LAFS.910.W.2.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 910
Strand: Writing Standards
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1700310: Research 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1700370: Critical Thinking and Study Skills (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1700380: Career Research and Decision Making (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1000400: Intensive Language Arts (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (course terminated))
1000420: Intensive Writing (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (course terminated))
1001320: English Honors 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001350: English Honors 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate English 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate English 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002300: English 1 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002310: English 2 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1005350: Literature and the Arts 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1006300: Journalism 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
1006310: Journalism 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
1006331: Journalism 5 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1007300: Speech 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1007330: Debate 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
1007340: Debate 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1009300: Writing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1009320: Creative Writing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
1009330: Creative Writing 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
1700360: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Inquiry Skills (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001310: English 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001340: English 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7910111: Access English 1/2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
1001315: English 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001345: English 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002305: English 1 Through ESOL for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
1002315: English 2 Through ESOL for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
1006375: Social Media 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
7910115: Fundamental English 1 (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
1007305: Speech 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
2400330: Approaches to Leadership Honors (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1700600: GEAR Up 1 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1700610: GEAR Up 2 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1006305: Fundamentals of Journalism (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.910.W.2.AP.5b: With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop a plan for writing (e.g., choose a topic, introduce story elements, develop storyline, conclude story).
LAFS.910.W.2.AP.5c: Develop a plan for writing (e.g., choose a topic, introduce argument topic, develop a claim, develop a counter claim, conclude argument) focused on a specific purpose and audience.
LAFS.910.W.2.AP.5d: Strengthen writing by revising and editing.
LAFS.910.W.2.AP.5e: Strengthen writing by revising and editing (e.g., review product, strengthening story).

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Comparing Irony: The Gift of the Magi--Lesson 3 of 3:

This lesson is the third in a series of three based on O. Henry's short story "The Gift of the Magi." The previous lessons provide instruction in using context clues to determine word meanings and in analyzing the significance of literary devices in a short story. In this final lesson, students will apply their knowledge of context clues from lesson one while also working to analyze irony across two texts, "The Gift of the Magi" and "The Shivering Beggar," a poem by Robert Graves.

Type: Lesson Plan

An Argumentative Essay in Support of the Abridged Hero's Journey:

The hero's journey is an archetypal plot structure found in novels and epic poems, yet it can also be found in popular poetry and music. After students have read the novella Anthem, the poem "Invictus," and the song "Run Boy Run," they will craft an argument proving that the appearance of the hero's journey in shorter texts is just as developed and apparent as its appearance in longer texts by synthesizing and citing directly from three different sources. They will find and organize evidence, draft their arguments, and perform a peer review as they complete the writing process. This lesson is lesson two in a two-part series.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Biography Study: Using Role-Play to Explore the Lives of Authors:

Dramatizing life stories provides students with an engaging way to become more critical readers and researchers. In this lesson, students select American authors to research, create timelines, and write bio-poems. Then, they collaborate with other students in small groups to design and perform a 'panel of authors' presentation in which they role-play as their authors. The final project requires each student to synthesize information about his or her author in an essay. There are tons of additional links and resources included in this lesson plan!

Type: Lesson Plan

Exploring Irony with the Conclusion of All Quiet on the Western Front:

The focus of this lesson is to have students rewrite the ending of All Quiet on the Western Front. The newly created ending must include some form of irony in order to stay with the ironic elements of the book. Students will then peer edit each other's ending, and then revise their final draft. Finally, students will create a new cover for the book in which they will reveal their new title to the text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Annotation and Close Reading Passage Analysis: excerpt from Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury Part 3 of 3:

The goal of this lesson (lesson 3 in 3-part unit) is for students to be able to analyze and interpret the ways in which an author's style (use of literary devices) develops the author's purpose, tone, and theme found in complex and challenging texts. Close-reading skills culminate in a literary analysis essay in which students analyze how an author creates meaning through deliberate choices of language devices.

Type: Lesson Plan

Exploring Immigration and America (Part 3) through the Art of Norman Rockwell:

This lesson is the 3rd lesson of a unit on Immigration and America. In this lesson, students will analyze the famous Four Freedoms paintings by Norman Rockwell and make thematic connections to the previous works studied. The culminating activity is students' production of short essays in which they compare the works (both print and non-print) in terms of theme. They will need to write a strong thesis statement and support their ideas with textual evidence. Extensions to this unit would be for students to create multi-media presentations or artistic expressions of the topic of immigration today (compared to past eras) or how immigration has personally affected them and/or their family. This lesson also contains alternate activities and prompts so that it can stand alone if teachers choose not to use it in conjunction with the first two lessons in the series.

