LAFS.910.RL.1.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 910
Strand: Reading Standards for Literature
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: TM , EBSR , MS , MC , OR , SHT , DDHT item(s)

  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may ask the student to cite significant textual evidence to support a given analysis of the text. Items may either provide the analysis/inference or ask the student to make an inference. Items may ask for support that is directly stated in the text or ask the student to find evidence to support an inference. Items should emphasize the importance of citing evidence that provides the strongest support possible.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing this standard may be used with one or more grade-appropriate literary texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Technology-Enhanced Item Descriptions section on pages 3 and 4 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess this standard (excluding the Editing Task Choice and Editing Task item types). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Use textual evidence to support an analysis of what the text says explicitly or an inference drawn from the text. The inference may be provided.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select sentences or phrases from the text that support an analysis or inference. 
    • Requires the student to first draw an inference from the text and then select sentences or phrases from the text that support the inference or analysis. 

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select a correct answer using explicit or implicit information from the text as support. 

    Open Response

    • Requires the student to provide one or more pieces of support for a given analysis or inference. Because the support is implied, the student must paraphrase parts of the text in one or two sentences. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple direct quotations or descriptions of textual evidence to support an explicit or implicit statement from the text. 

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select an inference from the choices and then to select words or phrases from the text to support the inference.

    Task Demand

    Use textual evidence to support an analysis of what the text says explicitly or an inference drawn from the text. The inference may be provided.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select a number of plausible interpretations of a passage and then select the corresponding supporting details or quotations from the passage. 

    Table Match

    • Requires the student to complete a table by matching analyses or inferences with related textual evidence.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1000400: Intensive Language Arts (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (course terminated))
1000410: Intensive Reading (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1001320: English Honors 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001350: English Honors 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate English 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate English 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002300: English 1 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002310: English 2 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002380: English Language Development (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1005350: Literature and the Arts 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1007300: Speech 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1008300: Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008310: Reading 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008320: Reading Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1009300: Writing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001310: English 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001340: English 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7910111: Access English 1/2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
1001315: English 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001345: English 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002305: English 1 Through ESOL for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
1002315: English 2 Through ESOL for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
1002381: Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7910115: Fundamental English 1 (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
1005345: Humane Letters 1 Literature (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1005346: Humane Letters 1 Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1005347: Humane Letters 2 Literature (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1005348: Humane Letters 2 Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.910.RL.1.AP.1b: Use two or more pieces of textual evidence to support conclusions.
LAFS.910.RL.1.AP.1c: Use two or more pieces of evidence to support the summary of the text.
LAFS.910.RL.1.AP.1d: Determine which piece(s) of evidence provide the strongest support for inferences, conclusions or summaries of text.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Comparing Irony: The Gift of the Magi--Lesson 3 of 3:

This lesson is the third in a series of three based on O. Henry's short story "The Gift of the Magi." The previous lessons provide instruction in using context clues to determine word meanings and in analyzing the significance of literary devices in a short story. In this final lesson, students will apply their knowledge of context clues from lesson one while also working to analyze irony across two texts, "The Gift of the Magi" and "The Shivering Beggar," a poem by Robert Graves.

Type: Lesson Plan

Analyzing Elements of Fiction: The Gift of the Magi--Lesson 2 of 3:

In this lesson, students will analyze the contribution of point of view, setting, allusion, plot, and irony to the development of theme in O. Henry's classic short story, "The Gift of the Magi." Students will write an extended paragraph explaining how one device contributes to the theme. This lesson is the second in a series of three based on "The Gift of the Magi." The previous lesson provides instruction in using context clues to determine word meaning.

Type: Lesson Plan

You've Just Won "The Lottery"!:

In this lesson, students will analyze Shirley Jackson's short story "The Lottery." Students will first view the thrilling movie trailer to hook them into the lesson. Students will then read the short story, work to determine the meaning of selected vocabulary words from the text, and answer guided reading questions. In the summative assessment, students will become newspaper reporters and write an article to describe the events of the lottery, as if they were present on the day the lottery took place. This lesson will take students to a different time period - when winning the lottery felt more like losing! Included with the lesson are guiding questions and an answer key, as well as a writing checklist and rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

An Abridged Hero: The Archetypal Hero's Journey in Novella, Poem, and Music Video Form:

The hero's journey is still an archetypal plot structure found in modern novels and can also be found in popular poetry and music. After students have read the novella Anthem, they will examine the poem "Invictus" and the lyrics and music video for "Run Boy Run" for elements of the Hero's Journey. Students will work collaboratively to decide whether or not all aspects of the hero's journey are demonstrated efficiently in this variety of sources. Student worksheets, answer keys, and a writing rubric are included with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Poetry Perspectives: A Close Reading Lesson:

In this lesson, students will read the poem "The War After the War" by Debora Greger and examine the three different speaker perspectives within the poem. This lesson provides an opportunity for students to examine and analyze figurative language and perspective, as well as craft their own poem using multiple perspectives and figurative language. Graphic organizers, answer keys, and a poem writing rubric have been included with the lesson. 

Type: Lesson Plan

"What good are the words?" A Close Reading of an excerpt from The Book Thief:

This close reading lesson focuses on an excerpt from Markus Zusak's novel The Book Thief. Students will close read the text multiple times to discover Zusak's powerful writing style, as well as the power of words through the eyes of Liesel, the novel's protagonist. As students consider Zusak's style, they will build their comprehension of the text and write an analytical essay to demonstrate final interpretations and understandings.

