explain the orgins of spilled oil.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Get fired up as you learn more about ceramic glaze recipes and mathematical units.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Learn how molecules have the potential to be polar, but not all are.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

If you want to understand the atom, you'll need a lot of energy. Learn how physicists use high energy light and electrons to study atomic structure.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

A welder wields a plasma torch to cut solid metal like a hot knife through butter. It's one-stop shopping to see all four states of matter.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

An archaeologist explains how he is using x-rays to reconstruct a nineteenth-century battle!

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Archaeologists can see underground trends before everyone else with ground penetrating radar (GPR).

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Hydrogen is used to launch spacecraft, but accidental fires are difficult to see. Learn about the physics of these fires and how we detect them.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

Listen to this chemist describe a simple pH indicator experiment using foods and household chemicals.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

This teacher has an idea about how to bring higher-level reading skills to science class.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

This simple inquiry helps students learn about the scientific method while trying to unlock the mystery of goldenrod paper.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

This colorful light and energy lesson idea will make you glow!

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

## Problem-Solving Tasks

The purpose of this task is to allow students to demonstrate an ability to construct boxplots and to use boxplots as the basis for comparing distributions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to make deductions about what kind of music students like by examining a table with data.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to answer probability questions about SAT scores, using distribution and mean to solve the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem could be used as an introductory lesson to introduce group comparisons and to engage students in a question they may find amusing and interesting.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to examine the relationship between shops and crimes by using a correlation coefficient.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to have students complete normal distribution calculations and to use properties of normal distributions to draw conclusions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to use the normal distribution as a model for a data distribution. Students must use given means and standard deviations to approximate population percentages.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task provides a context to calculate discrete probabilities and represent them on a bar graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students use trigonometric functions to model the movement of a point around a wheel and, through space. Students also interpret features of graphs in terms of the given real-world context.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem-solving task challenges students to find all quadratic functions described by given equation and coordinates, and describe how the graphs of those functions are related to one another.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is meant to be a straight-forward assessment task of graph reading and interpreting skills. This task helps reinforce the idea that when a variable represents time, t = 0 is chosen as an arbitrary point in time and positive times are interpreted as times that happen after that.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task could be used for assessment or for practice. It allows students to compare characteristics of two quadratic functions that are each represented differently, one as the graph of a quadratic function and one written out algebraically. Specifically, students are asked to determine which function has the greatest maximum and the greatest non-negative root.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to find the average, write an equation, find the domain, and create a graph of the cost of producing DVDs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The principal purpose of the task is to explore a real-world application problem with algebra, working with units and maintaining reasonable levels of accuracy throughout. Students are asked to determine which product will be the most economical to meet the requirements given in the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task students are given graphs of quantities related to weather. The purpose of the task is to show that graphs are more than a collection of coordinate points; they can tell a story about the variables that are involved, and together they can paint a very complete picture of a situation, in this case the weather. Features in one graph, like maximum and minimum points, correspond to features in another graph. For example, on a rainy day, the solar radiation is very low, and the cumulative rainfall graph is increasing with a large slope.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem introduces a logistic growth model in the concrete settings of estimating the population of the U.S. The model gives a surprisingly accurate estimate and this should be contrasted with linear and exponential models.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is for instructional purposes only and students should already be familiar with some specific examples of logistic growth functions. The goal of this task is to have students appreciate how different constants influence the shape of a graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task can be used as a quick assessment to see if students can make sense of a graph in the context of a real world situation. Students also have to pay attention to the scale on the vertical axis to find the correct match. The first and third graphs look very similar at first glance, but the function values are very different since the scales on the vertical axes are very different. The task could also be used to generate a group discussion on interpreting functions given by graphs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to illustrate through an absurd example the fact that in real life quantities are reported to a certain level of accuracy, and it does not make sense to treat them as having greater accuracy.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task operates at two levels. In part it is a simple exploration of the relationship between speed, distance, and time. Part (c) requires understanding of the idea of average speed, and gives an opportunity to address the common confusion between average speed and the average of the speeds for the two segments of the trip.

