LAFS.8.RL.2.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 8
Strand: Reading Standards for Literature
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: EBSR , MS , MC , OR , SHT , DDHT item(s)
  • Assessed with: LAFS.8.L.3.4 and LAFS.8.L.3.5
  • Assessment Limits :
    Items should focus on grade-appropriate words. Items should not focus on dictionary word meanings but should focus on how the words and phrases function within the context of the passage. Items should focus on words and phrases that have figurative or allusive meanings central to the meaning of the text rather than isolated, incidental vocabulary. Items may ask about words with discrete context clues in close proximity or words whose meaning is conveyed more implicitly throughout the passage. Items may ask students to employ various strategies to explore word meaning, including the application of context clues, roots, or affixes. Items may require students to make connections between words and to delve into figurative or connotative meanings. Items should not include obscure analogies or allusions.
  • Text Types :
    Items assessing these standards may be used with one or more grade-appropriate literary texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Technology-Enhanced Item Descriptions section on pages 3 and 4 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess these standards (excluding the Editing Task Choice and Editing Task item types). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of words or phrases, using context as a clue.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of a word or phrase from the passage. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple correct meanings of a word or phrase from the passage.

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select a word’s or phrase’s meaning and then to select context clues from the text to support the meaning.

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select a word’s or phrase’s meaning and then to select context clues from the text to support the meaning.

    Task Demand

    Analyze the impact of word choice on the text’s meaning or tone.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to interpret the meaning of words or phrases and then to select the impact they have on the text.
    • Requires the student to select the tone or meaning of the text and then select words or phrases that helped create that tone or meaning. 

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the impact of word choice on a certain section of the text. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple ways in which words or phrases affect a certain section of the text. 

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select the text’s meaning or tone and then to select words from the text that support that meaning or tone. 

    Open Response

    • Requires the student to explain in one or two sentences how the impact of word choice affects the text’s meaning or tone.

    Task Demand

    Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases, using grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to determine how common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots may provide clues to the meaning of a word.

    Task Demand

    Interpret figures of speech in context.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of figurative language from the passage. 

    EBSR

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of figurative language and then to select context clues from the text to support the meaning. 

    Selectable Hot Text

    • Requires the student to select the meaning of figurative language and then to select context clues from the text to support the meaning. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple pieces of textual evidence that act as context clues when determining the meaning of figurative language.

    Task Demand

    Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice 

    • Requires the student to select how a relationship between two words serves as a context clue for the meaning of one of the words. 

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to move words into a graphic organizer to demonstrate their relationship with one another.

    Task Demand

    Distinguish among the connotations of words with similar denotations.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice

    • Requires the student to select the reason an author chose a particular word or phrase instead of a word or phrase with a similar denotation.
    • Requires the student to select a different word or phrase that would maintain the connotation of a word or phrase in the text. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple ways a different word choice might change the tone or meaning of the text. 

    Drag-and-Drop Hot Text

    • Requires the student to match words with similar denotations with the change in connotation each word has to the original word.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
0400030: M/J Theatre 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1000000: M/J Intensive Language Arts (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
1000010: M/J Intensive Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
1000020: M/J Intensive Reading and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
1001070: M/J Language Arts 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001080: M/J Language Arts 3 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002020: M/J Language Arts 3 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1002180: M/J English Language Development (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1007020: M/J Speech and Debate 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
1008070: M/J Reading 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1008080: M/J Reading 3, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
1009020: M/J Creative Writing 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7810013: Access M/J Language Arts 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
1002181: M/J Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1006020: M/J Journalism 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1010000: M/J Literacy through Film & Literature (Specifically in versions: 2016 and beyond (current))
1010010: M/J Literacy through World Literature (Specifically in versions: 2016 and beyond (current))
1010020: M/J Literacy through Philosophy (Specifically in versions: 2016 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.8.RL.2.AP.4a: Identify and interpret an analogy within a text.
LAFS.8.RL.2.AP.4b: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative (i.e., metaphors, similes and idioms) and connotative meanings.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Rain in Summer: What a Bummer, Or Is It?:

In this lesson, students will analyze the symbols and imagery present in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem "Rain in Summer" to determine its tone and theme. Formative assessment checks are included in the form of student handouts with text-based questions and charts. Students will also write a mini-essay as a summative assessment in which they will develop a claim about the poem's theme, providing text-based examples as support.