Type: Lesson Plan

Dystopian Society in Anthem - Using Text Evidence to Make Inferences and Predictions:

This lesson is designed to assist students with formulating inferences and making predictions using the novel Anthem by Ayn Rand. The lesson begins with the teacher modeling the process using a graphic organizer (an answer key is provided). Students then practice in small groups, pairs, and finally independently before being assessed.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading: Monster or Not? Three Excerpts from Frankenstein:

In this lesson, students will conduct close readings of several extended text excerpts from Frankenstein in which the creature is the narrator. The students will utilize a text-coding strategy during the first reading of the text and follow up with an analysis of selected vocabulary words from the text. During the second close reading, students will answer text-dependent questions about the text that focus on how the creature changes and what causes those changes. Students will then participate in a Socratic Seminar. As a summative assessment for the lesson, students will write extended paragraph responses for three questions.


Type: Lesson Plan

Culture, Character, Color, and Doom: Close Reading Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily":

In this close reading lesson, students will read William Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily" one chunk at a time to examine elements of plot, culture, setting, and point of view that contribute to the mystery and suspense that lead to its dark, even terrifying, ending.

Type: Lesson Plan

Hubris: A Recurring Theme in Greek Mythology:

Students will analyze protagonist, antagonist, conflict, resolution, and hubris in three classic myths: "Odysseus and Polyphemus," "Athena and Arachne," and "Echo and Narcissus." They will write an essay explaining the message of each myth using examples from the myths and discuss the impact of the recurring theme of hubris on the ancient Greek audience.

Type: Lesson Plan

Teaching Plot Structure through Short Stories:

There's more to plot than identifying the series of events in a story. After viewing a PowerPoint presentation on plot structure, students will read and analyze the plots of three different short stories (as a class, in small groups, and individually). Then, they will use an online interactive plot structure tool to diagram the plot lines. This lesson also includes a writing assessment with rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: 1984:

Students often have difficulty envisioning and making sense of a story that is set in a markedly different time or circumstance than their own. This two-day activity introduces students to the dystopian society of 1984 by George Orwell. By analyzing Orwell's carefully chosen words, details, repetitions, and characterizations in these first few pages, students can construct a strong understanding of some of the key features of this society that will give them a solid framework for comprehending the rest of the novel. Doing this kind of close reading work also reinforces to students that authors do not randomly select the details they include in a text; they choose words carefully to create a mood or construct a particular image of a character or place in a reader's mind. The overriding question that students should be able to answer at the end of this exercise is: What can we understand about Winston Smith and the society he lives in based on the descriptive details George Orwell includes in the first few pages of 1984?

Type: Lesson Plan

Character Resumes:

From the resource:

After reading a play, students create a resume for one of the characters. Students first discuss what they know about resumes, then select a character from the play to focus on and jot down notes about that character. Next, they search the internet for historical background information. Students then explore the play again, looking for both direct and implied information about their characters and noting the location of supporting details. Finally, students draft resumes for their characters and search a job listing site for a job for which their character is qualified.

Type: Lesson Plan

Action is Character/Exploring Character Traits with Adjectives:

This lesson allows students to explore characters and their traits through a series of exercises using text evidence. Both printed materials and online organizers are provided. The final culminating activity asks students to "become" a character and describe himself/herself as well as describing other characters. Students then guess which character is being described.

Type: Lesson Plan

Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wall-paper"—Writing Women:

A study of Charlotte Perkins Gillman's short story, "The Yellow Wall-Paper", this lesson touches upon literary elements such as setting, characterization, symbol and narration, in addition to addressing the social and historical aspects of the author and her times. There is a preceding lesson at the same location that speaks to a woman's role in society during the early part of the 20th Century.

Type: Lesson Plan

Exploring Irony with the Conclusion of All Quiet on the Western Front:

The focus of this lesson is to have students rewrite the ending of All Quiet on the Western Front. The newly created ending must include some form of irony in order to stay with the ironic elements of the book. Students will then peer edit each other's ending, and then revise their final draft. Finally, students will create a new cover for the book in which they will reveal their new title to the text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Annotation and Close Reading Passage Analysis: excerpt from Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury Part 3 of 3:

The goal of this lesson (lesson 3 in 3-part unit) is for students to be able to analyze and interpret the ways in which an author's style (use of literary devices) develops the author's purpose, tone, and theme found in complex and challenging texts. Close-reading skills culminate in a literary analysis essay in which students analyze how an author creates meaning through deliberate choices of language devices.

Type: Lesson Plan

Paying Attention to Technology: Exploring a Fictional Technology:

From the resource:
"From personal computers to the latest electronic gadgetry for the home or entertainment, Americans seem to have fallen in love with just about anything that will make our high-tech lifestyles more comfortable, convenient, and enjoyable. Students first complete a survey to establish their beliefs about technology before using a literary elements map to explore the role of a fictional technology in a novel such as 1984, Brave New World, Fahrenheit 451, REM World, or Feed. Next, students discuss and debate what they believe the story's author is saying about technology. By exploring the fictional technology, students are urged to think more deeply about their own beliefs and to pay attention to the ways that technology is described and used. This lesson plan can also be completed with short stories, video games, films, and other fictional resources that examine issues related to science and technology and their possible effects on society."

Type: Lesson Plan

Exploring Voice in Poetry:

Students will explore poetic expression, both written and spoken, and evaluate its significance as a medium for social commentary. Students will also examine literary devices including metaphor, simile, symbolism, and point of view.

