LAFS.910.RI.3.8Archived Standard

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 910
Strand: Reading Standards for Informational Text
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved - Archived
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: TM , EBSR , MS , MC , OR , SHT , DDHT item(s)

  • Assessment Limits :
    Items should not ask the student to simply identify the arguments or claims in the text. Items may ask the student to trace or evaluate the argument or claims in a section of the text or throughout the whole text. Items may focus on evaluating how effective, persuasive, or biased an argument or claim is. Items may focus on evaluating how relevant, sufficient, or accurate the evidence is, or how credible the sources are, for an argument or claim. Items may focus on irrelevant, inappropriate, or intentionally false or misleading statements, or on distinguishing fact from opinion.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing this standard may be used with one or more grade-appropriate informational texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Technology-Enhanced Item Descriptions section on pages 3 and 4 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess this standard (excluding the Editing Task Choice and Editing Task item types). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Evaluate the argument or claim in the text, assessing the author’s reasoning. The argument or claim may be identified.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases from the text to delineate an argument or claim. 
    • Requires the student to select words, phrases, or sentences from a section of the text that indicate the evidence is or is not relevant or sufficient to support the text’s claim. 

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select an example of textual evidence that delineates an explicit argument or claim. 

    Open Response

    • Requires the student to provide one or more pieces of textual evidence throughout the text that delineates an argument or claim in one or two sentences. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple examples of evidence from different parts of the text that delineate an explicit claim or argument.

    Task Demand

    Evaluate the argument or claim in the text, assessing the author’s reasoning. The argument or claim may be identified.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to drag descriptions of a text’s argument or claim into the appropriate areas of a chart and then to match this description with examples of the reasoning or evidence used in the text to delineate this argument or claim. 

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select an argument or claim from the choices and then to select the reasoning or evidence used to delineate it. 

    Table Match

    • Requires the student to complete a table by evaluating the author’s argument with respect to the author’s reasoning or use of evidence.

    Task Demand

    Identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select a false statement or fallacious reasoning from the text. 

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select a false statement or fallacious reasoning in the text. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple false statements or examples of fallacious reasoning from the text. 

    Table Match

    • Requires the student to complete a table by analyzing specific claims, identifying statements that present false reasoning

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
0500310: Executive Internship 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0500370: Voluntary Public Service (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0500500: Personal, Career, and School Development Skills 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0500510: Personal, Career, and School Development Skills 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1700300: Research 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700310: Research 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700370: Critical Thinking and Study Skills (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700380: Career Research and Decision Making (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1800400: Leadership Education 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1800410: Leadership Education 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2400300: Leadership Skills Development (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2400310: Leadership Techniques Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2016, 2016 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1000400: Intensive Language Arts (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (course terminated))
1000410: Intensive Reading (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1001320: English Honors 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001350: English Honors 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate English 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate English 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002300: English 1 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002310: English 2 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002380: English Language Development (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1005350: Literature and the Arts 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007300: Speech 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007330: Debate 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1007340: Debate 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1008300: Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008310: Reading 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008320: Reading Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1700360: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Inquiry Skills (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001310: English 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001340: English 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7910111: Access English 1/2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
1001315: English 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001345: English 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002305: English 1 Through ESOL for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
1002315: English 2 Through ESOL for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
1006375: Social Media 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1002381: Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007305: Speech 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1700305: Fundamentals of Research (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

The Surveillance Society – Is Privacy just an Illusion?:

"The line between private and public space is as porous as tissue paper." Students will explore issues of privacy through the TIME magazine article "The Surveillance Society" by David Von Drehle. This article will provide students with an opportunity to be up close and personal with delineating, evaluating, and explaining an author's claim. Students will read chunks of text while interacting with a graphic organizer to assist them in drawing conclusions and creating an original response to whether or not privacy has become an illusion due to our technological advances.

Type: Lesson Plan

One rotten apple spoils the bunch! An Argument Analysis of Disney's Guest Assistance Card Program:

In this lesson, students will conduct several close readings of the news article "Parents: Disney Policy Targeting Faux Disabled Punishes Truly Disabled Kids" by Jason Garcia. For the first close reading, students will focus on selected academic vocabulary. In the second reading, students will analyze the claims being made in the article, focusing on the validity of each claim being made. During the final close reading, students will analyze the arguments being presented, choose a side, and participate in a Philosophical Chair discussion. In the summative assessment, students will write a three paragraph argument in the form of a letter to the Disney corporation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Privacy: A Matter of National Security?:

In this lesson, students will embark upon a journey of espionage and inquire how the rights of one can become a barrier for the greater good of a nation.

Students will read two informational texts about former NSA agent Edward Snowden. This close reading activity will require students to use textual support, reasoning and relevancy of the text, and analyze an author's claims to engage in discourse through Philosophical Chairs. Students will also synthesize the arguments, information, and claims within the text to write an essay proving that Snowden is either a hero or a traitor.