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Be Careful What You Wish For: A Close Reading Lesson:

In this lesson, students will conduct a close reading of the short story "The Monkey's Paw" by W. W. Jacobs. Students will work to determine the meanings of selected vocabulary words from the story, answer text-dependent questions, and examine a moral of the story, "Be careful what you wish for." In the summative assessment students will write their own narrative that shares the same moral. This lesson includes a vocabulary graphic organizer and key, text-dependent questions and key, a story planning graphic organizer, and a rubric for the narrative.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pygmalion: A Mythological Inspiration:

In this unit, students will discover the relevance of Greek mythology as they unravel the story of Pygmalion, the lonely sculptor who carved out of ivory his true love, just like Professor Higgins "carved" out of the slums of London his ideal mate in the stage play Pygmalion. Students will conduct three close readings of Thomas Bulfinch's Pygmalion to answer text-dependent questions, work with vocabulary from the text, and construct a plot diagram of the myth. Students will also work as a class to read an abridged excerpt from Act II of George Bernard Shaw's award winning play, Pygmalion. The plot of the play is augmented with songs from the filmed musical My Fair Lady. Students will compare and contrast key characters and their traits from both texts. In the end of unit assessment, students will create their own narrative version of the Pygmalion myth.

Type: Lesson Plan

Knowledge or Instinct? Jack London's "To Build a Fire":

A concise lesson plan with a variety of visual links and engaging before, during, and after reading activities.

Type: Lesson Plan

Florida: Feast of Figurative Language:

In this lesson (part two of a two-part unit), students will read the poem "Florida" by Elizabeth Bishop and label her use of figurative language. Students will then determine how word choice and figurative language enhance and convey author's meaning and tone. Using Bishop's poem as a model, students then write their own Florida poem brimming with figurative language and vivid vocabulary.

Type: Lesson Plan

Florida: Feast of Connotations:

In this lesson, students will read the poem "Florida" by Elizabeth Bishop and code the text for positive and negative descriptions of Florida. Students will then explain in writing how connotation and denotation contribute to the central idea of the poem.

Type: Lesson Plan

Exactly What are You Alluding to?:

Allusions can be difficult for students and hard to teach because not all students have identical or equally extensive exposure to literature, history, and/or popular culture. To overcome this barrier, this lesson builds a "collective consciousness" in each classroom. Students research an allusion and prepare a visual and oral presentation to each explain their allusions. Students are then assessed on their understanding of the allusions taught in one another's presentations.

Type: Lesson Plan

Macavity: A Lesson in the Art of Language:

In this lesson students will use T.S. Eliot's "Macavity" to analyze the power of word choice and figurative language devices in creating coherent and purposefully written descriptions. They will cite text evidence to show how specific lines of the poem impact and drive the description of the character, who happens to be a cat. They will collaborate and discuss the impact of these lines and word choices and then finally write their own coherent and purposefully written descriptions, utilizing the figurative language devices they have identified and analyzed.

Type: Lesson Plan

Charge of the Light Brigade: Can a Poem Tell a Story?:

Students will be studying the narrative poem “The Charge of the Light Brigade” and discussing how a “poem can tell a story.” Students will focus upon citing evidence to support central ideas found in the poem and then using those inferences to complete a comparison/contrast essay. Part of this study will include watching a 4 minute clip from the movie The Blind Side in which Tim McGraw’s character explains the meaning of the poem in terms of a football game between rivals LSU and Ole Miss. Students will be asked to compare and contrast the poem’s meaning in terms of battle in war and battle on the football field, determine how these two situations are similar and different, and finally be asked to explain if the football analogy was helpful in aiding the understanding of the story the poem tells.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Paths We Take: A Poetic Comparison:

Students will study two poems in this lesson: Robert Frost's "The Road Not Taken" and Dale Wimbrow's "The Guy in the Glass." Students will identify and explain the use of metaphor in each poem, and they will also examine the imagery and personification used in each one. Students will also determine a theme of each poem and explain the similarities and differences in their related themes.

Type: Lesson Plan

Packing a Punch: Analyzing Words and Phrases that Make an Impact:

In this lesson, students will read to determine meaning, tone, and impact of words and phrases in Carl Sandburg's "Chicago." Teachers can adapt the lesson using various texts.

Type: Lesson Plan

Poetry and Meaning: "Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight" :

In this lesson, students will study the poem "Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight" by Vachel Lindsay. Students will identify the examples of imagery within the poem and determine how the use of imagery contributes to the poem's meaning. Students will also practice making connections between the poem and its background information (President Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War) as well as its historical context (World War I). During the lesson, students will also practice determining the meaning of unfamiliar words in the poem.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Analyzing an Extended Metaphor in "All the World’s a Stage":

Explore the famous speech “All the World’s a Stage” from Shakespeare’s play As You Like It. In this interactive tutorial, you’ll analyze an extended metaphor within the speech and how it contributes to the speech’s meaning.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Importance of Seeing in Tangerine: Part Two:

Continue to explore references to sight in the first chapter of Edward Bloor's novel Tangerine and how they convey different meanings and reveal information about characters. 

This interactive tutorial is part 2 of 2. Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Importance of Seeing in Tangerine: Part One:

Explore the difference between vision and perception and how words related to sight convey different meanings and reveal information about characters in the first chapter of Edward Bloor's novel Tangerine.

This interactive tutorial is part 1 of 2. Click HERE to launch Part Two.