At a higher level, the task addresses MAFS.912.N-Q.1.3, since realistically neither the car nor the bus is going to travel at exactly the same speed from beginning to end of each segment; there is time traveling through traffic in cities, and even on the autobahn the speed is not constant. Thus students must make judgments about the level of accuracy with which to report the result.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The problem requires students to not only convert miles to kilometers and gallons to liters but they also have to deal with the added complication of finding the reciprocal at some point.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to calculate the cost of materials to make a penny, utilizing rates of grams of copper.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students are asked to use units to determine if the given statement is valid.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a challenging task, suitable for extended work, and reaching into a deep understanding of units. Students are given a scenario and asked to determine the number of people required to complete the amount of work in the time described. The task requires students to exhibit MAFS.K12.MP.1.1, Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. An algebraic solution is possible but complicated; a numerical solution is both simpler and more sophisticated, requiring skilled use of units and quantitative reasoning. Thus the task aligns with either MAFS.912.A-CED.1.1 or MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1, depending on the approach.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students explore and manipulate expressions based on the following statement:

A function f defined for -a < x < a is even if f(-x)=f(x) and is odd if f(-x)=-f(x) when -a < x < a. In this task we assume f is defined on such an interval, which might be the full real line (i.e., a=8).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students compare graphs of different quadratic functions, then produce equations of their own to satisfy given conditions.

This exploration can be done in class near the beginning of a unit on graphing parabolas. Students need to be familiar with intercepts, and need to know what the vertex is. It is effective after students have graphed parabolas in vertex form (y=a(x–h)^{2}+k), but have not yet explored graphing other forms.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This resource poses the question, "how many vehicles might be involved in a traffic jam 12 miles long?"

This task, while involving relatively simple arithmetic, promps students to practice modeling (MP4), work with units and conversion (N-Q.1), and develop a new unit (N-Q.2). Students will also consider the appropriate level of accuracy to use in their conclusions (N-Q.3).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task is a modeling problem which ties in to financial decisions faced routinely by businesses, namely the balance between maintaining inventory and raising short-term capital for investment or re-investment in developing the business.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task provides students the opportunity to make use of units to find the gas needed (MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1). It also requires them to make some sensible approximations (e.g., 2.92 gallons is not a good answer to part (a)) and to recognize that Felicia's situation requires her to round up. Various answers to (a) are possible, depending on how much students think is a safe amount for Felicia to have left in the tank when she arrives at the gas station. The key point is for them to explain their choices. This task provides an opportunity for students to practice MAFS.K12.MP.2.1: Reason abstractly and quantitatively, and MAFS.K12.MP.3.1: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to recognize the graphs of different (positive) powers of x.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The primary purpose of this task is to lead students to a numerical and graphical understanding of the behavior of a rational function near a vertical asymptote, in terms of the expression defining the function.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to give students practice constructing functions that represent a quantity of interest in a context, and then interpreting features of the function in the light of the context. It can be used as either an assessment or a teaching task.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem involves the meaning of numbers found on labels. When the level of accuracy is not given we need to make assumptions based on how the information is reported. An unexpected surprise awaits in this case, however, as no reasonable interpretation of the level of accuracy makes sense of the information reported on the bottles in parts (b) and (c). Either a miscalculation has been made or the numbers have been rounded in a very odd way.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

## Tutorials

This tutorial will help the learners to understand the molecular structure of the water molecule, its inter- and intra-molecular bonds, and the formation of hydroxide ions.

Type: Tutorial

Site takes the student through a tutorial, then a virtual experiment designed to test the affect of various environmental variables on the rate of chirping in crickets. The steps in the tutorial and the experiment are - Define the Problem, Collect Information, Formulate a Hypothesis, Test the Hypothesis, and Draw a Conclusion.

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

- Differentiate between electron pair and molecular geometry
- Learn how to name electron pair and molecular geometries for molecules with up to six electron groups around the central atom
- Illustrate how electron pair repulsion affects bond angles

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

- Explain the concept of concentration
- Explain the effect of concentration changes on colors of solutions
- Demonstrate the effect of changing the amount of solute, or solvent, or both on the concentration of the solution
- Identify a saturated solution

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy video tutorial on graphing linear equations: "Algebra: Graphing Lines 1"

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy tutorial video that demonstrates with real-world data the use of Excel spreadsheet to fit a line to data and make predictions using that line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