Type: Lesson Plan

Teaching Student Annotation: Constructing Meaning Through Connections:

Students learn about the usefulness of annotation in making diverse connections with a text that lead to deep analysis. They then make, revise, and publish annotations for a short piece of text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Creating Suspense Lesson 2: Analyzing Literary Devices in "The Lottery":

In this lesson (part 2 of 2 in a unit), students will read and analyze literary devices in Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery." Students will practice text-coding the story to note uses of characterization and references to tradition. Students will complete a handout where they will analyze how Jackson creates suspense through the use of setting, imagery, diction, and foreshadowing. Students will also compare/contrast a short (ten minute) film version of "The Lottery" to Jackson's story. Students will also participate in a Socratic Seminar covering topics such as Jackson's use of irony, tone, theme, and symbolism. For the summative assessment, students will write an essay comparing and contrasting Edgar Allan Poe's use of suspense with Jackson's, making a claim as to which author more successfully creates a suspenseful mood.

 

Type: Lesson Plan

“Greek Mythology Version 2.0: To Be or Not to Be an Epic Hero?”:

In this second lesson out of a three lesson unit, students will be able to continue analyzing the different characteristics that make a Greek Hero as they read books 1-10 of The Odyssey. On a more macro level, students will be able to analyze characteristics by looking at the ways in which characters are developed through the decisions they make and/or fail to make. The student handouts with all of the activities and links to the story are provided.

Type: Lesson Plan

Creating Suspense Lesson 1: Analyzing Literary Devices in Poe's "The Masque of the Red Death":

In this lesson, students will read and analyze literary devices used in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Masque of the Red Death." They will read the first part of the story with support and modeling from the teacher, the next part in small groups, and the final section on their own. Students will examine Poe's use of imagery, foreshadowing, simile, personification, symbolism, and characterization. Students will also use various strategies to determine the meaning of selected vocabulary within the context of the story, as well as work to identify word choices that evoke a sense of time and place for the setting of the story. In the summative assessment, students will be able to explain how Poe creates suspense in his story, and they will be able to determine a theme from the story with support from the text. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Greek Mythology: The Odyssey, Odysseus and What Makes an Epic Hero:

In this lesson, students will explore books 13-23 of The Odyssey through text coding and analysis of both character development and theme. For the summative assessment, students will write an essay analyzing characterization and theme in the text and drawing conclusions, supported by textual evidence, about the nature of heroes. Student handouts for all activities are provided.

Type: Lesson Plan

Unit: Poems About Death Lesson 1 of 3-- "To an Athlete Dying Young" by A.E. Housman:

This lesson supports the implementation of the Florida Standards in the 9-10 classroom. It includes the literary text as well as templates for organization and links to pertinent materials. The purpose of this lesson is for students to read, understand, and analyze poetry. Students will analyze the poem, "To an Athlete Dying Young" for use of figurative language, word choice, imagery, tone, style, and theme.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading: “My Watch: An Instructive Little Tale” by Mark Twain:

In this lesson, students will conduct a close reading of a short story, "My Watch: An Instructive Little Tale," by Mark Twain. For the first reading, students will focus on story elements and selected academic vocabulary. In the second reading, students will analyze the structure of the text and the effects that are created by that structure. In the final reading, students will analyze figurative language used in the story and how it impacts meaning and tone. Graphic organizers to help students for the second and third reading are provided, along with completed organizers for teachers to use as possible answer keys. The summative assessment, in the form of an extended response paragraph, will require students to determine the central idea of the text and how it is shaped throughout the story. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Unit: Poems about Death Lesson 2 of 3 "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" by Dylan Thomas:

This lesson supports the implementation of the Florida Standards in the 9-10 classroom. It includes the literary text as well as templates for organization and links to pertinent materials. The purpose of this lesson is for students to read, understand, and analyze poetry through the use of close reading and scaffolded learning tasks. Students will learn the format of a villanelle and analyze how that format contributes to the tone of the poem. At the conclusion of the unit, students will write an essay that prompts students to use textual evidence to support their claim.

Type: Lesson Plan

Ethos, Pathos, and Logos (Part 3): Writing Persuasively:

In this lesson, students will identify and analyze rhetorical appeals in a speech and write a persuasive essay using multiple rhetorical appeals.

Type: Lesson Plan

I Declare War: Part II:

I Declare War Part 2 is an extension of Part 1; therefore, the lessons must be done in sequential order. In Part 2, students will use the TPC(F)ASTT analysis chart to analyze "Dulce Et Decorum Est" by Wilfred Owen and write a comparative analysis of Owen's views on war versus Lincoln's views and examine the strategies they use to bring their viewpoints across. The poetry analysis of "Dulce Et Decorum Est" can be used for pre-AP preparation or to introduce AP Literature students to literary analysis at the beginning of the year before they attempt more complex poems.

Type: Lesson Plan

I Declare War: Part III:

In this lesson (the third in a three-lesson unit), students will analyze an excerpt from Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried. Working collaboratively and independently, students will explore the diction, images, details, language and syntax of the text. The summative assessment requires students to write an essay analyzing how the author uses language and literary techniques to convey the experience of the soldiers in the Vietnam War. Supporting handouts and materials are provided.