In Part Two, you'll continue to examine references to sight in the first chapter of Tangerine. You'll examine how these references convey different meanings and reveal information about characters.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Personification in "The Railway Train":

Explore the poem “The Railway Train” by Emily Dickinson in this interactive tutorial. Learn about personification and vivid descriptions and determine how they contribute to the meaning of a poem. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Metaphors: The Ultimate Transformers!:

Learn about two types of figurative language—similes and metaphors—in this interactive tutorial. You'll read several classic poems, including "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost and "Hope" by Emily Dickinson. You'll examine how each poem uses metaphor to convey a specific idea to readers. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Teaching Ideas

Close Reading Exemplar: Dulce et Decorum Est:

The goal of the exemplar from Student Achievement Partner web resources is to give students practice in reading and writing about poetry. The poem makes connections to World War I as students closely analyze the poet's depiction of war. Students explore complex text through a) re-reading, paraphrasing, and discussing ideas, (b) achieving an accurate basic understanding of the stanzas of the poem, (c) achieving an accurate interpretive understanding of the piece, and (d) building a coherent piece of writing that both constructs and communicates solid understanding of the poem.

Type: Teaching Idea

Teaching Tolerance: Maya Angelou:

This resource from Teaching Tolerance focuses on Maya Angelou's poem "Still I Rise." It begins with a discussion of figurative language and the power of words and moves into a discussion of overcoming hardships.

Type: Teaching Idea

Unit/Lesson Sequence

Modeling Reading and Analysis Processes with the Works of Edgar Allan Poe:

"Explore reading strategies using the think-aloud process as students investigate connections between the life and writings of Edgar Allan Poe. The unit, which begins with an in-depth exploration of "The Raven," then moves students from a full-class reading of the poem to small-group readings of Poe's short stories ("The Black Cat," "Hop-Frog," "Masque of the Red Death," and "The Fall of the House of Usher"). The unit concludes with individual projects that explore the readings in more detail. Students have the opportunity to choose among the following [three] activities: write a narrative in Poe's style; design a sales brochure for the House of Usher; ...or investigate the author further by exploring biographical and background information in more detail. The lesson includes options for both students who need direct instruction and those who can explore with less structure."

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Analyzing an Extended Metaphor in "All the World’s a Stage":

Explore the famous speech “All the World’s a Stage” from Shakespeare’s play As You Like It. In this interactive tutorial, you’ll analyze an extended metaphor within the speech and how it contributes to the speech’s meaning.

Metaphors: The Ultimate Transformers!:

Learn about two types of figurative language—similes and metaphors—in this interactive tutorial. You'll read several classic poems, including "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost and "Hope" by Emily Dickinson. You'll examine how each poem uses metaphor to convey a specific idea to readers. 

Personification in "The Railway Train":

Explore the poem “The Railway Train” by Emily Dickinson in this interactive tutorial. Learn about personification and vivid descriptions and determine how they contribute to the meaning of a poem. 

The Importance of Seeing in Tangerine: Part One:

Explore the difference between vision and perception and how words related to sight convey different meanings and reveal information about characters in the first chapter of Edward Bloor's novel Tangerine.

This interactive tutorial is part 1 of 2. Click HERE to launch Part Two.

In Part Two, you'll continue to examine references to sight in the first chapter of Tangerine. You'll examine how these references convey different meanings and reveal information about characters.

The Importance of Seeing in Tangerine: Part Two:

Continue to explore references to sight in the first chapter of Edward Bloor's novel Tangerine and how they convey different meanings and reveal information about characters. 

This interactive tutorial is part 2 of 2. Click HERE to launch Part One.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Analyzing an Extended Metaphor in "All the World’s a Stage":

Explore the famous speech “All the World’s a Stage” from Shakespeare’s play As You Like It. In this interactive tutorial, you’ll analyze an extended metaphor within the speech and how it contributes to the speech’s meaning.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Importance of Seeing in Tangerine: Part Two:

Continue to explore references to sight in the first chapter of Edward Bloor's novel Tangerine and how they convey different meanings and reveal information about characters. 

This interactive tutorial is part 2 of 2. Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Importance of Seeing in Tangerine: Part One:

Explore the difference between vision and perception and how words related to sight convey different meanings and reveal information about characters in the first chapter of Edward Bloor's novel Tangerine.

This interactive tutorial is part 1 of 2. Click HERE to launch Part Two.

In Part Two, you'll continue to examine references to sight in the first chapter of Tangerine. You'll examine how these references convey different meanings and reveal information about characters.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Personification in "The Railway Train":

Explore the poem “The Railway Train” by Emily Dickinson in this interactive tutorial. Learn about personification and vivid descriptions and determine how they contribute to the meaning of a poem. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Metaphors: The Ultimate Transformers!:

Learn about two types of figurative language—similes and metaphors—in this interactive tutorial. You'll read several classic poems, including "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost and "Hope" by Emily Dickinson. You'll examine how each poem uses metaphor to convey a specific idea to readers. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.