In this simulation, learn about the black body spectrum of the sun, a light bulb, an oven and the earth. Adjust the temperature to see how the wavelength and intensity of the spectrum are affected.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation allows the student to create a box plot and a histogram for the same set of data and toggle between the two displays. Maximum, minimum, median and mean are shown for the data set. The student can change the cell width to explore how the histogram is affected.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Precipitation reactions occur when cations and anions of aqueous solutions combine to form an insoluble ionic solid, called a precipitate. This simulation explores systems for which precipitation reactions are possible.A precipitation reaction is controlled by the magnitude of the solubility product, solubility product constant and the concentrations of the ions in solution.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Chemical equilibrium is the condition which occurs when the concentration of reactants and products participating in a chemical reaction exhibit no net change over time. This simulation shows a model of an equilibrium system for a uni-molecular reaction. The value for the equilibrium constant, K, can be set in the simulation, to observe the reaction reaching the constant.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This manipulative will help students in understanding scatter plots which are particularly useful when investigating whether there is a relationship between two variables. Students could develop a systematic plan for collecting and entering data into the scatter plot manipulative and set appropriate ranges for the *x* and *y* scales.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The electron configuration of an atom is the representation of the arrangement of electrons that are distributed among the orbital shells and subshells. The simulated activity will help the learners practice the arrangement of the electrons. The learners will be required to follow rules in order to correctly divide the electrons in the orbitals based on the valency of the atom.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation will provide the learners with a chance to increase their understanding of a molecular shape. The learners will be required to follow a "Lewis dot structure" which involves two basic principles:

- The shapes of the molecule is determined by the repulsion between electron pairs in the outer shell of the central atom. Both bond pairs and lone pairs must be considered.
- Lone pairs repel more than bond pairs.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help you understand the process of titration, which is a neutralization reaction that is performed in order to determine an unknown concentration of acid and base. With this simulation, you will be able to calculate the moles of the acid with the understanding that the moles of acid will be equal to the moles of base at the equivalence point.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation activity will help you understand the concept of vapor pressure which is defined as the pressure of the vapor resulting from evaporation of a liquid (or solid) above a sample of the liquid (or solid) in a closed container. You will also recognize that the vapor pressure of a liquid varies with its temperature, which can be seen with the help of a graph in the simulation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the learners to recognize the limiting reactant effect in a reaction. Limiting reactants can be explained from the extent to which reactions that involve more than one reactant can produce products depends on the quantities of those reactants combined. In most cases, one reactant will be totally consumed while the other reactants remain in excess.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The relationship of numbers of particles on the atomic scale to measurements made on the bulk scale uses the concept of the mole. Using this simulation, the learner will be able to explore the relationship between mass, moles, molecules and atoms.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity will help the students learn about the polymerization. The process of polymerization can be classified into two categories: Chain growth polymerization and step growth polymerization. In this activity students will understand the process of step growth polymerization in which bi-functional or multi-functional monomers react to form polymers.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The split brain experiments revealed that the right and the left hemisphere in the brain are good at different things. For instance, the right hemisphere is good at space perception tasks and music while the left is good at verbal and analytic tasks. This game guides students through some examples of the split-brain phenomenon and how the differences are understood.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This game is based on the 1929 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, awarded for pointing out a substance in rice skin, which was later discovered to be vitamin B1, is missing from the diet of patients with the disease beriberi. To get the most out of the game, make sure to read all about the discovery by clicking the back button on the top right of the screen.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This game explores the 1905 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded for investigations and discoveries concerning the disease tuberculosis or "TB." The game is a sort of old fashioned laboratory simulation and allows students to discover and experience some of the classic methods used to detect whether a specific bacterium causes a disease.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Laser challenge is an interesting game which is based on the invention of the laser. The player is on the mission of collecting points, CDs, and snacks. At the end of each level, the player will have to perform a laser task, such as recognizing appliances that contain lasers and repairing faulty eyesight.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students in understanding the concept of chemical equilibrium which is a state wherein both reactants and products are present at concentrations with no further tendency to change with time. Students will also observe that chemical equilibrium does not mean the chemical reaction has necessarily stopped occurring but that the consumption and formation of substances has reached a balanced condition.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This interactive animation presented here helps in understanding the concept of catalysis, which is defined as the process of accelerating the process of chemical reaction with the use of a catalyst. This visual conceptualization will provide the students with the opportunity to test their knowledge and understanding about the concepts.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students to understand how the light shines on a metal surface. Students will recognize a process called as photoelectric effect wherein light can be used to push electrons from the surface of a solid.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Visualize and describe the photoelectric effect experiment.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the intensity of light is changed and its effects on the current and energy of the electrons.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the wavelength of the light is changed and its effects on the current and the energy of the electrons.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the voltage of the light is changed and its effects on the current and energy of electrons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students understand what determines the concentration of a solution. They will learn about the relationships between moles, liters and molarity by adjusting the amount of solute, and solution volume. Students can change solutes to compare different chemical compounds in water.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Describe the relationships between volume and amount of solute to concentration
- Explain how solution color and concentration are related.
- Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity (mol/L)
- Compare solubility limits between solutes.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow you to produce light by bombarding atoms with electrons. You can also visualize how the characteristic spectra of different elements are produced, and configure your own element's energy states to produce light of different colors.