Type: Lesson Plan

Creating Brave New Voices amongst Students: Part III:

This is lesson three of a three-part unit. The purpose of this lesson is to help students take the information they have gleaned in the previous two lessons from analyzing poems from the Brave New Voices series and use it to create an analytical and argumentative paragraph exploring how a theme is developed. This lesson guides students through creating an analytical paragraph and developing revision skills. By the end of this lesson students will explain, using specific textual evidence, how the theme is conveyed through the title, symbols, imagery, or tone.

Type: Lesson Plan

Creating Brave New Voices Amongst Students: Part II:

This is lesson two of a three-part unit. This lesson should take approximately 2-3 class periods. In this lesson, students analyze poems from the Brave New Voices series. They will identify literary devices such as symbolism, imagery, and figurative language and find textual evidence to support analysis of these devices as well as each poem's title, theme and tone. To accomplish this, students will complete a close reading of three poems using the T-SIFTT (Title, Symbols, Imagery, Tone, Theme) pre-Advanced Placement strategy from College Board.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Seven Ages of Man:

This lesson provides students with an opportunity to read, analyze and interpret William Shakespeare's "The Seven Ages of Man." Students are then asked to compare and contrast the different ages of man identified in the monologue and those that they developed as a class prior to reading the text.

Type: Lesson Plan

I am the Messenger: Setting, Character Development, and Main Idea:

This is a four day lesson that is designed to be completed at the beginning of a class book reading assignment for the novel I am the Messenger by Markus Zusak. The lesson addresses taking notes, determining character traits and analyzing character development, tracking key events happening during a chapter, and determining the main (central) idea of a chapter. This lesson is designed for struggling secondary readers.

Type: Lesson Plan

From Aesop to Steinbeck--Lesson 2: TIQA Writing, Supporting, and Proving Theme Statements:

The overarching goal of this series of three lessons is for ninth-grade students to be able to read works of literature, write their own theme statements and provide text-based supporting details and thorough analysis proving their theme statements. Lesson One includes instruction and practice with writing theme statements and including primary support details with a series of three texts from Aesop's Fables. *Lesson two presents students with a longer and more challenging children's story titled One. Students will draft their own theme statements and support and analyze the text using a literary analysis paragraph structure titled TIQA*. Finally, lesson three has students returning to Aesop's Fables and writing a TIQA paragraph, a longer literary analysis paragraph supported by not only textual evidence or quotes, but also strong literary analysis. Through collaborative discussions and repeated reading, responding, writing and analyzing, students will learn to consistently craft correct theme statements and support them with relevant textual details and analysis.

*The bolded section is relevant only to this lesson, which is the 2nd in a series of 3.

Type: Lesson Plan

Shall I Compare Thee to a Previously Written Sonnet?:

In this lesson, students will summarize and analyze Petrarch's love sonnets (including "Sonnet 18", "Sonnet 159" and "Sonnet 104") and then do the same with Shakespeare's love sonnets (including "Sonnet 18", "Sonnet 130" and "Sonnet 106"), comparing Shakespeare's themes and approach to Petrarch's themes and approach. The summative assessment is an essay in which students will summarize and analyze Shakespeare's "Sonnet 27" and describe how that poem reflects and diverges from Petrarch's themes and style.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Past and the Future:

The lesson introduces students to irony and how instances of irony in a piece of literature, "A Sound of Thunder" (1070L) by Ray Bradbury, advances the plot. Students are exposed to examples of irony from other works of literature to assist them with this particular form of figurative language. The summative assessment entails a written analysis of how the author incorporates instances of irony to further develop the plot.

Type: Lesson Plan

From Aesop to Steinbeck--Lesson 1: Writing Theme Statements and Including Supporting Details:

The overarching goal of this series of three lessons is for ninth-grade students to be able to read works of literature, write their own theme statements, provide text-based supporting details/evidence, and thorough analysis, proving their theme statements. *Lesson One includes instruction and practice with writing theme statements and including primary supporting details with a series of three texts from Aesop's Fables.* Lesson two presents students with a longer and more challenging children's story titled One. Students will draft their own theme statements and support and analyze the text using a literary analysis paragraph structure titled TIQA. Finally, lesson three has students returning to Aesop's Fables and writing a TIQA paragraph, a longer literary analysis paragraph supported not only by textual evidence or quotes, but also including strong literary analysis. Through collaborative discussions and repeated reading, responding, writing and analyzing, students will learn to consistently craft correct theme statements and support them with relevant textual details and analysis.

*The bolded section is relevant only to this lesson, the first in a series of three.

Type: Lesson Plan

I Feel Inside Out:

The purpose of this lesson is to provide students with an opportunity to analyze a character, in particular, one who suffers from a mental illness. The selected text is Terry Truman"s Inside Out (710L) in which the main character, Zach, suffers from schizophrenia. However, other suggested titles are provided and would suffice for this lesson. Specifically, students will be required to identify what the main character thinks, says, and does in order to support a multi-paragraph character analysis that incorporates textual evidence.

Type: Lesson Plan

Using Textual Elements to Connect Poe’s “The Masque of the Red Death” with Historic/Modern Diseases:

Upon reading, viewing, and discussing the characteristics of three diseases (including the fictional "Red Death" penned in Poe's allegorical tale, "The Masque of the Red Death"), students will complete a "3-Circle Venn Diagram" to help synthesize (first compare and contrast) the discussed elements. Students will use their Venn diagrams to help create a one-page summary of their comparisons of the diseases presented in the text/clips. Student summaries should be narrowed to discuss the defining characteristics of each disease (the fictional Red Death, the bubonic plague, and the Avian Bird Flu), as well as identify/evaluate similar patterns regarding the spread/evolution of each. Using their understanding of the material, students should assess whether plagues will continue to plague the human race while referring to the theme of Poe's work in their summary.