Type: Lesson Plan

Ethos, Pathos, and Logos (Part 3): Writing Persuasively:

In this lesson, students will identify and analyze rhetorical appeals in a speech and write a persuasive essay using multiple rhetorical appeals.

Type: Lesson Plan

I Declare War: Part III:

In this lesson (the third in a three-lesson unit), students will analyze an excerpt from Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried. Working collaboratively and independently, students will explore the diction, images, details, language and syntax of the text. The summative assessment requires students to write an essay analyzing how the author uses language and literary techniques to convey the experience of the soldiers in the Vietnam War. Supporting handouts and materials are provided.

Type: Lesson Plan

Slaves Come to America:

This lesson introduces students to the history of how Africans were transported from their native countries (including the conditions they had to endure) to the United States and then forced to work as slaves on southern plantations. It examines the daily life of a slave in North Carolina and includes other informational texts about slavery and the slave trade, as well as a PowerPoint presentation, and links to two short videos. The summative assessment requires students to write an explanatory essay showcasing what they have learned and using evidence from the print texts and videos for support.

Type: Lesson Plan

It Works: Peer Review for the Collaborative Classroom:

In this four day lesson, students collaborate and connect to writing by learning how to constructively review the work of their peers. Using a structured reciprocal teaching method, students will read, revise, outline logic, and evaluate the work of their peers while working collaboratively in teams.

Type: Lesson Plan

Elaborate Your Writing: Prepositions and Adjectives:

This lesson is designed to help students learn and practice how to add details to their writing by specifically incorporating prepositional and adjectival phrases to a descriptive piece of text. Students will also be practicing paragraph writing, and will be analyzing and critiquing other student's work.

Type: Lesson Plan

Annotation and Close Reading Passage Analysis: excerpt from Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury Part 2 of 3:

The goal of this lesson is that students will be able to analyze and interpret the ways in which an author's style (use of literary devices) develops the author's purpose, tone, and theme found in complex and challenging texts. Close-reading skills culminate in paragraph writing (Lesson 2) and then a style analysis essay (Lesson 3) in which students analyze how an author creates meaning through deliberate choices of devices of language.

Type: Lesson Plan

Poetry Reading and Interpretation Through Extensive Modeling:

Through the use of extensive modeling with John Berryman's "Sole Watchman," students will understand the steps involved in the analysis and interpretation in poetry. The teacher will model how to summarize and analyze the poem, construct a thesis, and develop an essay. Students will review and discuss a sample essay complete with comments that highlight strong writing decisions. After reading and interpreting Berryman's "The Ball Poem," students will construct a 3-4 page essay on this poem.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

It's Not Magic: Distinguishing Between Passive and Active Voice:

Learn to distinguish between passive and active voice and how to revise sentences by changing them from passive to active voice in this magic-themed tutorial. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Balancing Sentences: Using Parallel Form:

Learn about parallel form in this interactive English Language Arts tutorial. In this tutorial, you'll use parallel form with lists in sentences, identify sentences that contain parallel form and sentences that contain faulty parallelism, and practice editing sentences that contain faulty parallelism. You'll also examine how parallel form can add smoothness, clarity, and gracefulness to your writing. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Planning Argument Writing: E-Waste (Part 1 of 4):

Learn how to create an outline to help you prepare to write an essay. You will read an informational text about technotrash, also called electronic waste or e-waste. Then, you will work on creating an outline that could help you write an argumentative essay about this topic. The outline will include a claim/thesis statement, main ideas, reasons, evidence, counterclaims, and rebuttals.  

This interactive tutorial is part 1 in a 4-part series about writing an argumentative essay. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

Part 1 - Planning Argument Writing: E-Waste

Part 2 - Introductions in Argument Writing: E-Waste 

Part 3 - Body Paragraphs in Argument Writing: E-Waste

Part 4 - Conclusions in Argument Writing: E-Waste

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Ideas

Creative Outlining--from Freewriting to Formalizing:

Students read a high-interest short story. A PowerPoint mini-lesson explains the difference between freewriting and summary writing helping students distinguish between the two. An additional PowerPoint mini-lesson on writing thesis statements for literary analysis is provided. Students progress from freewriting to generating thesis statements to writing an outline for a literary analysis essay.