Other areas to investigate:

- Provide a basic design for a discharge lamp and explain the function of the different components.
- Explain the basic structure of an atom and relate it to the color of light produced by discharge lamps.
- Explain why discharge lamps emit only certain colors.
- Design a discharge lamp to emit any desired spectrum of colors.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow you to watch a reaction proceed over time. You can vary temperature, barrier height, and potential energies to note how total energy affects reaction rate. You will be able to record concentrations and time in order to extract rate coefficients.

Additionally you can:

- Describe on a microscopic level, with illustrations, how reactions occur.
- Describe how the motion of reactant molecules (speed and direction) contributes to a reaction happening.
- Predict how changes in temperature, or use of a catalyst will affect the rate of a reaction.
- On the potential energy curve, identify the activation energy for forward and reverse reactions and the energy change between reactants and products.
- Form a graph of concentrations as a function of time, students should be able to identify when a system has reached equilibrium.
- Calculate a rate coefficient from concentration and time data.
- Determine how a rate coefficient changes with temperature.
- Compare graphs of concentration versus time to determine which represents the fastest or slowest rate.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow you to explore what makes a reaction happen by colliding atoms and molecules. Design your own experiments with different reactions, concentrations, and temperatures. Recognize what affects the rate of a reaction.

Areas to Explore:

- Explain why and how a pinball shooter can be used to help understand ideas about reactions.
- Describe on a microscopic level what contributes to a successful reaction.
- Describe how the reaction coordinate can be used to predict whether a reaction will proceed or slow.
- Use the potential energy diagram to determine : The activation energy for the forward and reverse reactions; The difference in energy between reactants and products; The relative potential energies of the molecules at different positions on a reaction coordinate.
- Draw a potential energy diagram from the energies of reactants and products and activation energy.
- Predict how raising or lowering the temperature will affect a system in the equilibrium.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation will provide an insight into the properties of gases. You can explore the more advanced features which enables you to explore three physical situations: Hot Air Balloon (rigid open container with its own heat source), Rigid Sphere (rigid closed container), and Helium Balloon (elastic closed container).

Through this activity you can:

- Determine what causes the balloon, rigid sphere, and helium balloon to rise up or fall down in the box.
- Predict how changing a variable among Pressure, Volume, Temperature and number influences the motion of the balloons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this simulation, explore the interactions between various combinations of two atoms. Specific features of the simulation allows you to see either the total force acting on the atoms or the individual attractive and repulsive forces.

Options for learning:

- Explain how attractive and repulsive forces govern the interaction between atoms.
- Describe the effect of potential well depth on atomic interactions.
- Describe the process of bonding between atoms in terms of energy.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help you investigate how Rutherford figured out the structure of the atom without being able to see it. This simulation will allow the you to explore the famous experiment in which Rutherford disproved the Plum Pudding model of the atom by observing alpha particles bouncing off atoms and determining that they must have a small core.

Further explorations of the tutorial could include:

- Describe the qualitative difference between scattering off positively charged nuclei and electrically neutral plum pudding atoms.
- For a charged nucleus, describe qualitatively how angle of deflection depends on: energy of incoming particle, impact parameters, and charge of target.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity will allow you to practice balancing a chemical equation. You will have to make sure you are following the law of conservation of mass and recognize what can change to balance an equation.