Type: Lesson Plan

Analyzing Vonnegut's View of the Future and his Commentary on the Present in “Harrison Bergeron”:

In this lesson (lesson one in a two-part unit), students will read Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.'s short story "Harrison Bergeron" examining the usage of literary elements in order to develop an objective summary describing how the author uses language to portray characterization, impact tone and mood, and develop the central ideas of the text. Students will be able to remark upon/critique the author's criticism of society through his combination of the above elements.

Type: Lesson Plan

Don't Bite Your Thumb at Me, Sir! Using Storyboards to bring Act One of Romeo and Juliet to Life:

The text of Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" is not only challenging, but presents students with opportunities to explore a wide variety of timeless themes. As students typically struggle with the language of Shakespeare, it is important that we pause from time to time and allow students to process the new knowledge. The story boards are a great way to assess students' understanding of the plot, characters, and setting before the final test.

Type: Lesson Plan

Fair is Foul and Foul is Fair: Analyzing Language in Macbeth:

In this lesson, students will analyze character motivation, dialogue, and theme by performing a close reading of a scene from Macbeth. By breaking down the Shakespearean language and rewriting the text in modern day language, students will input their new dialogue into an internet based program called GoAnimate to transform their new version of the text into an anime cartoon movie. Students will use this cartoon in a formal presentation to the class where they will point out literary elements from the story and describe the motivations and actions of the characters.

Type: Lesson Plan

TAG your writing: Much Ado About Nothing:

In this lesson, students will be provided with an opportunity to learn about an easy to follow process for writing effective short response questions, using support from the text. While this lesson teaches the process using an excerpt from Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, it could also be adapted to fit with any short excerpt from a literary or information text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Does Choice or Chance Determine our Destiny? A Four Day CIS Lesson with Frost and Shakespeare:

In this 4 day lesson, students will be completing a comprehension instructional sequence (CIS). Using Robert Frost's "The Road not Taken" and Shakespeare's "The Seven Ages of Man," students will read, code text, decode difficult vocabulary, and engage in deep academic discussion regarding both authors' views on fate. At the end of the lesson, students will complete an extended writing assignment using the knowledge built from the previous 3 days.

Type: Lesson Plan

Greek Mythology: Exploring Perseus and the Qualities of an Epic Hero:

In this lesson (part one of a three-part unit), students will be able to differentiate the different characteristics that make a Greek hero. Using the story of "Perseus," students will analyze how the main character develops and how he helps develop the theme of the story. Students will closely read the text, ask, and answer text dependent questions as they read the story. At the end of this lesson, students will show what they have learned by answering a final set of comprehension questions. The student handouts with all of the activities, questions, links to the story, and a rubric are provided. These skills will then culminate in later lessons (part two and three) with a product in the form of an essay and written speech about "Perseus."

Type: Lesson Plan

Annotation and Close Reading Passage Analysis: excerpt from Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury Part 2 of 3:

The goal of this lesson is that students will be able to analyze and interpret the ways in which an author's style (use of literary devices) develops the author's purpose, tone, and theme found in complex and challenging texts. Close-reading skills culminate in paragraph writing (Lesson 2) and then a style analysis essay (Lesson 3) in which students analyze how an author creates meaning through deliberate choices of devices of language.

Type: Lesson Plan

Annotation and Close Reading Passage Analysis: excerpt from Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury Part 1 of 3:

This lesson is part one of a 3-part unit. The goal of Lesson 1 is that students will be able to identify and explain the effect of literary devices and what they reveal about the author's purpose, tone, and theme found within a specific passage. In Lesson 2, students will write paragraphs based on the devices found in the passage and their meaning. In Lesson 3, students will write an essay based on the prompt in Lesson 1 and using the activities of both Lessons 1 and 2.

Type: Lesson Plan

Death: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly (Lesson Three of Three, Poems about Death):

In this lesson, students will compare and contrast the tone and theme of two poems about death. Students will annotate text, complete a directed note taking organizer and essay organizer, and will write a compare/contrast essay.

Type: Lesson Plan

An Introduction with Death: A Close Reading of the Prologue from The Book Thief by Markus Zusak:

In this lesson, students will conduct several close readings of an excerpt from the prologue of The Book Thief by Markus Zusak. For the first close reading, students will focus on identifying the narrator and select academic vocabulary. In the second reading, students will analyze different examples of figurative language within the prologue. They will focus on how the word choices impact the tone of the novel and what effect it has on the reader. During the final close reading, students will explore the persona of the narrator. The summative assessment is a two-paragraph writing assignment which will require students to discuss how Zusak's use of figurative language enhances the story. Students will also examine how the structure of the text sets the tone for the rest of the novel.