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Exploring Immigration and America (Part 2) through Informational Text- Judge Learned Hand's Speech:

This lesson is the second of a unit comprised of 3 lessons. In this second lesson, students will use Text Coding and small group discussion to analyze informational text, a speech given by Judge Learned Hand entitled "The Spirit of Liberty," in terms of content and persuasive techniques. This lesson will help students to read informational text closely, think critically and write in response to text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

The Year-Round School Debate: Identifying Faulty Reasoning – Part Two:

This is Part Two of a two-part series. Learn to identify faulty reasoning in this interactive tutorial series. You'll learn what some experts say about year-round schools, what research has been conducted about their effectiveness, and how arguments can be made for and against year-round education. Then, you'll read a speech in favor of year-round schools and identify faulty reasoning within the argument, specifically the use of hasty generalizations.

Make sure to complete Part One before Part Two! Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Year-Round School Debate: Identifying Faulty Reasoning – Part One:

Learn to identify faulty reasoning in this two-part interactive English Language Arts tutorial. You'll learn what some experts say about year-round schools, what research has been conducted about their effectiveness, and how arguments can be made for and against year-round education. Then, you'll read a speech in favor of year-round schools and identify faulty reasoning within the argument, specifically the use of hasty generalizations. 

Make sure to complete both parts of this series! Click HERE to open Part Two. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Evaluating an Argument – Part Four: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence.

In Part Four, you'll use what you've learned throughout this series to evaluate Kennedy's overall argument.

Make sure to complete the previous parts of this series before beginning Part 4.

  • Click HERE to launch Part One.
  • Click HERE to launch Part Two.
  • Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Evaluating an Argument – Part Three: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence. By the end of this four-part series, you should be able to evaluate his overall argument. 

In Part Three, you will read more of Kennedy's speech and identify a smaller claim in this section of his speech. You will also evaluate this smaller claim's relevancy to the main claim and evaluate Kennedy's reasons and evidence. 

Make sure to complete all four parts of this series!

  • Click HERE to launch Part One.
  • Click HERE to launch Part Two.
  • Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Evaluating an Argument – Part Two: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence. By the end of this four-part series, you should be able to evaluate his overall argument. 

In Part Two, you will read more of Kennedy's speech, identify the smaller claims in this part of his speech, and examine his reasons and evidence.

Make sure to complete all four parts of this series!

Click HERE to launch Part One.

Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Evaluating an Argument – Part One: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence. By the end of this four-part series, you should be able to evaluate his overall argument. 

In Part One, you will read the beginning of Kennedy's speech, examine his reasons and evidence in this section, and identify the main claim of his argument. 

Make sure to complete all four parts of this series! 

Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Claims, Reasons, and Evidence: Examining Fair Arguments:

Learn about claims, reasons, and evidence using excerpts from a speech by author J.K. Rowling. In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn how to identify an author’s claims and examine the fairness of an argument based on the soundness of its foundation, which should be built layer by layer with solid claims, reasons, and evidence.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Idea

Convince Me!: An Introduction to Argumentative Writing:

This lesson is intended to introduce students to the art of argumentative writing by familiarizing them with basic terms; allowing students to practice establishing the relationship between claims, reasons, and evidence; and analyzing an author's use of argument in a text.

Type: Teaching Idea

Unit/Lesson Sequence

Sample English 2 Curriculum Plan Using CMAP:

This sample English II CMAP is a fully customizable resource and curriculum-planning tool that provides a framework for the English II course. This CMAP is divided into 14 English Language Arts units and includes every standard from Florida's official course description for English II. The units and standards are customizable, and the CMAP allows instructors to add lessons, class notes, homework sheets, and other resources as needed. This CMAP also includes a row that automatically filters and displays e-learning Original Student Tutorials that are aligned to the standards and available on CPALMS.

Learn more about the sample English II CMAP, its features, and its customizability by watching this video:

Using this CMAP

To view an introduction on the CMAP tool, please .

To view the CMAP, click on the "Open Resource Page" button above; be sure you are logged in to your iCPALMS account.

To use this CMAP, click on the "Clone" button once the CMAP opens in the "Open Resource Page." Once the CMAP is cloned, you will be able to see it as a class inside your iCPALMS My Planner (CMAPs) app.

To access your My Planner App and the cloned CMAP, click on the iCPALMS tab in the top menu.

All CMAP tutorials can be found within the iCPALMS Planner App or at the following URL: http://www.cpalms.org/support/tutorials_and_informational_videos.aspx

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Claims, Reasons, and Evidence: Examining Fair Arguments:

Learn about claims, reasons, and evidence using excerpts from a speech by author J.K. Rowling. In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn how to identify an author’s claims and examine the fairness of an argument based on the soundness of its foundation, which should be built layer by layer with solid claims, reasons, and evidence.

Evaluating an Argument – Part Four: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence.

In Part Four, you'll use what you've learned throughout this series to evaluate Kennedy's overall argument.