Type: Teaching Idea

Finding Common Ground: Using Logical, Audience-Specific Arguments:

From the resource:
"When students write argumentative or persuasive essays, they often ignore the viewpoints of their opponents, the potential readers of their essays. In this mini-lesson, students respond to a hypothetical situation by writing about their position on the subject. After sharing their thoughts with the class, students consider the opposite point of view and write about arguments for that position. They then compare their position with that of their potential audience, looking for areas of overlap. They then revise their arguments, with the audience's point of view and areas of commonality in mind. Examining the opposing view allows students to better decide how to counter their opponent logically, perhaps finding common ground from which their arguments might grow. Thus, the activity becomes a lesson not only in choosing arguments but also in anticipating audience reaction and adapting to it."

Type: Teaching Idea

Is a Sentence a Poem?:

Students are given a picture and asked individually to describe the picture in one sentence of less than twenty words. Afterward, the class analyzes syntax, imagery, and meaning in a chosen one-sentence poem by a canonical author to decide what makes it a poem. Students return to their own descriptive sentence to decide whether it is, is not, or could be a poem, justifying their reasoning. This exercise encourages students to dissect an established poem while defining the characteristics of the genre of poetry. Students then apply their knowledge during reflection upon their own work.

Type: Teaching Idea

Debate: Is it Possible to Elevate Education through Writing Instruction?:

Students use several USA Today editorials to help them understand the national concern about whether students' writing skills are being sacrificed to meet the criteria for standardized tests. After reading the articles, students then evaluate the major points of the articles, brainstorm ideas for a position paper, and then write their opinion on the topic.

Type: Teaching Idea

Tutorials

Effective Writing: Organization :

This activity from the Online Tutorial for Effective Writing from Northern Illinois University provides you with a pre-test to identify any weaknesses in understanding how to organize and revise your writing. After reviewing the mini-lesson on the missed items, you will be presented with additional interactive quizzes for each error type. The arrows at the bottom of each mini-lesson will lead you to these quizzes for extra practice and support.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 5: Correcting Comma Splices and Fused Sentences:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice correcting two common types of run-on sentences: comma splices and fused sentences. For each practice item, you must identify the best way to correct either a comma splice or a fused sentence. Explanations of each correct answer are also provided. There’s also an explanation of the rules of proper sentence structure for you to study, simply click the hyperlinked word "rules."

Type: Tutorial

Guide to Grammar and Writing: Principles of Composition:

This is a comprehensive guide that can help students with writing. This resource includes materials that will help students write in different formats, including personal essays, cause/effect papers, essays about literature, and research papers. There are materials that will help students with different aspects of the writing process, including how to develop an introduction or conclusion, how to write a thesis statement, and how to effectively use transitions.

Type: Tutorial

Unit/Lesson Sequences

Sample English 2 Curriculum Plan Using CMAP:

This sample English II CMAP is a fully customizable resource and curriculum-planning tool that provides a framework for the English II course. This CMAP is divided into 14 English Language Arts units and includes every standard from Florida's official course description for English II. The units and standards are customizable, and the CMAP allows instructors to add lessons, class notes, homework sheets, and other resources as needed. This CMAP also includes a row that automatically filters and displays e-learning Original Student Tutorials that are aligned to the standards and available on CPALMS.

Learn more about the sample English II CMAP, its features, and its customizability by watching this video:

Using this CMAP

To view an introduction on the CMAP tool, please .

To view the CMAP, click on the "Open Resource Page" button above; be sure you are logged in to your iCPALMS account.

To use this CMAP, click on the "Clone" button once the CMAP opens in the "Open Resource Page." Once the CMAP is cloned, you will be able to see it as a class inside your iCPALMS My Planner (CMAPs) app.

To access your My Planner App and the cloned CMAP, click on the iCPALMS tab in the top menu.