Type: Lesson Plan

Character Analysis of “Two Thanksgiving Day Gentlemen”:

In this lesson, students will read the O. Henry short story "Two Thanksgiving Day Gentlemen." Through scaffold learning tasks, the students will analyze the two main characters and their interactions throughout the story. Students will practice using various strategies to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in context. Students will also analyze the author's word choice, including his use of figurative language, and its impact on the tone of the story. These activities will build toward students' participation in a Socratic Seminar as the summative assessment for the lesson. The text of the story, reading comprehension questions, a teacher guide to assist with discussion, a vocabulary handout, and Socratic Seminar questions are all included within the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Emily Dickinson: Poet Extraordinaire of Language, Time, and Space Part 3:

In this lesson, students will work in small groups to analyze the multiple perspectives represented in Emily Dickinson's writing. They will generate research and investigate primary and secondary documents on movements that influenced Dickinson. Through this research they will create a reference kit - a collection of materials that are representative of the period. They will then analyze similar poetry from other like-minded writers before moving on to Emily Dickinson, using the movements they researched as "lenses" through which to view the poems. The culminating activity includes a thorough analysis of Dickinson's poem "I Dwell in Possibility" and a resulting essay.

Type: Lesson Plan

Exploring Immigration and America through Poetry, Photography, a Speech and Fine Art: Part 1:

This lesson is the first of three interrelated lessons in a unit which use both literary and informational text, and fine arts (photography and paintings) to convey the theme(s) of immigration, shared American ideals, and civic responsibilities in a democracy. The first lesson asks students to analyze "The New Colossus" by Emma Lazarus. Students' understanding of text and earlier waves of immigration will be fostered by viewing photographs of immigrants to Ellis Island.

Type: Lesson Plan

Hunger and Fear: Comparing Literature and Non-Fiction:

The purpose of this lesson is to help students learn how to compare and contrast fiction and nonfiction texts that explore similar topics. In this lesson, students will compare and contrast aspects of the popular novel The Hunger Games with an informative text on food shortages in Africa and an informative text on fear and the "flight or fight" response.

Type: Lesson Plan

Interrupted Reading:

Interrupted reading is a close reading technique that consists of dividing a passage of text into short chunks and pausing the reading after each section in order for the student to consider possible responses. This type of reading helps students connect with the text by requiring that they summarize, look for devices, make predictions, etc., as they are reading. This technique helps students to build confidence as they are forced to slow down and notice detail, and it is a tool to help build analysis and commentary skills. Passages from Annie Dillard's From an American Childhood, Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried and Charles Frazier's Cold Mountain are utilized in this lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Poetry Reading and Interpretation Through Extensive Modeling:

Through the use of extensive modeling with John Berryman's "Sole Watchman," students will understand the steps involved in the analysis and interpretation in poetry. The teacher will model how to summarize and analyze the poem, construct a thesis, and develop an essay. Students will review and discuss a sample essay complete with comments that highlight strong writing decisions. After reading and interpreting Berryman's "The Ball Poem," students will construct a 3-4 page essay on this poem.

Type: Lesson Plan

Previewing Texts and Themes with Wordles:

The purpose of this lesson is to allow students to use Wordles and background knowledge to make predictions about the short story "Harrison Bergeron." Students will then read the story, participate in small and whole group discussions, and answer specific, text-dependent questions in order to broaden their understanding of the term "handicapped." Finally, students will create their own word cloud about "Harrison Bergeron" to show their understanding of theme(s) that the author conveys in the story.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Risky Betting: Text Evidence and Inferences (Part Two):

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Risky Betting: Text Evidence and Inferences (Part One):

Read the famous short story “The Bet” by Anton Chekhov and explore the impact of a fifteen-year bet made between a lawyer and a banker in this two-part tutorial series.

In Part One, you’ll cite textual evidence that supports an analysis of what the text states explicitly, or directly, and make inferences and support them with textual evidence. By the end of Part One, you should be able to make three inferences about how the bet has transformed the lawyer by the middle of the story and support your inferences with textual evidence.

Make sure to complete both parts! Click HERE to launch "Risky Betting: Text Evidence and Inferences (Part Two)."

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Voices of Jekyll and Hyde, Part Two:

Get ready to travel back in time to London, England during the Victorian era in this interactive tutorial that uses text excerpts from The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. This tutorial is Part Two of a three-part series. You should complete Part One before beginning this tutorial. In Part Two, you will read excerpts from the last half of the story and practice citing evidence to support analysis of a literary text. In the third tutorial in this series, you’ll learn how to create a Poem in 2 Voices using evidence from this story. 

Make sure to complete all three parts! Click to HERE launch Part One. Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Voices of Jekyll and Hyde, Part One:

Practice citing evidence to support analysis of a literary text as you read excerpts from one of the most famous works of horror fiction of all time, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. 

This tutorial is Part One of a three-part tutorial. In Part Two, you'll continue your analysis of the text. In Part Three, you'll learn how to create a Poem in 2 Voices using evidence from this story. Make sure to complete all three parts! 

Click HERE to launch Part Two. Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Rhetoric in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird:

Analyze the use of rhetoric in a courtroom speech from Harper Lee’s novel To Kill a Mockingbird. In this interactive tutorial, we'll break down the speech to analyze its use of persuasion. We'll also examine how the speech achieves its purpose through the use of pathos, ethos, and logos. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing A Complex Character - Fahrenheit 451:

Analyze a complex character’s development in text excerpts from the novel Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze how the main character is described and developed through his interaction with other characters.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Greek Monsters on Parade:

Learn how to determine the theme of a fictional text using excerpts from Book 12 of Homer's The Odyssey. In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn how to determine the theme of a text based on the characters and events of the story. You'll also practice distinguishing between themes and topics in a work of literature. Finally, you'll create your own theme statement for The Odyssey using details from the text.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Understanding Inferences and Explicit and Implicit Evidence:

Learn to identify explicit and implicit text evidence within a fictional text. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read excerpts from Charles Dickens' classic novel Great Expectations. You'll also practice making inferences about the characters and settings based on the evidence provided in the text. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Ideas

Are People Free?: Using a Discussion Web to Engage in Meaningful Collaboration:

This teaching idea addresses the pros and cons of discussion by analyzing the concept of utopia in a satire. Students collaborate in small groups to create a Discussion Web that addresses the question, "Are people equal?" Students engage in meaningful discussions analyzing all sides of their initial response, form a consensus, and present it to the class. Students then read "Harrison Bergeron" by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. and use supporting details to complete another Discussion Web that examines whether or not the people in the story are equal. Web-based graphic organizers, assessments, and extension activities are included.