Make sure to complete the previous parts of this series before beginning Part 4.

  • Click HERE to launch Part One.
  • Click HERE to launch Part Two.
  • Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Evaluating an Argument – Part One: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence. By the end of this four-part series, you should be able to evaluate his overall argument. 

In Part One, you will read the beginning of Kennedy's speech, examine his reasons and evidence in this section, and identify the main claim of his argument. 

Make sure to complete all four parts of this series! 

Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Evaluating an Argument – Part Three: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence. By the end of this four-part series, you should be able to evaluate his overall argument. 

In Part Three, you will read more of Kennedy's speech and identify a smaller claim in this section of his speech. You will also evaluate this smaller claim's relevancy to the main claim and evaluate Kennedy's reasons and evidence. 

Make sure to complete all four parts of this series!

  • Click HERE to launch Part One.
  • Click HERE to launch Part Two.
  • Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Evaluating an Argument – Part Two: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence. By the end of this four-part series, you should be able to evaluate his overall argument. 

In Part Two, you will read more of Kennedy's speech, identify the smaller claims in this part of his speech, and examine his reasons and evidence.

Make sure to complete all four parts of this series!

Click HERE to launch Part One.

Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

The Year-Round School Debate: Identifying Faulty Reasoning – Part One:

Learn to identify faulty reasoning in this two-part interactive English Language Arts tutorial. You'll learn what some experts say about year-round schools, what research has been conducted about their effectiveness, and how arguments can be made for and against year-round education. Then, you'll read a speech in favor of year-round schools and identify faulty reasoning within the argument, specifically the use of hasty generalizations. 

Make sure to complete both parts of this series! Click HERE to open Part Two. 

The Year-Round School Debate: Identifying Faulty Reasoning – Part Two:

This is Part Two of a two-part series. Learn to identify faulty reasoning in this interactive tutorial series. You'll learn what some experts say about year-round schools, what research has been conducted about their effectiveness, and how arguments can be made for and against year-round education. Then, you'll read a speech in favor of year-round schools and identify faulty reasoning within the argument, specifically the use of hasty generalizations.

Make sure to complete Part One before Part Two! Click HERE to launch Part One.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

The Year-Round School Debate: Identifying Faulty Reasoning – Part Two:

This is Part Two of a two-part series. Learn to identify faulty reasoning in this interactive tutorial series. You'll learn what some experts say about year-round schools, what research has been conducted about their effectiveness, and how arguments can be made for and against year-round education. Then, you'll read a speech in favor of year-round schools and identify faulty reasoning within the argument, specifically the use of hasty generalizations.

Make sure to complete Part One before Part Two! Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Year-Round School Debate: Identifying Faulty Reasoning – Part One:

Learn to identify faulty reasoning in this two-part interactive English Language Arts tutorial. You'll learn what some experts say about year-round schools, what research has been conducted about their effectiveness, and how arguments can be made for and against year-round education. Then, you'll read a speech in favor of year-round schools and identify faulty reasoning within the argument, specifically the use of hasty generalizations. 

Make sure to complete both parts of this series! Click HERE to open Part Two. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Evaluating an Argument – Part Four: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence.

In Part Four, you'll use what you've learned throughout this series to evaluate Kennedy's overall argument.

Make sure to complete the previous parts of this series before beginning Part 4.

  • Click HERE to launch Part One.
  • Click HERE to launch Part Two.
  • Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Evaluating an Argument – Part Three: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence. By the end of this four-part series, you should be able to evaluate his overall argument. 

In Part Three, you will read more of Kennedy's speech and identify a smaller claim in this section of his speech. You will also evaluate this smaller claim's relevancy to the main claim and evaluate Kennedy's reasons and evidence. 

Make sure to complete all four parts of this series!

  • Click HERE to launch Part One.
  • Click HERE to launch Part Two.
  • Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Evaluating an Argument – Part Two: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence. By the end of this four-part series, you should be able to evaluate his overall argument. 

In Part Two, you will read more of Kennedy's speech, identify the smaller claims in this part of his speech, and examine his reasons and evidence.

Make sure to complete all four parts of this series!

Click HERE to launch Part One.

Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Evaluating an Argument – Part One: JFK’s Inaugural Address:

Examine President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in this interactive tutorial. You will examine Kennedy's argument, main claim, smaller claims, reasons, and evidence. By the end of this four-part series, you should be able to evaluate his overall argument. 

In Part One, you will read the beginning of Kennedy's speech, examine his reasons and evidence in this section, and identify the main claim of his argument. 

Make sure to complete all four parts of this series! 

Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Claims, Reasons, and Evidence: Examining Fair Arguments:

Learn about claims, reasons, and evidence using excerpts from a speech by author J.K. Rowling. In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn how to identify an author’s claims and examine the fairness of an argument based on the soundness of its foundation, which should be built layer by layer with solid claims, reasons, and evidence.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.