You can:

- Balance a chemical equation.
- Recognize that the number of atoms of each element is conserved in a chemical reaction.
- Describe the difference between coefficients and subscripts in a chemical equation.
- Translate from symbolic to molecular representation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

How do strong and weak acids differ? Use lab tools on your computer to find out! Dip the paper or the probe into solution to measure the pH, or put in the electrodes to measure the conductivity. Then see how concentration and strength affect pH. Can a weak acid solution have the same pH as a strong acid solution.

Some of the topics to investigate:

- Given acids or bases at the same concentration, demonstrate understanding of acid and base strength by 1. Relating the strength of an acid or base to the extent to which it dissociates in water. 2. Identifying all the molecules and ions that are present in a given acid or base solution. 3. Comparing the relative concentrations of molecules and ions in weak versus strong acid (or base) solutions. 4. Describing the similarities and differences between strong acids and weak acids or strong bases and weak bases.
- Demonstrate understanding of solution concentrated by: 1. Describing the similarities and differences between concentrated and dilute solutions. 2. Comparing the concentrations of all molecules and ions in concentrated versus dilute solutions of a particular acid or base.
- Describe how common tools (pH meter, conductivity, pH paper) help identify whether a solution is an acid or base and strong or weak and concentrated or dilute.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity will help to investigate how a greenhouse gas affects the climate, or why the ozone layer is important. Using this simulation, explore how light interacts with molecules in our atmosphere.

Areas to explore:

- How light interacts with molecules in our atmosphere.
- Identify that absorption of light depends on the molecule and the type of light.
- Relate the energy of the light to the resulting motion.
- Identify that energy increases from microwave to ultraviolet.
- Predict the motion of a molecule based on the type of light it absorbs.
- Identify how the structure of a molecule affects how it interacts with light.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity will allow you to make colorful concentrated and dilute solutions and explore how much light they absorb and transmit using a virtual spectrophotometer.

You can explore concepts in many ways including:

- Describe the relationships between volume and amount of solute to solution concentration.
- Explain qualitatively the relationship between solution color and concentration.
- Predict and explain how solution concentration will change for adding or removing: water, solute, and/or solution.
- Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity (mol/L).
- Design a procedure for creating a solution of a given concentration.
- Identify when a solution is saturated and predict how concentration will change for adding or removing: water, solute, and/or solution.
- Describe the relationship between the solution concentration and the intensity of light that is absorbed/transmitted.
- Describe the relationship between absorbance, molar absorptivity, path length, and concentration in Beer's Law.
- Predict how the intensity of light absorbed/transmitted will change with changes in solution type, solution concentration, container width, or light source and explain why?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Understanding molecular polarity by changing the electron-negativity of atoms in a molecule to see how it affects polarity. See how the molecule behaves in an electric field. Change the bond angle to see how shape affects polarity. See how it works for real molecules in 3D.

Some learning goals:

•predict bond polarity using electron-negativity values

•indicate polarity with a polar arrow or partial charges

•rank bonds in order of polarity

•predict molecular polarity using bond polarity and molecular shape

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Play with one or two pendulums and discover how the period of a simple pendulum depends on the length of the string, the mass of the pendulum bob, and the amplitude of the swing. It's easy to measure the period using the photogate timer. Students can vary friction and the strength of gravity.

- Design experiments to describe how variables affect the motion of a pendulum
- Use a photogate timer to determine quantitatively how the period of a pendulum depends on the variables you described
- Determine the gravitational acceleration of planet X
- Explain the conservation of Mechanical energy concept using kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy
- Describe energy chart from position or selected speeds

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Students will pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as they change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

- Students can predict how changing a variable among pressure, volume, temperature and number influences other gas properties.
- Students can predict how changing temperature will affect the speed of molecules.
- Students can rank the speed of molecules in thermal equilibrium based on the relative masses of molecules.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Explore pressure under and above water. See how pressure changes as one change fluids, gravity, container shapes, and volume.

With this simulation you can:

- Investigate how pressure changes in air and water.
- Discover how to change pressure.
- Predict pressure in a variety of situations.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative allows you to investigate various aspects of gases through virtual experimentation. From the site: Pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as you change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more (open the box, change the molecular weight of the molecule). Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Section:Exceptional Student Education >Grade Group:Senior High and Adult >Subject:Academics - Subject Areas >