Type: Teaching Idea

Literary Pilgrimages: Exploring the Role of Place in Writers’ Lives and Works:

How do places and experiences affect writers' lives and works? Is where a writer comes from relevant to reading their work? In this lesson, students consider the power of place in their own lives, research the life of a writer, and develop travel brochures and annotated maps representing the significance of geography in a writer's life.

Type: Teaching Idea

Creative Outlining--from Freewriting to Formalizing:

Students read a high-interest short story. A PowerPoint mini-lesson explains the difference between freewriting and summary writing helping students distinguish between the two. An additional PowerPoint mini-lesson on writing thesis statements for literary analysis is provided. Students progress from freewriting to generating thesis statements to writing an outline for a literary analysis essay.

Type: Teaching Idea

Poetry Put to Use:

Many students do not appreciate the importance of memorizing and reciting poems. This teaching idea will help them appreciate the value and relevancy of poetry by encouraging them to imagine situations where a scrap or two of memorized poetry can relate to every-day real-life situations. It would be an engaging opening activity for a poetry unit.

Type: Teaching Idea

Songs as a Way to Analyze Text, Words and Main Idea:

Students pretend that they have just landed a job with a local music magazine, and their first assignment is to write a short article in which they interpret the lyrics of a popular song.

Type: Teaching Idea

Become a Character: Adjectives, Character Traits, and Perspective:

Students use an online chart to match the character traits of a character in a book they are reading with specific actions the character takes. Students then work in pairs to "become" one of the major characters in a book and describe themselves and other characters, using Internet reference tools to compile lists of accurate, powerful adjectives supported with details from the reading. Students read each other's lists of adjectives and try to identify who is being described.

Type: Teaching Idea

Student Centered Comprehension Strategies: Night by Elie Wiesel:

Students will use teaching strategies as they read and discuss Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel's memoir Night. Everyone in the classroom takes a turn assuming the "teacher" role in a reciprocal teaching activity, as the class works with four comprehension strategies: predicting, question generating, summarizing, and clarifying.

Type: Teaching Idea

Unit/Lesson Sequences

Sample English 2 Curriculum Plan Using CMAP:

This sample English II CMAP is a fully customizable resource and curriculum-planning tool that provides a framework for the English II course. This CMAP is divided into 14 English Language Arts units and includes every standard from Florida's official course description for English II. The units and standards are customizable, and the CMAP allows instructors to add lessons, class notes, homework sheets, and other resources as needed. This CMAP also includes a row that automatically filters and displays e-learning Original Student Tutorials that are aligned to the standards and available on CPALMS.

Learn more about the sample English II CMAP, its features, and its customizability by watching this video:

Using this CMAP

To view an introduction on the CMAP tool, please .

To view the CMAP, click on the "Open Resource Page" button above; be sure you are logged in to your iCPALMS account.

To use this CMAP, click on the "Clone" button once the CMAP opens in the "Open Resource Page." Once the CMAP is cloned, you will be able to see it as a class inside your iCPALMS My Planner (CMAPs) app.

To access your My Planner App and the cloned CMAP, click on the iCPALMS tab in the top menu.

All CMAP tutorials can be found within the iCPALMS Planner App or at the following URL: http://www.cpalms.org/support/tutorials_and_informational_videos.aspx

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Things That Are: Making Choices:

Things That Are features a mystery: How can a 17-year-old girl who is blind and learning how to deal with her disability help an elusive fugitive wanted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)? In this unit, students learn how this teen manages her own life, including finding her way in the community, keeping on top of school work, and, more importantly, nurturing a special relationship, as they work to cite textual evidence to support text analysis, participate in collaborative discussions to determine and analyze its theme and how complex characters are developed, and give a presentation of their findings and supporting evidence.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

The Running Dream: We Both Win!:

The Running Dream is the story of Jessica, a 16-year-old star runner who loses her leg in a bus accident. She learns to look beyond the disability and discover the real person inside as she becomes friends with Rosa, who has cerebral palsy. In this unit, students examine the issues and challenges of coping with a disability and its effect on relationships and self-esteem as they analyze how complex characters develop over the course of the story, and write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

An Exploration of Romanticism Through Art and Poetry :

Students use art and poetry to explore and understand the major historical, societal, and literary characteristics of the Romantic period in eight high-interest, collaborative lessons. After reviewing paintings from the Romantic Period and using William Wordsworth's poetry, students write an essay showing their understanding of Romanticism.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Creating Psychological Profiles of Characters in To Kill a Mockingbird:

This lesson asks students to explore the motivation behind characters' actions in To Kill a Mockingbird. Students first engage in a free-write activity. They then do research and creative thinking to design a poster and plan a presentation representing a psychological profile for a selected character, while determining what specific factors (such as family, career, environment, and so forth) have the greatest influence on the characters' decision making throughout the novel. The groups present their findings to the class by assuming the persona of their character and explaining the psychological factors influencing their behavior in the novel.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Analyzing A Complex Character - Fahrenheit 451:

Analyze a complex character’s development in text excerpts from the novel Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze how the main character is described and developed through his interaction with other characters.