All CMAP tutorials can be found within the iCPALMS Planner App or at the following URL: http://www.cpalms.org/support/tutorials_and_informational_videos.aspx

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Challenging the Human Spirit:

Students select a theme-related essay topic from Night, by Elie Wiesel, or The Metamorphosis, by Franz Kafka, and develop an essay that relates the theme to modern day personal experiences. The essay follows a preset rubric.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

A Biography Study: Using Role Play to Explore Authors' Lives:

Dramatizing life stories provides students with an engaging way to become more critical readers and researchers. In this lesson, students select American authors to research, create timelines and biopoems, and then collaborate in teams to design and perform a panel presentation in which they role-play as their authors. The final project requires each student to synthesize information about his or her author in an essay.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Video/Audio/Animations

Slowing Down Time (in Writing and in Film):

In this animated video from TEDed, students will learn how to use effective storytelling techniques to slow down time in a narrative. First, students will draw a parallel between film and writing in order to identify the principles of effective storytelling. Then, students will examine how to improve their own writing using these storytelling techniques to slow down time and emphasize important moments in their narrative.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

The Power of a Great Introduction:

In this animated video from TEDed, students will learn the process of writing an engaging and insightful introduction. They will also examine how to compose an introduction that is tailored to a specific thesis. Looking at Charles Dickens' Great Expectations, they will identify the fundamentals of writing a great introduction by examining this masterpiece.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Balancing Sentences: Using Parallel Form:

Learn about parallel form in this interactive English Language Arts tutorial. In this tutorial, you'll use parallel form with lists in sentences, identify sentences that contain parallel form and sentences that contain faulty parallelism, and practice editing sentences that contain faulty parallelism. You'll also examine how parallel form can add smoothness, clarity, and gracefulness to your writing. 

It's Not Magic: Distinguishing Between Passive and Active Voice:

Learn to distinguish between passive and active voice and how to revise sentences by changing them from passive to active voice in this magic-themed tutorial. 

Planning Argument Writing: E-Waste (Part 1 of 4):

Learn how to create an outline to help you prepare to write an essay. You will read an informational text about technotrash, also called electronic waste or e-waste. Then, you will work on creating an outline that could help you write an argumentative essay about this topic. The outline will include a claim/thesis statement, main ideas, reasons, evidence, counterclaims, and rebuttals.  

This interactive tutorial is part 1 in a 4-part series about writing an argumentative essay. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

Part 1 - Planning Argument Writing: E-Waste

Part 2 - Introductions in Argument Writing: E-Waste 

Part 3 - Body Paragraphs in Argument Writing: E-Waste

Part 4 - Conclusions in Argument Writing: E-Waste

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

It's Not Magic: Distinguishing Between Passive and Active Voice:

Learn to distinguish between passive and active voice and how to revise sentences by changing them from passive to active voice in this magic-themed tutorial. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Balancing Sentences: Using Parallel Form:

Learn about parallel form in this interactive English Language Arts tutorial. In this tutorial, you'll use parallel form with lists in sentences, identify sentences that contain parallel form and sentences that contain faulty parallelism, and practice editing sentences that contain faulty parallelism. You'll also examine how parallel form can add smoothness, clarity, and gracefulness to your writing. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Planning Argument Writing: E-Waste (Part 1 of 4):

Learn how to create an outline to help you prepare to write an essay. You will read an informational text about technotrash, also called electronic waste or e-waste. Then, you will work on creating an outline that could help you write an argumentative essay about this topic. The outline will include a claim/thesis statement, main ideas, reasons, evidence, counterclaims, and rebuttals.  

This interactive tutorial is part 1 in a 4-part series about writing an argumentative essay. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series.

Part 1 - Planning Argument Writing: E-Waste

Part 2 - Introductions in Argument Writing: E-Waste 

Part 3 - Body Paragraphs in Argument Writing: E-Waste

Part 4 - Conclusions in Argument Writing: E-Waste

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorials

Effective Writing: Organization :

This activity from the Online Tutorial for Effective Writing from Northern Illinois University provides you with a pre-test to identify any weaknesses in understanding how to organize and revise your writing. After reviewing the mini-lesson on the missed items, you will be presented with additional interactive quizzes for each error type. The arrows at the bottom of each mini-lesson will lead you to these quizzes for extra practice and support.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 5: Correcting Comma Splices and Fused Sentences:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice correcting two common types of run-on sentences: comma splices and fused sentences. For each practice item, you must identify the best way to correct either a comma splice or a fused sentence. Explanations of each correct answer are also provided. There’s also an explanation of the rules of proper sentence structure for you to study, simply click the hyperlinked word "rules."

Type: Tutorial

Guide to Grammar and Writing: Principles of Composition:

This is a comprehensive guide that can help students with writing. This resource includes materials that will help students write in different formats, including personal essays, cause/effect papers, essays about literature, and research papers. There are materials that will help students with different aspects of the writing process, including how to develop an introduction or conclusion, how to write a thesis statement, and how to effectively use transitions.

Type: Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.