Analyzing Rhetoric in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird:

Analyze the use of rhetoric in a courtroom speech from Harper Lee’s novel To Kill a Mockingbird. In this interactive tutorial, we'll break down the speech to analyze its use of persuasion. We'll also examine how the speech achieves its purpose through the use of pathos, ethos, and logos. 

Greek Monsters on Parade:

Learn how to determine the theme of a fictional text using excerpts from Book 12 of Homer's The Odyssey. In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn how to determine the theme of a text based on the characters and events of the story. You'll also practice distinguishing between themes and topics in a work of literature. Finally, you'll create your own theme statement for The Odyssey using details from the text.  

Risky Betting: Text Evidence and Inferences (Part One):

Read the famous short story “The Bet” by Anton Chekhov and explore the impact of a fifteen-year bet made between a lawyer and a banker in this two-part tutorial series.

In Part One, you’ll cite textual evidence that supports an analysis of what the text states explicitly, or directly, and make inferences and support them with textual evidence. By the end of Part One, you should be able to make three inferences about how the bet has transformed the lawyer by the middle of the story and support your inferences with textual evidence.

Make sure to complete both parts! Click HERE to launch "Risky Betting: Text Evidence and Inferences (Part Two)."

Risky Betting: Text Evidence and Inferences (Part Two):

The Voices of Jekyll and Hyde, Part One:

Practice citing evidence to support analysis of a literary text as you read excerpts from one of the most famous works of horror fiction of all time, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. 

This tutorial is Part One of a three-part tutorial. In Part Two, you'll continue your analysis of the text. In Part Three, you'll learn how to create a Poem in 2 Voices using evidence from this story. Make sure to complete all three parts! 

Click HERE to launch Part Two. Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

The Voices of Jekyll and Hyde, Part Two:

Get ready to travel back in time to London, England during the Victorian era in this interactive tutorial that uses text excerpts from The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. This tutorial is Part Two of a three-part series. You should complete Part One before beginning this tutorial. In Part Two, you will read excerpts from the last half of the story and practice citing evidence to support analysis of a literary text. In the third tutorial in this series, you’ll learn how to create a Poem in 2 Voices using evidence from this story. 

Make sure to complete all three parts! Click to HERE launch Part One. Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Understanding Inferences and Explicit and Implicit Evidence:

Learn to identify explicit and implicit text evidence within a fictional text. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read excerpts from Charles Dickens' classic novel Great Expectations. You'll also practice making inferences about the characters and settings based on the evidence provided in the text. 

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Risky Betting: Text Evidence and Inferences (Part Two):

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Risky Betting: Text Evidence and Inferences (Part One):

Read the famous short story “The Bet” by Anton Chekhov and explore the impact of a fifteen-year bet made between a lawyer and a banker in this two-part tutorial series.

In Part One, you’ll cite textual evidence that supports an analysis of what the text states explicitly, or directly, and make inferences and support them with textual evidence. By the end of Part One, you should be able to make three inferences about how the bet has transformed the lawyer by the middle of the story and support your inferences with textual evidence.

Make sure to complete both parts! Click HERE to launch "Risky Betting: Text Evidence and Inferences (Part Two)."

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Voices of Jekyll and Hyde, Part Two:

Get ready to travel back in time to London, England during the Victorian era in this interactive tutorial that uses text excerpts from The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. This tutorial is Part Two of a three-part series. You should complete Part One before beginning this tutorial. In Part Two, you will read excerpts from the last half of the story and practice citing evidence to support analysis of a literary text. In the third tutorial in this series, you’ll learn how to create a Poem in 2 Voices using evidence from this story. 

Make sure to complete all three parts! Click to HERE launch Part One. Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Voices of Jekyll and Hyde, Part One:

Practice citing evidence to support analysis of a literary text as you read excerpts from one of the most famous works of horror fiction of all time, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. 

This tutorial is Part One of a three-part tutorial. In Part Two, you'll continue your analysis of the text. In Part Three, you'll learn how to create a Poem in 2 Voices using evidence from this story. Make sure to complete all three parts! 

Click HERE to launch Part Two. Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Rhetoric in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird:

Analyze the use of rhetoric in a courtroom speech from Harper Lee’s novel To Kill a Mockingbird. In this interactive tutorial, we'll break down the speech to analyze its use of persuasion. We'll also examine how the speech achieves its purpose through the use of pathos, ethos, and logos. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing A Complex Character - Fahrenheit 451:

Analyze a complex character’s development in text excerpts from the novel Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze how the main character is described and developed through his interaction with other characters.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Greek Monsters on Parade:

Learn how to determine the theme of a fictional text using excerpts from Book 12 of Homer's The Odyssey. In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn how to determine the theme of a text based on the characters and events of the story. You'll also practice distinguishing between themes and topics in a work of literature. Finally, you'll create your own theme statement for The Odyssey using details from the text.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Understanding Inferences and Explicit and Implicit Evidence:

Learn to identify explicit and implicit text evidence within a fictional text. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read excerpts from Charles Dickens' classic novel Great Expectations. You'll also practice making inferences about the characters and settings based on the evidence provided in the text. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.